Beal conjecture

The Beal conjecture is the following conjecture in number theory:

where A, B, C, x, y, and z are positive integers with x, y, z > 2, then A, B, and C have a common prime factor.


There are no solutions to the above equation in positive integers A, B, C, x, y, z with A, B, and C being pairwise coprime and all of x, y, z being greater than 2.

The conjecture was formulated in 1993 by Andrew Beal, a banker and amateur mathematician, while investigating generalizations of Fermat's last theorem.[1][2] Since 1997, Beal has offered a monetary prize for a peer-reviewed proof of this conjecture or a counter example.[3] The value of the prize has increased several times and is currently $1 million.[4]

In some venues, this conjecture has occasionally been referred to as a generalized Fermat equation,[5] the Mauldin conjecture,[6] and the Tijdeman-Zagier conjecture.[7][8][9]

In the 1950s, L. Jesmanowicz and Chao Ko considered a potential class of solutions to the equation, namely those with A, B, C also forming a Pythagorean triple.[10]

Related examples

To illustrate, the solution has bases with a common factor of 3, the solution has bases with a common factor of 7, and has bases with a common factor of 2. Indeed the equation has infinitely many solutions where the bases share a common factor, including generalizations of the above three examples, respectively


Furthermore, for each solution (with or without coprime bases), there are infinitely many solutions with the same set of exponents and an increasing set of non-coprime bases. That is, for solution

we additionally have


Any solutions to the Beal conjecture will necessarily involve three terms all of which are 3-powerful numbers, i.e. numbers where the exponent of every prime factor is at least three. It is known that there are an infinite number of such sums involving coprime 3-powerful numbers;[11] however, such sums are rare. The smallest two examples are:

What distinguishes Beal's conjecture is that it requires each of the three terms to be expressible as a single power.

Relation to other conjectures

Fermat's Last Theorem established that has no solutions for n > 2 for positive integers A, B, and C. If any solutions had existed to Fermat's Last Theorem, then by dividing out every common factor, there would also exist solutions with A, B, and C coprime. Hence, Fermat's Last Theorem can be seen as a special case of the Beal conjecture restricted to x = y = z.

The Fermat–Catalan conjecture is that has only finitely many solutions with A, B, and C being positive integers with no common prime factor and x, y, and z being positive integers satisfying Beal's conjecture can be restated as "All Fermat–Catalan conjecture solutions will use 2 as an exponent."

The abc conjecture would imply that there are at most finitely many counterexamples to Beal's conjecture.

Partial results

In the cases below where 2 is an exponent, multiples of 2 are also proven, since a power can be squared. Similarly, where n is an exponent, multiples of n are also proven.


For a proof or counterexample published in a refereed journal, banker Andrew Beal initially offered a prize of US $5,000 in 1997, raising it to $50,000 over ten years,[3] but has since raised it to US $1,000,000.[4]

The American Mathematical Society (AMS) holds the $1 million prize in a trust until the Beal conjecture is solved.[21] It is supervised by the Beal Prize Committee (BPC), which is appointed by the AMS president.[22]


The counterexamples and show that the conjecture would be false if one of the exponents were allowed to be 2. The Fermat–Catalan conjecture is an open conjecture dealing with such cases.

A variation of the conjecture asserting that x, y, z (instead of A, B, C) must have a common prime factor is not true. A counterexample is in which 4, 3, and 7 have no common prime factor. (In fact, the maximum common prime factor of the exponents that is valid is 2; a common factor greater than 2 would be a counterexample to Fermat's Last Theorem.)

The conjecture is not valid over the larger domain of Gaussian integers. After a prize of $50 was offered for a counterexample, Fred W. Helenius provided [23]

See also


  1. "Beal Conjecture". American Mathematical Society. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  2. "Beal Conjecture". Retrieved 2014-03-06.
  3. 1 2 R. Daniel Mauldin (1997). "A Generalization of Fermat's Last Theorem: The Beal Conjecture and Prize Problem" (PDF). Notices of the AMS. 44 (11): 1436–1439.
  4. 1 2 "Beal Prize". Retrieved 2014-03-06.
  5. Bennett, Michael A.; Chen, Imin; Dahmen, Sander R.; Yazdani, Soroosh (June 2014). "Generalized Fermat Equations: A Miscellany" (PDF). Simon Fraser University. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  6. "Mauldin / Tijdeman-Zagier Conjecture". Prime Puzzles. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  7. 1 2 Elkies, Noam D. (2007). "The ABC's of Number Theory" (PDF). The Harvard College Mathematics Review. 1 (1).
  8. Michel Waldschmidt (2004). "Open Diophantine Problems". Moscow Mathematics. 4: 245–305.
  9. 1 2 Crandall, Richard; Pomerance, Carl (2000). Prime Numbers: A Computational Perspective. Springer. p. 417. ISBN 978-0387-25282-7.
  10. Wacław Sierpiński, Pythagorean triangles, Dover, 2003, p. 55 (orig. Graduate School of Science, Yeshiva University, 1962).
  11. Nitaj, Abderrahmane (1995). "On A Conjecture of Erdos on 3-Powerful Numbers". Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society. 27 (4): 317–318. doi:10.1112/blms/27.4.317.
  12. "Billionaire Offers $1 Million to Solve Math Problem | ABC News Blogs – Yahoo". 2013-06-06. Retrieved 2014-03-06.
  13. 1 2 3 4 Frits Beukers (January 20, 2006). "The generalized Fermat equation" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-03-06.
  14. Poonen, Bjorn; Schaefer, Edward F.; Stoll, Michael (2005). "Twists of X(7) and primitive solutions to x2 + y3 = z7". arXiv:math/0508174v1Freely accessible.
  15. Brown, David (2009). "Primitive Integral Solutions to x2 + y3 = z10". arXiv:0911.2932Freely accessible [math.NT].
  16. Siksek, Samir; Stoll, Michael (2013). "The Generalised Fermat Equation x2 + y3 = z15". arXiv:1309.4421Freely accessible [math.NT].
  17. "The Diophantine Equation" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-03-06.
  18. Dahmen, Sander R.; Siksek, Samir (2013). "Perfect powers expressible as sums of two fifth or seventh powers". arXiv:1309.4030Freely accessible [math.NT].
  19. Darmon, H.; Granville, A. (1995). "On the equations zm = F(x, y) and Axp + Byq = Czr". Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society. 27: 513–43.
  20. Norvig, Peter. "Beal's Conjecture: A Search for Counterexamples". Retrieved 2014-03-06.
  21. Walter Hickey (5 June 2013). "If You Can Solve This Math Problem, Then A Texas Banker Will Give You $1 Million". Business Insider. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  22. "$1 Million Math Problem: Banker D. Andrew Beal Offers Award To Crack Conjecture Unsolved For 30 Years". International Science Times. 5 June 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  23. "Neglected Gaussians". Retrieved 2014-03-06.

External links

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