This article is about the amusement ride. For other uses, see Carousel (disambiguation).
"Merry-go-round" redirects here. For other uses, see Merry-go-round (disambiguation).
French old-fashioned style carousel with stairs in La Rochelle.

A carousel (American English: from French carrousel and Italian carosello), roundabout (British English),[1] or merry-go-round, is an amusement ride consisting of a rotating circular platform with seats for riders. The "seats" are traditionally in the form of rows of wooden horses or other animals mounted on posts, many of which are moved up and down by gears to simulate galloping, to the accompaniment of looped circus music. This leads to one of the alternative American names, the galloper. Other popular names are jumper, horseabout and flying horses.

Carousels are commonly populated with horses, each horse weighing roughly 100 lbs (45 kg), but may include a variety of mounts,[2] for example pigs, zebras, tigers or mythological creatures such as dragons or unicorns. Sometimes, chairlike or bench like seats are used and occasionally mounts can be shaped like aeroplanes or cars.

The "roundabouts" or "merry-go-rounds" installed in playgrounds are usually somewhat different devices: simple, child-powered rotating platforms with bars or handles to which children can cling while riding.


Early carousels

Australian racegoers enjoy a merry-go-round at the Deepwater Races, c. 1910.

The modern carousel emerged from early jousting traditions in Europe and the Middle East. Knights would gallop in a circle while tossing balls from one to another; an activity that required great skill and horsemanship. This game was introduced to Europe at the time of the Crusades from earlier Byzantine and Arab traditions. The word carousel originated from the Italian garosello and Spanish carosella ("little battle", used by crusaders to describe a combat preparation exercise and game played by Turkish and Arabian horsemen in the 12th century).[3] This early device was essentially a cavalry training mechanism; it prepared and strengthened the riders for actual combat as they wielded their swords at the mock enemies.

By the 17th century, the balls had been dispensed with, and instead the riders had to spear small rings that were hanging from poles overhead and rip them off. Cavalry spectacles that replaced medieval jousting, such as the ring-tilt, were popular in Italy and France. The game began to be played by commoners, and carousels soon sprung up at fairgrounds across Europe. At the Place du Carrousel in Paris, an early make believe carousel was set up with wooden horses for the children.[4]

By the early 18th century carousels were being built and operated at various fairs and gatherings in central Europe and England. Animals and mechanisms would be crafted during the winter months and the family and workers would go touring in their wagon train through the region, operating their large menagerie carousel at various venues. Makers included Heyn in Germany and Bayol in France. These early carousels had no platforms; the animals would hang from chains and fly out from the centrifugal force of the spinning mechanism. They were often powered by animals walking in a circle or people pulling a rope or cranking.

Direction of rotation

In the United Kingdom, merry-go-rounds usually turn clockwise, while in North America and Mainland Europe, carousels typically go anticlockwise as viewed from above.[5]

Modern carousels

By the mid-19th century the platform carousel was developed; the animals and chariots were fixed to a circular floor that would suspend from a centre pole and rotate around. These carousels were called dobbies and were operated manually by the operator or by ponies.

In mid-19th century England, the carousel became a popular fixture at fairs. The first steam-powered mechanical roundabout, invented by Thomas Bradshaw, appeared at the Aylsham Fair in about 1861. It was described by a Halifax Courier journalist as:

a roundabout of huge proportions, driven by a steam engine which whirled around with such impetuousity, that the wonder is the daring riders are not shot off like cannon- ball, and driven half into the middle of next month.[6]
Savage's amusement ride, Sea-On-Land, where the riders would pitch up and down as if they were on the sea.

Soon afterwards, the engineer Frederick Savage began to branch out of agricultural machinery production into the construction of fairground machines, swiftly becoming the chief innovator in the field. By 1870, he was manufacturing carousels with Velocipedes (an early type of bicycle) and he soon began experimenting with other possibilities, including a roundabout with boats that would pitch and roll on cranks with a circular motion, a ride he called 'Sea-on-Land'.[7]

He soon applied a similar innovation to the more traditional mount of the horse; he installed gears and offset cranks on the platform carousels, thus giving the animals their well-known up-and-down motion as they travelled around the centre pole. The platform served as a position guide for the bottom of the pole and as a place for people to walk or other stationary animals or chariots to be placed. He called this ride the 'Platform Gallopers' . He also developed the 'platform-slide' which allowed the mounts to swing out concentrically as the carousel built up speed. Fairground organs (band organs) were often present (if not built in) when these machines operated. Eventually electric motors were installed and electric lights added, giving the carousel its classic look.

These mechanical innovations came at a crucial time, when increased prosperity meant that more people had time for leisure and spare money to spend on entertainment. It was in this historical context that the modern fairground ride was born,[8] with Savage supplying this new market demand. In his 1902 Catalogue for Roundabouts he claimed to have

...patented and placed upon the market all the principal novelties that have delighted the many thousands of pleasure seekers at home and abroad.[9]
Carousel built in 1905 by Gustav Dentzel which is still operational in Rochester, New York.
A 1909 horse by Marcus Illions in the Coney Island style.

