Causes for liberation of French colonies in India

Many interrelated political, cultural, socio-economic and geographical factors contributed to the merger of the French Establishments in India with the Republic of India.

French establishments in India

End of French control in former possessions






Geographical and cultural divergence

Geographical and cultural divergence in the French India made the French weak in keeping their hold on these colonies.

Decolonization phenomenon

Decolonization was a global phenomenon which was predominant in the colonial world between 1940 and the 1960s. Many colonies sought independence from the colonial empires. Nationalism and Socialism played an important role in achieving this in many colonies globally.

Pre-Independence factors

The above four factors are most important factors that existed in 1947 which ultimately led to merger of French colonies in India.

Post-Independence factors

After independence, the factors that lead to merger are,

Immediate causes for independence

Governor's interference

A momentous event in the independence movement of Pondichéry occurred on 18 March 1954, when most of the members of the executive council and mayor of Pondichéry and seven adjoining communes proclaimed their decision to merge with Indian Union without a referendum. All the communes in Karikal also followed suit. This decision was to be confirmed by the Representative Assembly and when the French India Socialist Party was preparing to move the merger resolution, the French Governor scuttled it by postponing the session. Provoked by this, the Socialists planned to capture the outlying communes one by one and move to Pondichéry. Accordingly, the leaders of the French India Socialist Party hoisted the Indian National Flag atop the Nettapakkam police station on the last day of March in 1954.

Result of Governor General's interference,

Kandamangalam Conference

The conclusion of Consul General, Sri Kewal Singh on the night of 11 April 1954 at the conference at Kandamangalam, that For real liberation of colonies one should attack any of the big four French settlements, Since the French authorities are making fun of petty provisional government at Nettapacom. Since Yanam is small in area and population, he requested Monsieur Dadala for a plan for its liberation which resulted not only the Coup d'État de Yanaon but also the ultimate liberation of French colonies in India.

Result of conclusion at Kandamangalam conference,

Date of events

Inde française
Colony Liberation de facto transfer Treaty of Cession de jure transfer Merger
Pondichéry - 1 November 1954 28 May 1956 16 August 1962 1 July 1963
Chandernagore - 26 June 1949 28 February 1951 9 June 1952 1 October 1954
Karikal - 1 November 1954 28 May 1956 16 August 1962 1 July 1963
Mahé 16 June 1954 1 November 1954 28 May 1956 16 August 1962 1 July 1963
Yanaon 13 June 1954 1 November 1954 28 May 1956 16 August 1962 1 July 1963

Active Members involved in the Independence movement

See also


External links

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