List of Orthodox churches
Orthodox Churches (those that use the word "Orthodox" in the name) belong mainly to two groups, Eastern Orthodoxy and Oriental Orthodoxy. Apart from these two groups, some other quite unconnected Churches in the West also call themselves Orthodox. An example is the Celtic Orthodox Church.
The various autocephalous and autonomous synods of the Orthodox Church are distinct in terms of administration and local culture, but for the most part exist in full communion with one another. Presently, there are two communions that reject each other and in addition - some schismatic churches not in any communion, all three groups identifying as Eastern Orthodox. The main traditional historical communion are referred to as New Calendarists, who use a Revised Julian Calendar for calculating the feasts of the ecclesiastical year, another group are referred to as True Orthodoxy(also Old Calendarists), they are those who separated from the mainstream, have continued to use the old Julian Calendar claiming that the Calendar reform in 1920s is in contravention of the Ecumenical Councils. Similarly, another group called Old Believers, separated in 1666 from the official Russian Orthodox Church as a protest against church rite reforms introduced by Patriarch Nikon of Moscow. As Eastern Orthodox Christianity is both collegial and local in structure, there is no single organization called the "True Orthodox Church" nor is there official recognition among the "True Orthodox" as to who is properly included among them. While some unions have taken place even up to the present, the majority of True Orthodox are only secondarily concerned with reunion as opposed to preservation of Eastern Orthodox teaching.. The calendar question reflects the dispute between those who wish to synchronize with the modern Gregorian calendar, which its opponents consider unnecessary and damaging to continuity, and those who wish to maintain the traditional ecclesiastical calendar (which happens to be based on the Julian calendar), arguing that such a modern change goes against 1900 years of Church tradition and was in fact perpetrated without an ecumenical council, which would surely have rejected the idea.
Eastern Orthodox Churches in full communion
The Orthodox Church is a communion of 14 autocephalous (that is, administratively completely independent) regional churches, plus the Orthodox Church in America, which is recognized as autocephalous only by the Russian, Bulgarian, Georgian, Polish, the Czech-Slovak churches. Each has defined geographical boundaries of its jurisdiction and is ruled by its Council of Bishops or Synod presided by a senior bishop – its Primate (or First Hierarch). The Primate may carry the honorary title of Patriarch, Metropolitan (in the Slavic tradition) or Archbishop (in the Greek tradition).
Each regional church consists of constituent eparchies (or, dioceses) ruled by a bishop. Some churches have given an eparchy or group of eparchies varying degrees of autonomy (self-government). Such autonomous churches maintain varying levels of dependence on their mother church, usually defined in a Tomos or other document of autonomy.
Below is a list of the 14 (or 15) autocephalous Orthodox churches, all of which are titled equal to each other, while the Ecumenical Patriarchate is titled first among equals. The list is in their order of precedence (the "canonical order", used internally by the Orthodox Church when listing its component parts), with constituent autonomous churches and exarchates listed below their mother church. The liturgical title of the Primate is listed in italics.
- Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Archbishop of Constantinople-New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch)
- Autonomous Orthodox Church of Finland (Archbishop of Karelia and All Finland)
- Self-governing Orthodox Church of Crete (Archbishop of Crete)
- Self-governing Orthodox Church of Korea (Metropolitan of Seoul and all Korea)
- Self-governing Monastic Community of Mount Athos
- Exarchate of Patmos (Patriarchal Exarch of Patmos)
- Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain (Archbishop of Thyateira and Great Britain)
- Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Italy and Malta (Orthodox Archbishop of Italy and Malta and Exarch of Southern Europe)
- Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (Archbishop of America)
- Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia (Archbishop of Australia)
- Exarchate of the Philippines (Exarch of Philippines)
- Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe (Archbishop of Komana)
- Patriarchate of Alexandria (His Most Divine Beatitude the Pope and Patriarch of the Great City of Alexandria, Libya, Pentapolis, Ethiopia, all the land of Egypt, and all Africa, Father of Fathers, Shepherd of Shepherds, Prelate of Prelates, Thirteenth of the Apostles, and Judge of the Œcumene)
- Patriarchate of Antioch (Patriarch of Antioch and all the East)
- Self-governing Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America (Archbishop of New York and Metropolitan of All North America)
- Patriarchate of Jerusalem (Patriarch of the Holy City of Jerusalem and all Palestine, and of Syria, Arabia, beyond the Jordan River, Cana of Galilee, and Sacred Zion)
- Autonomous Church of Mount Sinai (Archbishop of Choreb, Sinai, and Raitha)
- Patriarchate of Russia (Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia)
- Autonomous Orthodox Church of Japan (Archbishop of Tokyo and Metropolitan of All Japan)
- Autonomous Orthodox Church of China (defunct)
- Self-governing Orthodox Church of Ukraine (Metropolitan of Kiev and all Ukraine)
- Self-governing Orthodox Church of Moldova (Metropolitan of Chisinau and all Moldova)
- Self-governing Orthodox Church of Latvia (Metropolitan of Riga and all Latvia)
- Self-governing Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Metropolitan of Eastern America and New York, First Hierarch of the Russian church abroad)
- Exarchate of Belarus (Metropolitan of Minsk and Slutsk, Patriarchal Exarch of All Belarus)
- Serbian Patriarchate (Archbishop of Peć, Metropolitan of Belgrade and Karlovci, and Serbian Patriarch)
- Autonomous Orthodox Ohrid Archbishopric (Archbishop of Ohrid and Metropolitan of Skopje)
- Patriarchate of Romania (Archbishop of Bucharest, Metropolitan of Ungro-Valachia, and Patriarch of All Romania)
- Patriarchate of Bulgaria (Metropolitan of Sofia and Patriarch of All Bulgaria)
- Patriarchate of Georgia (Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia, the Archbishop of Mtskheta-Tbilisi and Metropolitan bishop of Abkhazia and Pitsunda.)
