Caland system

The Caland system is a set of rules in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language which describes how certain words, typically adjectives, are derived from one another.[1] It was named after Dutch Indologist Willem Caland, who first formulated part of the system. The cognates derived from these roots in different daughter languages often do not agree in formation, but show certain characteristic properties:[2][3]


1. *h₁le(n)gʷʰ- 'light (in weight)':

2. *h₂erǵ- 'white':

3. *h₁rewdʰ- 'red':

4. *bʰerǵʰ- 'high':

5. *dʰewb- 'deep':


  1. Benjamin W. Fortson (2004). Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 121, 123. ISBN 1-4051-0316-7.
  2. Meier-Brügger, Michael; Fritz, Matthias; Mayrhofer, Manfred (2003). Indo-European Linguistics. Berlin; New York: Walter de Gruyter. W 206. ISBN 3-11-017433-2.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Lowe, John J. (2011). Caland Adjectives and Participles in Sanskrit and Proto-Indo-European (PDF).
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