For procurement in prostitution, see Procuring (prostitution).

Procurement is the act of finding, acquiring, buying goods, services or works from an external source, often via a tendering or competitive bidding process. The process is used to ensure the buyer receives goods, services or works the best possible price, when aspects such as quality, quantity, time, and location are compared.[1] Corporations and public bodies often define processes intended to promote fair and open competition for their business while minimizing risk, such as exposure to fraud and collusion.


Almost all purchasing decisions include factors such as delivery and handling, marginal benefit, and price fluctuations. Procurement generally involves making buying decisions under conditions of scarcity. If good data is available, it is good practice to make use of economic analysis methods such as cost-benefit analysis or cost-utility analysis.

An important distinction should be made between analyses without risk and those with risk. Where risk is involved, either in the costs or the benefits, the concept of best value should be employed.

Direct procurement and indirect procurement
Direct procurement Indirect procurement
Raw material and production goods Maintenance, repair, and operating supplies, outsourcing Capital goods and services


Quantity Large Low Low
Frequency High Relatively high Low
Value Industry-specific Low High
Nature Operational Tactical Strategic
Examples Crude oil in petroleum industry Lubricants, spare parts Crude oil storage facilities

Procurement activities are often split into two distinct categories, direct and indirect spend. Direct spend refers to production-related procurement that encompasses all items that are part of finished products, such as raw material, components and parts. The first category being direct, production-related procurement and the second being indirect, non-production-related procurement. Direct procurement, which is the focus in supply chain management, directly affects the production process of manufacturing firms. In contrast, indirect procurement activities concern “operating resources” that a company purchases to enable its operations. Indirect procurement comprises a wide variety of goods and services, from standardized items like office supplies and machine lubricants to complex and costly products and services;,[2][3] like heavy equipment, consulting services, and outsourcing services.


Procurement vs. sourcing vs. acquisition

Procurement is one component of the broader concept of sourcing and acquisition. Typically procurement is viewed as more tactical in nature (the process of physically buying a product or service) and sourcing and acquisition are viewed as more strategic and encompassing.

The Institute of Supply Management [4] defines strategic sourcing as the process of identifying sources that could provide needed products or services for the acquiring organization. The term procurement used to reflect the entire purchasing process or cycle, and not just the tactical components. ISM defines procurement as an organizational function that includes specifications development, value analysis, supplier market research, negotiation, buying activities, contract administration, inventory control, traffic, receiving and stores. Purchasing refers to the major function of an organization that is responsible for acquisition of required materials, services and equipment.

The United States Defense Acquisition University (DAU) defines procurement as the act of buying goods and services for the government.[5] DAU defines acquisition as the conceptualization, initiation, design, development, test, contracting, production, deployment, Logistics Support (LS), modification, and disposal of weapons and other systems, supplies, or services (including construction) to satisfy Department of Defense needs, intended for use in or in support of military missions.[5]

Acquisition and sourcing are therefore much wider concepts than procurement.

Multiple sourcing business models exist, and acquisition models exist.

Acquisition process

The revised acquisition process for major systems in industry and defense is shown in the next figure. The process is defined by a series of phases during which technology is defined and matured into viable concepts, which are subsequently developed and readied for production, after which the systems produced are supported in the field.[6]

Model of the acquisition process[6]

The process allows for a given system to enter the process at any of the development phases. For example, a system using unproven technology would enter at the beginning stages of the process and would proceed through a lengthy period of technology maturation, while a system based on mature and proven technologies might enter directly into engineering development or, conceivably, even production. The process itself includes four phases of development:[6]

Sourcing business models

Procurement officials increasingly realize that their make-buy supplier decisions fall along a “continuum” from simple buying transactions to more complex, strategic buyer-supplier collaborations. It is important for procurement officials to use the right sourcing business model that fits each buyer-seller situation. There are seven models along the sourcing continuum: basic provider, approved provider, preferred provider, performance-based/managed services model, Vested business model, shared services model and equity partnerships.

Procurement software

Procurement software (often labeled as e-procurement software) manages the purchasing processes electronically or via cloud computing. As Procurement Network's research provides,[7] there are more than one hundred e-procurement solutions available today. As an important element of supply chain management systems, these systems help organizations efficiently manage their purchasing cycle times and maximize profit on every purchase order.

