List of academic ranks

Not to be confused with Academic degree.

This list of academic ranks identifies the hierarchical ranking structure found amongst scholars in academia. The lists below refer specifically to colleges and universities throughout the world, although other institutions of higher learning may follow a similar schema.



In Algeria, university teachers are initially recruited - on the basis of a competition - at the rank of Maître Assistant (Assistant Professor), only if they are holding a Doctoral degree from either local public universities or UNESCO officially accredited and internationally recognized foreign institutions of higher education . Not all foreign PhD's or academic titles are accepted or automatically given local equivalencies . Degree granting Universities and their doctoral programs (i.e.;courses & dissertation) are first evaluated by the National Ministry of higher education equivalency committee before an official equivalency decision to the Algerian Doctorate is granted . After a minimum of three years and - on the basis of a competition based on teaching and scholarly work - assistant professors are allowed to apply to compete for promotion to the rank of Maître de Conférences (Associate Professor). After a minimum of five years, they can similarly - on the basis of a competition based on teaching and scholarly work - apply for promotion to the rank of Professeur de l'Enseignement Superieur (Full Professor). All applications for the competition to promotion competitions are first evaluated and ranked by the University scientific committees at faculty and university levels, then by the Ministry of higher education promotion committee before an official promotion decision is to be granted . The whole process (French system legacy) is quite long and extremely competitive, and does not allow for automatic rank equivalency for professors transferring from overseas universities, the lengthy process repeat from assistant professor upwards to professor is inevitable, exceptions made to officially invited visiting professors who are well-known experts in their fields of expertise.

Source: Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research - Algiers




Teachers are categorized in four main classes in Bangladesh at University level. The ascending rank of teacher is Lecturer, Assistant Professor, Associate Professor and Professor. The initial position Lecturer is generally enrolled as the top student of the class. Master's degree is required for normal university level Lecturer. After PhD, the appointment starts with Assistant Professor, then gradually Associate Professor and Professor depending on research/teaching experience. Beside these, professor of Emeritus is given to extraordinary professor after their retirement.


Dutch speaking community

Administrative ranks

French community

Administrative ranks

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Administrative ranks

Honorary ranks


There is no official academic ranking in Brazilian private universities. However, most of the public Federal Universities apply the following (from the highest position to the lowest one):


Academy of Sciences
Higher administration of the academy of sciences
Administrative ranks


Faculty appointment

Assistant professor is the entry-level rank for non-tenured members of faculty.

Non-faculty teaching and research personnel

Administrative ranks




Honorary academic rank

Administrative ranks

Czech Republic




Tenure-track faculty positions

Non-tenure track positions



Teachers are categorized in five main classes in Egypt at University level. The ascending rank of teacher is Demonstrator, Assistant Lecturer, Lecturer, Associate Professor and Professor. The initial position Demonstrator is generally enrolled as the top student of the class. Master's degree is required for university level Assistant Lecturer. After PhD, the appointment starts with Lecturer, then gradually Associate Professor and Professor depending on research/teaching experience. Beside these, professor of Emeritus is given to extraordinary professor after their retirement.



Permanent positionsProfesseur des universités or Directeur d'étudesDirecteur de recherche Professeur des universités associé
Maître de conférencesChargé de rechercheprofesseur agrégé or professeur certifiéMaître de conférences associé
Temporary positionsAttaché temporaire d'enseignement et de recherches (ATER)Post-doctorantChargé d'enseignement
Doctorant contractuel chargé d'enseignementDoctorant contractuel


Academic Positions

Administrative Positions




Αn honorary title for people at the rank of Professor who have reached the legal age for retirement; If they wish, they have the right, for a limited time after retirement, to continue their research projects.

A temporary employee with a short-term contract, usually for one semester, usually holder of a Ph.D. as described in the Greek Presidential Decree 407/1980. Adjunct Lecturers and Adjunct Assistant Professors are sometimes called simply as "407" or "P.D. 407", after the number of the Decree.

This rank was abolished in 1982, but people holding it remain teaching assistants until retirement.

Administrative ranks (Universities and Technical Universities)

The holders of administrative ranks must be Professors or Associate Professors. The only exception is Secretary General, who is not a faculty member.

Administrative ranks (Technological Educational Institutes)

The holders of administrative ranks must be Professors or Associate Professors.


