Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

"CEFR" redirects here. For the Chinese nuclear reactor, see China Experimental Fast Reactor.

The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment,[1] abbreviated in English as CEFR or CEF or CEFRL (compared to the German abbreviations GeR or GeRS, the French abbreviation CECR, the Italian QCER, or the Spanish MCER), is a guideline used to describe achievements of learners of foreign languages across Europe and, increasingly, in other countries. It was put together by the Council of Europe as the main part of the project "Language Learning for European Citizenship" between 1989 and 1996. Its main aim is to provide a method of learning, teaching and assessing which applies to all languages in Europe. In November 2001, a European Union Council Resolution recommended using the CEFR to set up systems of validation of language ability. The six reference levels (see below) are becoming widely accepted as the European standard for grading an individual's language proficiency.


An intergovernmental symposium in 1991 titled "Transparency and Coherence in Language Learning in Europe: Objectives, Evaluation, Certification" held by the Swiss Federal Authorities in the Swiss municipality of Rüschlikon found the need for a common European framework for languages to improve the recognition of language qualifications and help teachers co-operate. A project followed to develop language-level classifactions for certification to be recognized across Europe.[2]

The CEFR is also intended to make it easier for educational institutions and employers to evaluate the language qualifications of candidates to education admission or employment.

As a result of the symposium, the Swiss National Science Foundation set up a project to develop levels of proficiency, to lead on to the creation of a "European Language Portfolio" – certification in language ability which can be used across Europe.

A preliminary version of the Manual for Relating Language Examinations to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) was published in 2003. This draft version was piloted in a number of projects, which included linking a single test to the CEFR, linking suites of exams at different levels, and national studies by exam boards and research institutes. Practitioners and academics shared their experiences at a colloquium in Cambridge in 2007 and the pilot case studies and findings were published in Studies in Language Testing (SiLT).[3] The findings from the pilot projects then informed the Manual revision project during 2008-2009.

Theoretical background

The CEFR divides general competences in knowledge (descriptive knowledge), skills, and existential competence with particular communicative competences in linguistic competence, sociolinguistic competence, and pragmatic competence. This division does not exactly match previously well-known notions of communicative competence, but correspondences among them can be made.[4]

The CEFR has three principal dimensions: language activities, the domains in which the language activities occur, and the competences on which we draw when we engage in them.[5]

Language activities

The CEFR distinguishes between four kinds of language activities: reception (listening and reading), production (spoken and written), interaction (spoken and written), and mediation (translating and interpreting).[5]


General and particular communicative competences are developed by producing or receiving texts in various contexts under various conditions and constraints. These contexts correspond to various sectors of social life that the CEFR calls domains. Four broad domains are distinguished: educational, occupational, public, and personal.


A language user can develop various degrees of competence in each of these domains and to help describe them the CEFR has provided a set of six Common Reference Levels (A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2).

Common reference levels

The Common European Framework divides learners into three broad divisions that can be divided into six levels; for each level, it describes what a learner is supposed to be able to do in reading, listening, speaking and writing. These levels are:

Level group Level group name Level Level name Description
A Basic user A1 Breakthrough or beginner
  • Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type.
  • Can introduce themselves and others and can ask and answer questions about personal details such as where he/she lives, people they know and things they have.
  • Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help.
A2 Waystage or elementary
  • Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment).
  • Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters.
  • Can describe in simple terms aspects of their background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.
B Independent user B1 Threshold or intermediate
  • Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc.
  • Can deal with most situations likely to arise while travelling in an area where the language is spoken.
  • Can produce simple connected text on topics that are familiar or of personal interest.
  • Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes and ambitions and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans.
B2 Vantage or upper intermediate
  • Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions in their field of specialization.
  • Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party.
  • Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.
C Proficient user C1 Effective operational proficiency or advanced
  • Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer clauses, and recognize implicit meaning.
  • Can express ideas fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions.
  • Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes.
  • Can produce clear, well-structured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of organizational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices.
C2 Mastery or proficiency
  • Can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read.
  • Can summarize information from different spoken and written sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent presentation.
  • Can express themselves spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating finer shades of meaning even in the most complex situations.

These descriptors can apply to any of the languages spoken in Europe, and there are translations in many languages.