Procurement TV and radio

Procurement TV,[8] established in 2015, is a media source aiming to broadcast procurement news and trends in video format on daily basis. Other procurement media or podcast outlets include The Art of Procurement[9] and BlogTalk Radio.[10]

Procurement life cycle

Most organizations think of their procurement process in terms of a life cycle. Different consulting firms and experts have developed various frameworks. Some of the most common steps from the most popular frameworks include:

Procurement performance

Ardent Partners published a report that presented a comprehensive, industry-wide view into what is happening in the world of procurement today by drawing on the experience, performance, and perspective of nearly 250 chief procurement officers and other procurement executives. The report includes the main procurement performance and operational benchmarks that procurement leaders use to gauge the success of their organizations. This report found that the average procurement department manages 60.6% of total enterprise spend. This measure commonly called "spend under management" refers to the percentage of total enterprise spend (which includes all direct and indirect spend) that a procurement organization manages or influences. The average procurement department also achieved an annual savings of 6.7% in the last reporting cycle, sourced 52.6% of its addressable spend, and has a contract compliance rate of 62.6%.[11]

Public procurement

Public procurement generally is an important sector of the economy. In Europe, public procurement accounts for 16.3% of the Community GDP.[12]

Green public procurement

In green public procurement (GPP), contracting authorities and entities take environmental issues into account when tendering for goods or services. The goal is to reduce the impact of the procurement on human health and the environment.[13]

In the European Union, the Commission has adopted its communication on public procurement for a better environment, where proposes a political target of 50% Green public procurement to be reached by the Member States by the year 2010.[14]

Alternative competitive bidding procedures

There are several alternatives to traditional competitive bid tendering that are available in formal procurement. One approach that has gained increasing momentum in the construction industry and among developing economies is the selection in planning (SIP) process, which enables project developers and equipment purchasers to make significant changes to their requirements with relative ease. The SIP process also enables vendors and contractors to respond with greater accuracy and competitiveness as a result of the generally longer lead times they are afforded. University of Tennessee research shows that Request for Solution and Request for Partner methods are also gaining traction as viable alternatives to for more collaborative methods for selecting strategic suppliers – especially for outsourcing.


Recognizing the negative impact of procurement fraud, OECD has published guidelines on how to detect and combat bid rigging.[15]

Procurement fraud can be defined as dishonestly obtaining an advantage, avoiding an obligation or causing a loss to public property or various means during procurement process by public servants, contractors or any other person involved in the procurement.[16] An example is a kickback, whereby a dishonest agent of the supplier pays a dishonest agent of the purchaser to select the supplier's bid, often at an inflated price. Other frauds in procurement include:[17]

See also


  1. Weele, Arjan J. van (2010). Purchasing and Supply Chain Management: Analysis, Strategy, Planning and Practice (5th ed.). Andover: Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-4080-1896-5.
  2. Lewis, M.A. and Roehrich, J.K. (2009). Contracts, relationships and integration: Towards a model of the procurement of complex performance. International Journal of Procurement Management, 2(2):125–142.
  3. Caldwell, N.D. Roehrich, J.K. and Davies, A.C. (2009)
  4. "ISM - Supply Management Defined". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  5. 1 2 "Glossary of Defense Acquisition Acronyms and Terms, 12th Edition (plus updates since publication), accessed on 22 April 2009, Defense Acquisition University". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  6. 1 2 3 Systems Engineering Fundamentals. Defense Acquisition University Press, 2001 Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. "Procurement Network". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  8. "Procurement TV". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  9. "Home - The Art of Procurement". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  10. "Jon Hansen (PI Window on Business) - Blog Talk Radio Feed". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  11. "Ardent Partners Research - CPO 2011: Innovative Ideas for the Decade Ahead".
  12. "Public contracts - Your Europe - Business". Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  13. "". Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  14. "". Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  15. networkthoughts (6 July 2016). "Detecting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement – OECD Guidelines". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  16. "Combating Procurement Frauds Author Dr Irfan Ahmad".
  17. "Procurement Fraud". Retrieved April 3, 2014.

Further references

Look up procurement in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  1. N., Shaw, Felecia (1 October 2010). "The Power to Procure: A Look inside the City of Austin Procurement Program". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  2. "Definition of Procurement". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  3. "Sourcing & Procurement - Digital Platforms, Analytics, Big data, Expertise & Insights, tips, tricks, best practices, benchmarks, learning, thoughts leadership". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/24/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.