In linguistics, a desiderative (abbreviated DESI or DES) form is one that has the meaning of "wanting to X". Desiderative forms are often verbs, derived from a more basic verb through a process of morphological derivation.
In Sanskrit, the desiderative is formed through the suffixing of /sa/ and the prefixing of a reduplicative syllable, consisting of the first consonant of the root (sometimes modified) and a vowel, usually /i/ but /u/ if the root has an /u/ in it. Changes to the root vowel sometimes happen, as well.
|nayati||"he leads"||nínīṣati||"he wants to lead"|
|pibāti||"he drinks"||pípāsati||"he wants to drink"|
|jīvati||"he lives"||jíjīviṣati||"he wants to live"|
In Meadow Mari, the desiderative mood is marked by the suffix -не -ne.
|Person||1st Dec. pos.||2nd Dec. pos.|
|1st Singular||лекнем2 (I want to go)||мондынем (I want to forget)|
|2nd Singular||лекнет2 (You want to go)||мондынет (You want to forget)|
|3rd Singular||лекнеже2 (He/she/it wants to go)||мондынеже (He/she/it wants to forget)|
|1st Plural||лекнена2 (We want to go)||мондынена (We want to forget)|
|2nd Plural||лекнеда2 (You want to go)||мондынеда (You want to forget)|
|3rd Plural||лекнешт2 (They want to go)||мондынешт (They want to forget)|
|Person||1st Dec. neg.||2nd Dec. neg.|
|1st Singular||ынем лек2 (I don't want to go)||ынем мондо1 (I don't want to forget)|
|2nd Singular||ынет лек2 (You don't want to go)||ынет мондо1 (You don't want to forget)|
|3rd Singular||ынеже лек2 (He/she/it doesn't want to go)||ынеже мондо1 (He/she/it doesn't want to forget)|
|1st Plural||ынена лек2 (We don't want to go)||ынена мондо1 (We don't want to forget)|
|2nd Plural||ынеда лек2 (You don't want to go)||ынеда мондо1 (You don't want to forget)|
|3rd Plural||ынешт лек2 (They don't want to go)||ынешт мондо1 (They don't want to forget)|
In Japanese, the desiderative takes two main forms: -tai (-たい) and -tagaru (-たがる). Both forms conjugate for tense and positivity, but in different ways: with the -tai ending, the verb becomes an -i adjective, or a conjugable adjective, while the ending -tagaru creates a godan/yodan verb. Though there are other, compound forms to demonstrate wanting, these two alone are demonstrated because they are inflections of the main verb. These two forms are plain/informal in nature, and can be elevated to the normal-polite and other levels through normal methods.
-tai is an absolute statement of desire, whereas -tagaru indicates the appearance of desire. Generally, one does not say things such as 太郎さんが食べたい Tarō wants to eat because one cannot read Tarō's thoughts; instead, one says 太郎さんが食べたがる it appears that Tarō wants to eat.
|Non-past Positive|| 書きたい
|want(s) to write|
|Non-past Negative|| 書きたくない
|don't/doesn't want to write|
|Past Positive|| 書きたかった
|wanted to write|
|Past Negative|| 書きたくなかった
|didn't want to write|
|Non-past Positive|| 食べたい
|wants to eat|
|Non-past Negative|| 食べたくない
|don't/doesn't want to eat|
|Past Positive|| 食べたかった
|wanted to eat|
|Past Negative|| 食べたくなかった
|didn't want to eat|
- Fortson IV, Benjamin W. (2004), Indo-European Language and Culture, Blackwell Publishing, p. 91, ISBN 1-4051-0316-7