Relationship with duration of learning process

Educational bodies for various languages have offered estimates for the amount of study needed to reach levels in the relevant language.

Body Language Cumulative hours of study to reach level Ref
A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2
Deutsche Welle German 75 150 (A2.1)
225 (A2.2)
300 (B1.1)
400 (B1.2)
Cambridge English Language Assessment English 180–200 350–400 500–600 700–800 1,000–1,200 [7]
Alliance Française French 60–100 160–200 360–400 560–650 810–950 1060–1200 [8]
Teastas Eorpach na Gaeilge Irish 80–100 160–200 350–400 500–600 1000+ 1500+ [9]

Certification and teaching ecosystem enabled by the CEFR

Multiple organizations have been created to serve as umbrella for language schools and certifications businesses that claim compatibility with the CEFR. For example, the European Association for Language Testing and Assessment (EALTA) is an initiative funded by the European Community[10] to promote the CEFR and best practices in delivering professional language trainings. The Association of Language Testers in Europe (ALTE) is a consortium of academic organizations that aims at standardizing assessment methods.[11] EAQUALS (Evaluation and Accreditation of Quality in Language Services) is an international association of institutions and organisations involved in language education, active throughout Europe, and following the CEFR.[12]

In France, the Ministry for Education has created a government-mandated certificate called CLES, which formalizes the use of the CEFR in French teaching programs in higher education.[13]

In Germany, telc GmbH, a non-profit agency, is the federal government's exclusive partner for language tests taken at the end of the integration courses for migrants, following the CEFR standards.[14]

Comparisons between CEFR and other scales

General scales

Studies have addressed correspondence with the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines and the United States ILR scale.

For convenience, the following abbreviations will be used for the ACTFL levels:

A 2008 statistical study by Alfonso Martínez Baztán of Universidad de Granada based on the performances of a group of subjects[15] determines the following ordering of the ACTFL and CEFR levels, in which higher levels are placed further right.[16]

NL___NM__A1___NH___A2/IL_____IM__B1____IH____B2 _AL____ AM__C1___AH___C2__S_

The following table summarizes the results of Martínez Baztán,[17] the equivalences between CEFR and ACTFL standards proposed in a 2005 paper by Erwin Tschirner of Universität Leipzig[18][19] (also quoted by Martínez Baztán[20]), and the equivalences of Buitrago (unpublished, 2006) as quoted in Martínez Baztán 2008.[21]

CEFR Martínez Tschirner Buitrago
<A1 NL, NM
C2 AH, S S S

In a panel discussion at the Osaka University of Foreign Studies, one of the coauthors of the CEFR, Brian North, stated that a "sensible hypothesis" would be for C2 to correspond to "Distinguished," C1 to "Superior," B2 to "Advanced-mid," and B1 to "Intermediate-high" in the ACTFL system.[22]

This agrees with a table published by the American University Center of Provence giving the following correspondences:[23]

A1 0/0+ NL, NM, NH
A2 1 IL, IM
B1 1+ IH
B2 2/2+ AL, AM, AH
C1 3/3+ S
C2 4/4+ D

A study by Buck, Papageorgiou and Platzek[24] addresses the correspondence between the difficulty of test items under the CEFR and ILR standards. The most common ILR levels for items of given CEFR difficulty were as follows:

Canada increasingly uses the CEFR in a few domains. CEFR-compatible exams such as the DELF/DALF (French) and the DELE (Spanish) are administered. Universities increasingly structure their courses around the CERF levels. Larry Vandergrift of the University of Ottawa has proposed Canadian adoption of the CEFR in his report Proposal for a Common Framework of Reference for Languages for Canada published by Heritage Canada.[26][27] This report contains a comparison of the CEFR to other standards in use in Canada and proposes an equivalence table.