In the United States, the carousel industry was developed by immigrants, notably Gustav Dentzel of Germany and Dare from England, from the late 19th century. Several centers and styles for the construction of carousels emerged in the United States: Coney Island style – characterized by elaborate, and sometimes faux-jeweled, saddles[10] – with Charles I. D. Looff; Philadelphia style – known for more realistically painted saddles – with Dentzel and the Philadelphia Toboggan Company; and Country Fair style – often with no saddles at all – with Allan Herschell and Edward Spillman of western New York, and Charles W. Parker of Kansas. The golden age of the carousel in America was the early 20th century, with large machines and elaborate animals, chariots, and decorations being built.

Similar uses of the term "carousel"

Manually powered carousel on a playground in Germany.

On some playgrounds, small manually powered carousels exist.

At airports, rotating conveyors in the baggage claim area are often called luggage carousels.[11]

Various photographic slide projectors, notably those made by Kodak until 2004, used rotating trays or magazines called carousels to hold the slides and were often known as "carousel projectors."

Antique & notable carousels




A carousel in Bunkyo, Japan.







Unique and record breaking

Media references

The classic film The Sting features a large indoor carrousel adjacent a brothel, where the Madame allows the girls to ride on slow nights. "Carousel"(song) by Melanie Martinez


See also


  1. Chambers Dictionary
  2. International Museum of Carousel Art. "A Brief History of the Carousel". Retrieved 2008-07-24.
  3. "A Brief History of the Carousel".
  4. "Merry-go-rounds".
  5. "Introduction To Carousel Art: American Antiques - American folk art - carousel horse".
  6. "Fairground Rides - A Chronological Development". University of Sheffield. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011.
  7. "Swings and Roundabouts".
  8. "Fair History".
  9. "Frederick Savage, Victorian Fairground Manufacturer of King's Lynn".
  10. Antiques Roadshow, Spokane, Washington, broadcast 4 August 2007.
  11. "Definition of CAROUSEL".
  12. "National Carousel Association - Moved!".
  13. "National Historic Landmarks Program (NHL)". 1987-02-27. Retrieved 2014-06-26.
  14. "EXPO 67: THEN AND NOW - Tourisme Montréal Blog". 2012-05-09. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
  15. Hustak, Alan (May 4, 2007). "Spirit of Drapeau makes appearance to launch La Ronde's 40th season". The Gazette.
  16. "Carters Steam Fair :: Jubilee Steam Gallopers". Retrieved 2015-12-07.
  17. Kathleen LaFrank (January 2004). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Forest Park Carousel". New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Retrieved 2011-01-16. See also: "Accompanying 35 photos".
  18. National Park Service (2009-03-13). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  19. "Dentzel Menagerie Carousel". Retrieved 2016-07-17.
  20. "Lakeside Park Carousel - St. Catharines". Retrieved 2014-06-26.
  21. "".
  22. Seifert, Jeffrey (November 2011), "Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk's Looff Carousel celebrates 100 years", Amusement Today, 15 (8.2): 1–7
  23. "National Register of Historic Places in Contra Costa County". Retrieved 3 January 2013.
  24. "Census of Classic Wood Carousels". National Carousel Association. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
  25. "Historic Nunley's Carousel at Museum Row". Retrieved 3 January 2013.
  26. "Cafesjians Carousel--Welcome".
  27. Carousel History page that is no longer available at, but is archived at
  28. James H. Charleton (November 2, 1984). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Looff's Hippodrome / Santa Monica Amusement Pier Carousel Building" (pdf). National Park Service. and Accompanying 1 photo, from 1985. (397 KB)
  29. 1 2 "The Museum's Exhibits". Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  30. Jacques, Charles Jr. (1982). Kennywood...Roller Coaster Capital of the World. Vestal, New York: The Vestal Press Ltd. pp. 174–177. ISBN 0-911572-24-4.
  31. "Antique Carousel | Canada's Wonderland". Retrieved 2016-08-10.
  32. "CWMania • Ride Info - Antique Carrousel". Retrieved 2016-08-10.
  33. "Casey Jr. Circus Train".
  34. "Another go-round: Harper family carousel closed for restoration". Retrieved 2016-08-11.
  35. "Preston & Barbieri: Best rides ever!".
  36., Dentzel Carousel.
  37. "California Carousel". Roadside Retrieved 3 January 2013.
  38. "Gallery 2: Cloud Room". Retrieved 3 January 2013.
  39. Moschke, Will (2011). "35 Years at the Great America Parks". RollerCoaster! Magazine. 32 (4): 6. ISSN 0896-7261.
  40. Archived 1 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  41. "Markham to open $10M scrap-metal carousel on Canada Day | Toronto Star". Retrieved 2016-08-15.
  42. "Pride of Canada Carousel Spins Up in Downtown Markham | Urban Toronto". Retrieved 2016-08-15.
  43. "Pride of Canada Carousel - Carousel | Downtown Markham". Retrieved 2016-08-15.
  44. Chan, Casey. "Crazy people chainsawed a frozen lake to make a spinning ice carousel". Gizmodo. Gawker Media. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  45. "The Carousel - Penguin Books Australia".

External links

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