Administrative ranks

Hong Kong

Academic ranks
In the past, Hong Kong followed the British system (4 levels). In recent years it is moving towards the North American counterpart, with the titles renamed to their corresponding equivalence (professor, associate professor, and assistant professor). Institutions established in the 1980s and 1990s almost entirely follows the North American system, while older ones, notably the University of Hong Kong is in the process of transition.[2] Depending on institutions, the title of "professor" is assumed by chair professors and professors, or assistant professors and above.

Administrative ranks



In Icelandic universities, especially The University of Iceland, prófessor is the most senior ranking teaching position. Below prófessor is dósent, then lektor. This three step hierarchy is akin to the US-scale, of full-, associate- and assistant-professors. Until the early 1990s no upward mobility was available in the Icelandic system. Most university teachers were hired as "prófessor." A "dósent" or a "lektor" wishing to ascend to a higher rank had to apply for a new position when it became available. Currently (since the 1990s) much more university teachers are hired as junior rank "lektor" and are promoted to "dósent" and "prófessor" if their work proves worthy of it.


Regular Academic ranks (Hierarchy from top): Academic institutions in India have the mandate of teaching, training and research. This also includes research universities.

  1. Professor
  2. Associate Professor
  3. Assistant Professor
  4. In addition to these, there are government sponsored fellowships such as Ramanujan & Ramalingaswami. The fellowship is awarded to able candidates for a 5-year contract period during which they are hosted by an academic or research organisation. Their primary function is to carry out high quality original research. They may become a regular faculty as an assistant professor or associate professor during this period subject to their performance.
  5. Assistant Professor (on contract) / Adhoc faculty - They are primarily involved in teaching for a limited contract period typically 6 months - 1 year.

Research ranks (Hierarchy from top): Research institutions such as national labs have a different kind of hierarchy and are primarily concerned with basic and applied research. They guide Ph.D students in their research thesis but do not grant degrees. In most cases the Ph.D candidates are registered with another University which grants the degree. Awarding of degree is subjected to meeting the same criteria as Ph.D guided by university professors.

  1. Scientist H
  2. Scientist G
  3. Scientist F
  4. Scientist E (in some cases EII)
  5. Scientist D (in some cases EI)
  6. Scientist C
  7. Scientist B

Non-faculty ranks

  1. Research associate (postdoctoral fellows)
  2. Senior research fellow (Ph.D students after completing two years of course work and research)
  3. Junior research fellow (Newly joined Ph.D candidates)

Administrative ranks in Universities

  1. Chancellor
  2. Vice Chancellor
  3. Pro Vice Chancellor
  4. Deans / Directors
  5. Chairs / HODs / Wardens

Administrative ranks in Research Institutions

  1. Director General
  2. Director
  3. Chair of Departments / Divisions


Academic ranks There are 4 academic ranks which can be categorized to 9 main levels with one or more rates within each rank.

  1. Asisten Ahli (Associate Lecturer, rates: 100, 150)
  2. Dosen (Lecturer, rates: 200, 300)
  3. Dosen Kepala (Senior Lecturer, rates: 400, 550, 700)
  4. Guru Besar (professor)
    • Guru Besar Madya (Associate Professor) - Rate 850
    • Guru Besar (Professor) - Rate 1050

Administrative ranks (university)


Holders of master's degrees when granted to teach in a college:

Holders of Ph.D. degrees:

Emeritus ranks

Administrative ranks


Holders of master's degrees can be (in ascending order):

Holders of PhD degrees can be (in ascending order):

Note: Holders of PhD degrees are automatically promoted to lecturer if they were assistant lecturers before they received their PhD.



Administrative Ranks:



Tenured or non-tenured faculty[note 1]

The Japanese system includes non-tenure, term-limited, tokunin (特任) positions at all ranks, including professor. These are referred to as ninki tsuki (任期付き) positions and officially include tokunin in the title. Limited tenure track positions (similar to the United States) have recently been introduced ("tenure". 国立研究開発法人 科学技術振興機構. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ). In this system Jokyō (助教) corresponds to assistant professor. A major difference between the United States system and Japan is that granting of tenure and promotion to associate professor are not linked; one may be tenured yet remain and assistant professor. Advancing upward typically requires a higher-level post to be vacated, even in the new tenure-track system.