A1 0/0+/1 Novice (Low/Mid/High) Unrated/0+/1 1/2 A
A2 1+ Intermediate (Low/Mid/High) 1+/2 3/4 B
B1 2 Advanced Low 2+ 5/6 C
B2 2+ Advanced Mid 3 7/8
C1 3/3+ Advanced High 3+ 9/10
C2 4 Superior 4 11/12

The resulting correspondence between the ILR and ACTFL scales disagrees with the generally accepted one.[30] The ACTFL standards were developed so that Novice, Intermediate, Advanced and Superior would correspond to 0/0+, 1/1+, 2/2+ and 3/3+, respectively on the ILR scale.[31] Also, the ILR and NB OPS scales do not correspond despite the fact that the latter was modelled on the former.[27]

A more recent document by Macdonald and Vandergrift[32] estimates the following correspondences (for oral ability) between the Public Service Commission levels and the CEFR levels:

A A2
B B1/B2
C B2/C1

Language schools may also propose their own equivalence tables. For example, the Vancouver English Centre provides a comprehensive equivalence table between the various forms of the TOEFL test, the Cambridge exam, the VEC level system and the CEFR.[33]

Language-specific scales

Certificate A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2
mul European Consortium for the Certificate of Attainment in Modern Languages ECL exams can be taken in English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Romanian, Bulgarian, Serbian, Slovak, Russian, Spanish, Croatian, Czech and Hebrew. - A2 B1 B2 C1 -
mul UNIcert UNIcert I UNIcert II UNIcert III UNIcert IV
mul TELC A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2
cat Catalan Language Certificates Bàsic-A2 Elemental-B1 Intermedi-B2 Suficiència-C1 Superior-C2
cat Simtest A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2
cmn Chinese Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi (HSK)[34] HSK Level 3 HSK Level 4 HSK Level 5 HSK Level 6
cmn Test of Chinese As A Foreign Language (TOCFL) (Taiwan) TOCFL Level 1 TOCFL Level 2 TOCFL Level 3 TOCFL Level 4 TOCFL Level 5
cym WJEC Defnyddio'r Gymraeg[35] Mynediad (Entry) Sylfaen (Foundation) Canolradd (Intermediate) Uwch (Advanced) - -
cze Czech Language Certificate Exam (CCE)[36] CCE-A1 CCE-A2 CCE-B1 CCE-B2 CCE-C1 -
dan Prøve i Dansk (Danish Language Exam)[37] Prøve i Dansk 1 Prøve i Dansk 2 Prøve i Dansk 3 Studieprøven
deu Goethe-Institut Goethe-Zertifikat A1
Start Deutsch 1
Goethe-Zertifikat A2
Start Deutsch 2
Goethe-Zertifikat B1
Zertifikat Deutsch (ZD)
Goethe-Zertifikat B2
Zertifikat Deutsch für den Beruf (ZDfB)
Goethe-Zertifikat C1
Zentrale Mittelstufenprüfung
Goethe-Zertifikat C2 - Großes Deutsches Sprachdiplom (GDS)
Zentrale Oberstufenprüfung
Kleines Deutsches Sprachdiplom
deu TestDaF[38] TDN 3—TDN 4[39] TDN 4—TDN 5
ell Πιστοποίηση Ελληνομάθειας (Certificate of Attainment in Modern Greek)[40] Α1
(Στοιχειώδης Γνώση)
(Βασική Γνώση)
(Μέτρια Γνώση)
(Καλή Γνώση)
(Πολύ Καλή Γνώση)
(Άριστη Γνώση)
eng Anglia Examinations Preliminary Elementary Intermediate Advanced Proficiency Masters
eng TrackTest[41] A1 (Beginner) A2 (Elementary) B1 (Pre-Intermediate) B2 (Intermediate) C1 (Upper-Intermediate) C2 (Advanced)
eng TOELS: Wheebox Test of English Language Skills[42] 11 (Beginner) 20 (Pre-Intermediate) 25 (Intermediate) 30 (Graduate) 33 (Advanced)
eng iTEP 1-2 2.5-3 3.5 4-4.5 5-5.5 6
eng IELTS[43][44][45] 2.0 3.0 3.5-5.5 (3.5 is the margin) 5.5-7 (5.5 is the margin) 7-8 (7 is the margin) 8.0-9.0 (8.0 is the margin)
eng TOEIC[46] 60 - 105 (listening) 60 - 110 (reading) 110 - 270 (listening) 115 - 270 (reading) 275 - 395 (listening) 275 - 380 (reading) 400 - 485 (listening) 385 - 450 (reading) 490 - 495 (listening) 455 - 495 (reading)
eng Versant 26-35 36-46 47-57 58-68 69-78 79-80
eng Duolingo English Test[47] 0-9 10-29 30-49 50-74 75-89 90-100
eng TOEFL (IBT)[48] 10-15 (speaking)
7-12 (writing)
42-71 (total)
4-17 (reading)
9-16 (listening)
16-19 (speaking)
13-16 (writing)
72-94 (total)
18-23 (reading)
17-21 (listening)
20-24 (speaking)
17-23 (writing)
