Gana-Sangha (Sanskrit: गणसङ्घ, lit. equal assembly) or Gana-Rajya (Sanskrit: गणराज्य, lit. equal government), refers to a type of republic or oligarchy in eastern part of the Indian subcontinent.
The gana sanghas were generally found on the periphery of the Indian kingdoms, and tended to occupy the higher ground.
Their general make-up was either that of a single clan (e.g. Shakya), or a confederacy of clans (e.g. Koli).
- Gadkari, Jayant (1 January 1996), Society and Religion: From Rugveda to Puranas, Popular Prakashan, pp. 100–, ISBN 978-81-7154-743-2
- Handa, O. C. (2004), Naga Cults and Traditions in the Western Himalaya, Indus Publishing, pp. 63–64, ISBN 978-81-7387-161-0