Administrative positions:

Academic positions:


Academic positions at the Lebanese American University:



At the University of Macau there are nine levels of faculty rank, namely

At the Macau Polytechnic Institute there are three levels


Administrative positions:




The ranking system in most Mexican public universities is as follows

Usually Mexican academics are also fellows of the Sistema Nacional de Investigadores (SNI) that has four levels (candidate, I, II and III) that more or less correlate (but are not equivalent) to the Asociado and Titular A, B, and C professorships. The rank as professor is determined by the individual's institution while the SNI level is determined by an independent committee that evaluates the researchers nationwide. Thus for research institutions a SNI I researcher level would roughly be equivalent to a postdoc or 'assistant professor', a SNI II equivalent to an associate professor and a SNI III equivalent to a full professor.


Often described (in Spanish) as Associate Professor (professor asociado) A, B or C (indicating their level from lower to higher)

Research titles are linked to the Sistema Nacional de Investigadores given by the national research council (Conacyt):

All titles, both professors and researchers, can be given in a:

Administrative academic positions:

New Zealand



Academic Positions

Administrative Positions


Academic Positions

1. Professor Emeritus

2. Associate professor

3. Assistant Professor

4. Lecturer

5. Teaching Assistant

6. Instructor

7. Technical support staff

Administrative Positions



The hiring of academic positions in public universities throughout Pakistan is managed by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, the requirement for all positions vary with respect to the field of studies e.g. Engineering, IT, Medical, Law, and Arts and Design.

There are four faculty ranks lecturer, assistant professor, associate professor, and professor.

In engineering public universities, a lecturer requires a M.Sc. or B.Sc. degree and high academic standing in the field (e.g. gold medallist, among top 15 students of graduating class). An assistance professor position requires a Ph.D. in relevant field and at least two years of teaching/research/professional experience. An associate professorship can be conducted in the fourth year of employment, although, it is becoming more common for promotion and tenure to be awarded in the sixth year of employment. The review requires a certain number 5/8/10 research publications (with at least 1/2/4 publications in the last 5 years) by the calendar years 2007/2008/2012 respectively, in HEC/PEC recognized journals.

A professor requires ten years post-PhD teaching/research experience in an HEC recognized university or a post-graduate institution or professional experience in the relevant field in a national or international organization. It requires a minimum of 8/12/15 research publications (with at least 2/3/5 publications in the last 5 years) by the calendar years 2007/2008/2012 respectively, in HEC/PEC recognized journals


(Ranks reach up to the 12th level at the University of the Philippines)

Dedication rank

Administrative ranks (UP System;National)

Other professors


Research-and-teaching staff (higher rank)

and also for a special purpose:

Teaching staff: (lower rank)

Elected or nominated posts



Administrative ranks

Research-and-teaching staff (higher rank)

and also for a special purpose:

Teaching staff (lower rank)






Honorary ranks


Administrative ranks

Honorary ranks

South Africa

South Korea

Protected job titles (aka tenure positions):

Other positions:


Sri Lanka

The appointment of professors follows the British system and is governed by the University Grants Commission regulations. A points-based system considers contributions to the research field, national development and institutional development. Several types of professorships exist:

Professor positions are clearly separated from other junior faculty positions such as, in seniority order: senior lecturer (grade I) (usually PhD and 6+ years service), senior lecturer (grade II) (usually a PhD and 2+ years service), lecturer (usually with PhD), lecturer (probationary), assistant lecturer.

Administrative ranks


The academic rankings in the Syrian Arab Republic are very similar to the Egyptian ones; see Academic ranks in Egypt for details.


German-language universities

[note 2]

French-language universities



Trinidad and Tobago


Administrative ranks


Academic ranks

Administrative ranks


Academic ranks

Administrative ranks

United Kingdom

United States


Dedication rank

Administrative ranks (public national)

Other professors

Auxiliary and Lab assistants


  1. Japan has been taking steps to make its academic rankings similar to that of America. But whereas only PhDs can acquire the rank of "assistant professor" in the US, in the past many Japanese "assistant professors" and "associate professors" have only masters degrees and do not advance beyond that.
  2. The title of "Oberassistent" is comparable to the German Akademischer Rat, a postdoctoral position that today has mostly been replaced by the position of Juniorprofessur. It is typically non-tenured and does not imply faculty rank (i.e., one would not participate in faculty meetings of professors).


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