95-120 (total)
24-30 (reading)
22-30 (listening)
25-30 (speaking)
24-30 (writing)
eng TOEFL ITP[49] 337 460 543 627
eng TOEFL Junior Standard[50] 225-245 (listening), 210-245 (language form), 210-240 (reading) 250-285 (listening), 250-275 (language form), 245-275 (reading) 290-300 (listening), 280-300 (language form), 280-300 (reading)
eng EF Standard English Test [51] 1-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 61-70 71-100
eng City and Guilds[52] Preliminary Access Achiever Communicator Expert Mastery
eng RQF (UK Only)[53] Entry Level Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Levels 4-6 Level 7-8
eng Cambridge exam[54] KET (45 to 69)[55] PET (45 to 69)[56] / KET Pass, Pass with Merit[57] FCE (140 to 159)[58] / PET Pass, Pass with Merit[59] / KET Pass with Distinction[57] CAE (160 to 179)[60] / FCE grade B or C[58] / PET Pass with Distinction[59] CPE (180 to 199)[61] / CAE grade B or C[60] / FCE grade A (180 to 190) 205-230
eng PTE Academic 30 43 59 76 85ƒ
eng PTE General (formerly LTE) Level A1 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5
eng Trinity College London Integrated Skills in English (ISE) / Graded Examinations in Spoken English (GESE) / Spoken English for Work (SEW)[62][63][64] GESE 2 ISE 0
GESE 3, 4
GESE 5, 6
GESE 7, 8, 9
SEW 2, 3
GESE 10, 11
eng British General Qualifications[65] Foundation Tier GCSE Higher Tier GCSE GCE AS level / lower grade A-level GCE A-Level (known as A2)
eng Learning Resource Network CEF A1 CEF A2 CEF B1 CEF B2 CEF C1 CEF C2
eng Gymglish Certification 0 - 1,4 1.5 - 1.9 2 - 2.9 3 - 3.9 4 - 4.9 5 - 5.5
eus HABE Lehenengo maila — HABE Bigarren maila — HABE Hirugarren maila — HABE Laugarren maila — HABE
eus EGA Euskararen Gaitasun Agiria
fin YKI 1 2 3 4 5 6
fra CIEP / Alliance française diplomas TCF A1 / DELF A1 TCF A2 / DELF A2 / CEFP 1 TCF B1 / DELF B1 / CEFP 2 TCF B2 / DELF B2 / Diplôme de Langue TCF C1 / DALF C1 / DSLCF TCF C2 / DALF C2 / DHEF
fra Frantastique Certification 1 2 3 4 5 5
glg Certificado de lingua galega (CELGA)[66] CELGA 1 CELGA 2 CELGA 3 CELGA 4 CELGA 5
ita CELI Impatto 1 2 3 4 5
ita CILS A1 A2 Uno Due Tre Quattro / DIT C2
ita PLIDA (Dante Alighieri Society diplomas) PLIDA A1 PLIDA A2 PLIDA B1 PLIDA B2 PLIDA C1 PLIDA C2
jpn Japanese-Language Proficiency Test (JLPT) N5 N4 N3 N2 N1 -
kor Test of Proficiency in Korean (TOPIK) Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6
nld CNaVT - Certificaat Nederlands als Vreemde Taal (Certificate of Dutch as Foreign Language)[67] Profile tourist and informal language proficiency (PTIT) Profile societal language proficiency (PMT) Profile professional language proficiency (PPT), Profile language proficiency higher education (PTHO) Profile academic language proficiency (PAT)
nld Inburgeringsexamen (Integration examination for immigrants from outside the EU) Pre-examination at embassy of home country Examination in the Netherlands
nld Staatsexamen Nederlands als tweede taal NT2 (State Examination Dutch as second language NT2)[68] NT2 programma I NT2 programma II
nor Norskprøver Norskprøve 1 Norskprøve 2 Norskprøve 3 Bergenstest - Bestått Bergenstest - Vel bestått
pl Egzaminy Certyfikatowe z Języka Polskiego jako Obcego[69] B1 (podstawowy) B2 (średni ogólny) C2 (zaawansowany)
por CELPE-Bras[71] Intermediate Intermediate Superior Intermediate Superior Intermediate Advanced Superior Advanced
rus ТРКИ – Тест по русскому языку как иностранному (TORFL – Test of Russian as a Foreign Language)[72] ТЭУ Элементарный уровень ТБУ Базовый уровень ТРКИ-1 (I Cертификационный уровень) (1st Certificate level) ТРКИ-2 ТРКИ-3 ТРКИ-4
spa DELE[73] A1 A2 B1 (formerly "Inicial") B2 (formerly "Intermedio") C1 C2 (formerly "Superior")
swe TISUS - - - - TISUS -
swe Swedex - A2 B1 B2 - -
ALTE level Breakthrough level Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5
ukr [74] UMI/ULF - Ukrainian as foreign language UMI 1 UMI 2 UMI 3 UMI 4 UMI 5 UMI 6

