Phonetic Symbol Guide

The Phonetic Symbol Guide is a book by Geoffrey Pullum and William Ladusaw that explains the histories and uses of symbols used in various phonetic transcription conventions. It was published in 1986, with a second edition in 1996, by the University of Chicago Press. Symbols include letters and diacritics of the International Phonetic Alphabet and Americanist phonetic notation, though not of the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet. The Guide was consulted by the International Phonetic Association when they established names and numerical codes for the International Phonetic Alphabet[1] and was the basis for the characters of the TIPA set of phonetic fonts.

Rare symbols

The following are not supported by Unicode as of version 8.0,[2] though all are supported by TIPA (see there for characters that are not clear below):

Some typewriter substitutions made by overstriking a Latin letter with a virgule:

Some of the symbols are idiosyncratic proposals by well-known scholars that never caught on:

Ef, thorn, and right-tail hooktop h

Several symbols may be variants of characters that are supported by Unicode:

Several symbols were only mentioned in the 1949 Principles of the International Phonetic Notation as recent suggestions for further improvement and were never adopted:

Many of the symbols were proposed by George Trager to improve the Bloch & Trager system of vowel transcription and other conventions of Americanist notation, but were never adopted:


  1. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, 1999, p. 31, 161.
  2. Updated from
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 4/20/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.