Sagittal section of human vocal tract
In birds it consists of the trachea, the syrinx, the oral cavity, the upper part of the esophagus, and the beak. In mammals it consists of the laryngeal cavity, the pharynx, the oral cavity, and the nasal cavity.
- Talking birds - species of birds capable of imitating human sounds, but without known comprehension
- Speech synthesis
- Manner of articulation
- Goldstein, U.G. (1980) An articulatory model for the vocal tracts of growing children. Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.