Difficulty in aligning the CEFR with teaching programmes

Language schools and certificate bodies evaluate their own equivalences against the framework. Differences of estimation have been found to exist, for example, with the same level on the PTE A, TOEFL, and IELTS, and is a cause of debate between test producers.[75]

Other applications

The CEFR methodology has been extended to describe and evaluate the proficiency of users of programming languages, when the programming activity is considered as a language activity.[76]

See also


  1. Council of Europe (2011). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Council of Europe.
  2. Jean-Claude 2010, p. 73.
  3. Studies in Language Testing (Amazon) (book description), 33, UK, retrieved 2013-10-23.
  4. Carlos César, Jimenez (2011). El Marco Europeo Común de Referencia para las Lenguas y la comprensión teórica del conocimiento del lenguaje: exploración de una normatividad flexible para emprender acciones educativas (PDF) (Essay). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. p. 11.
  5. 1 2 "The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment (CEFR)". Council of Europe. Retrieved 2015-09-18.
  6. "Deutsche Welle". Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  7. "CEFR and ALTE Can Do statements". Retrieved 2011-12-05.
  9. "TEG Levels". Retrieved 2016-08-31.
  10. "European Association for Language Testing and Assessment". EALTA. Retrieved 2014-07-18.
  11. "Association of Language Testers in Europe". ALTE. Retrieved 2014-07-18.
  12. "EAquals— Our aims". EAquals. Retrieved 2014-07-18.
  13. "Certificate de Compétences en Langues de l'Enseignement Supérieur". SPIRAL. Retrieved 2014-07-18.
  14. "The European Language Certificate". telc. Retrieved 2014-07-18.
  15. Baztán, Alfonso Martínez (2008). La evaluación oral: una equivalencia entre las guidelines de ACTFL y algunas escalas del MCER (PDF) (doctoral thesis). Universidad de Granada. ISBN 978-84-338-4961-8.
  16. Baztán, Alfonso Martínez (2008). La evaluación oral: una equivalencia entre las guidelines de ACTFL y algunas escalas del MCER (PDF) (doctoral thesis). Universidad de Granada. p. 459. ISBN 978-84-338-4961-8.
  17. Baztán, Alfonso Martínez (2008). La evaluación oral: una equivalencia entre las guidelines de ACTFL y algunas escalas del MCER (PDF) (doctoral thesis). Universidad de Granada. p. 461. ISBN 978-84-338-4961-8.
  18. Tschirner, Erwin (February 2005). "Das ACTFL OPI und der Europäische Referenzrahmen".
  19. Archived 13 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. Baztán, Alfonso Martínez (2008). La evaluación oral: una equivalencia entre las guidelines de ACTFL y algunas escalas del MCER (PDF) (doctoral thesis). Universidad de Granada. p. 468. ISBN 978-84-338-4961-8.
  21. Baztán, Alfonso Martínez (2008). La evaluación oral: una equivalencia entre las guidelines de ACTFL y algunas escalas del MCER (PDF) (doctoral thesis). Universidad de Granada. pp. 469–70. ISBN 978-84-338-4961-8.
  22. A reference of the talk can be found in the EP Bibliography of "English Profile", under "General materials" and then under North 2006, Link to English Profile (Bibliography)
  23. "The correspondences are attributed by the center to an ACTFL administrator" (PDF).
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  25. Level 2+ was the highest possible classification for listening items.
  26. "New Canadian Perspectives" (PDF). Canadian Heritage. Retrieved August 2011. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  27. 1 2 "Proposal of a CFR for Canada". Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  28. "Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour / Éducation postsecondaire, Formation et Travail". Retrieved 2013-05-02.
  29. "Qualification Standards 3 / 3". 15 April 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-02.
  30. "Correspondence of proficiency scales". 21 March 1999. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  31. "ILR Scale". Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  32. Jennifer Macdonald; Larry Vandergrift (6–8 Feb 2007). "The CEFR in Canada" (PowerPoint Presentation). Council of Europe. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  33. "TOEFL Equivalency table". Vancouver English Centre. Retrieved 2014-07-18.
  34. "Statement of the Association of Chinese Teachers in German Speaking Countries on the new HSK Chinese Proficiency Test" (PDF). (in German).
  35. "Welsh for Adults".
  36. "Certifikovaná zkouška z češtiny pro cizince (CCE) - ÚJOP UK".
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  40. "Information for the Centre for the Greek Language and the certificate of attainment in Greek". Retrieved 2012-08-07.
  41. "TrackTest Language levels". TrackTest. Retrieved 2013-12-12.
  42. "Wheebox TOELS". Wheebox.
  43. "IELTS — Common European Framework". IELTS. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
  44. "IELTS and the Cambridge ESOL examinations in a European context" (PDF). British Council. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
  45. "IELTS band scores & CEF level scale for Clarity programs" (PDF). Clarity English. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
  46. "Mapping TOEIC and TOEIC Bridge on the Common European Framework Reference" (PDF). ETS. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
  47. Feifei Ye, "Validity, reliability, and concordance of the Duolingo English Test".
  48. "TOEFL: For Academic Institutions: Compare Scores".
  49. "Research". Retrieved 2013-02-25.
  50. "Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR)". Retrieved 2013-02-25.
  52. Amega Web Technology. "City & Guilds English — The Common European Framework". Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  53. "Languages Ladder". Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  54. "International language standards". Cambridge ESOL. Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  55. "Understanding your Statement of Results – Cambridge English: Key" (PDF). Cambridge ESOL. Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  56. "Understanding your Statement of Results – Cambridge English: Preliminary" (PDF). Cambridge ESOL. Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  57. 1 2 "Cambridge English: Key (KET) - Results". Cambridge ESOL. Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  58. 1 2 "Cambridge English: First (FCE) - Results". Cambridge ESOL. Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  59. 1 2 "Cambridge English: Preliminary (PET) - Results". Cambridge ESOL. Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  60. 1 2 "Cambridge English: Advanced (CAE) - Results". Cambridge ESOL. Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  61. "Cambridge English: Proficiency (CPE) - Results". Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  62. "Trinity College London - Integrated Skills in English (ISE)".
  63. "Trinity College London - Graded Examinations in Spoken English (GESE)".
  64. "Trinity College London - Spoken English for Work (SEW)".
  65. "Open University Language Modules". The Open University (2011). Retrieved 2011-11-23.
  66. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-20.
  67. "Certificate of Dutch as a Foreign Language" (PDF). CNaVT. Retrieved 2013-10-27.
  68. "Wat zijn de Staatsexamens NT2?" (in Dutch). College voor Examens. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  69. "Egzaminy Certyfikatowe z Języka Polskiego jako Obcego". Retrieved 2015-08-04.
  70. "Centro de Avaliação de Português Língua Estrangeira". Retrieved 2012-09-04.
  71. "Certificado de Proficiência em Língua Portuguesa para Estrangeiros". Retrieved 2012-09-04.
  72. "TKRI Overview". Retrieved 2012-11-22.
  73. "Descripción – Diplomas de Español Como Lengua Extranjera". Instituto Cervantes. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
  74. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 2014-02-17.
  75. de Jong, John H.A.L. "Unwarranted Claim about CEF Alignment of some International English Language Tests — Pearson" (PDF). Retrieved August 2011. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  76. Raphael Poss. "A CEFR-like approach to measure programming proficiency". Retrieved 2014-07-18.

Works cited

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