- Orthodox Church of Cyprus (Archbishop of New Justiniana and all Cyprus)
- Orthodox Church of Greece (Archbishop of Athens and all Greece)
- Orthodox Church of Poland (Metropolitan of Warsaw and all Poland)
- Orthodox Church of Albania (Archbishop of Tirana and all Albania)
- Orthodox Church of the Czech lands and Slovakia (Archbishop of Prague, the Metropolitan of Czech lands and Slovakia or the Archbishop of Presov, the Metropolitan of Czech lands and Slovakia)
- Orthodox Church in America (Archbishop of Washington, Metropolitan of All America and Canada)
There are unresolved internal issues as to the autonomous or autocephalous status of the following Orthodox churches:
- Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church (Metropolitan of Tallinn and all Estonia) — Autonomy is recognized only by the Ecumenical Patriarchate, opposed only by the Russian Orthodox Church.
- Estonian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) (Metropolitan of Tallinn and all Estonia) — Autonomy not recognized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate
- Self-governing Metropolis of Bessarabia, autonomy is objected by the Russian Orthodox Church
True Orthodoxy separated from the mainstream communion over issues of Ecumenism and Calendar reform since the 1920s. The movement reject the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, the Moscow Patriarchate, and those Churches in communion with them, accusing them of heresy and placing themselves under bishops who do the same. They have continued to using of the old Julian Calendar since Antiquity, claiming that the Calendar reform in 1920s is in contravention of the Ecumenical Councils. True Orthodox writers have argued that in missionary areas such as the United States, Orthodox membership numbers may be overstated, with the comparative number of True Orthodox as up to 15% of the Orthodox population. In Russia, it has been claimed by some clergymen that up to a million Russians may be True Orthodox of different jurisdictions, though the total number is often cited at 1.7-2 million together.
Communion of True Orthodoxy:
- Autonomous Orthodox Metropolia of North and South America and the British Isles
- Churches Descending from the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia
- Greek Old Calendarists
- Old Calendar Bulgarian Orthodox Church
- Old Calendar Romanian Orthodox Church
- Russian Orthodox Autonomous Church
- Serbian True Orthodox Church
- Eparchy of Raška-Prizren in Exile, headed by Bishop Artemije
Old Believers are groups that do not accept liturgical reforms carried out in the Russian Orthodox Church by Patriarch Nikon in the 17th century. Although all Old Believers groups emerged as a result of opposition to the Nikonian reform, they do not constitute a single monolithic body. Despite the emphasis on invariable adherence to the pre-Nikonian traditions, the Old Believers feature a great diversity of groups that profess different interpretations of the church tradition and often are not in communion with each other (some groups even practise re-baptism before admitting a member of another group into their midst).
- Russian Orthodox Old-Rite Church (Belokrinitskaya Hierarchy)
- Lipovan Orthodox Old-Rite Church (Belokrinitskaya Hierarchy)
- Russian Old-Orthodox Church (Novozybkovskaya Hierarchy)
- Pomorian Old-Orthodox Church (Pomortsy)
Churches with irregular or unresolved canonical status are entities that have carried out episcopal consecrations outside of the norms of canon law or whose bishops have been excommunicated by one of the 14 (or 15) autocephalous churches. These include nationalist and other schisms, and some of them form other communions:
- Abkhazian Orthodox Church
- Belarusian Autocephalous Orthodox Church
- Croatian Orthodox Church
- Bulgarian Alternative Synod
- Holy Orthodox Church in North America
- Macedonian Orthodox Church - The Church proclaimed independence (autocephaly) in 1967, but this is objected by the Serbian Orthodox Church as a schism. Though officially unrecognised by the other churches in the communion, the Macedonian Orthodox Church de facto communicates with many of the churches, a hymnographer from the Ecumenical Patriarchate wrote a liturgy for a canonization of matures in the Macedonian Church and a delegate from the Patriarchate was sent on a funeral of a Macedonian president where they met with representatives of the Macedonian Church; the Macedonian Church engaged in exchange of relics with the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, representatives of both churches met in official conferences and at the Bulgarian patriarch's funeral, they celebrated a holiday together as well, where even Bulgarian representatives expressed love for the Macedonian Church's dellegate as for brothers; the leading archbishop of the Church of Greece met with some Macedonians; together the patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church and a Macedonian priest participated in a chirotony, the Macedonian and Romanian churches exchanged relics as well.
- Montenegrin Orthodox Church
- Orthodox Church in Italy
- Orthodox Church of Greece (Holy Synod in Resistance)
- Russian True Orthodox Church
- Turkish Orthodox Church
- Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Kiev Patriarchate)
- Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church
- Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church Canonical
- Oriental Orthodox Churches (in full communion)
- Armenian Apostolic Church
- Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
- Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch
- Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church
- Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church
- Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church
- Oriental Orthodox Church (not in communion)
Map of Orthodox Churches in Full Communion (Europe and Middle East)
Some small churches in the West use the word "Orthodox" in their titles but are quite distinct from these two families of churches. Examples include the African Orthodox Church and the Celtic Orthodox Church.
- Eastern Christianity
- Ecumenical council
- List of Christian denominations
- List of Christian denominations by number of members
- Autocephaly was granted in 1970 from its mother church, the Russian Orthodox Church. The Orthodox Church in America is in full communion with all other canonical Orthodox Churches and is de facto recognized as the 15th church within the communion. However, while recognizing the OCA as fully Orthodox, the Ecumenical Patriarchate (and others) dispute the Russian Orthodox Church's action of granting autocephaly. There are no Orthodox Canons stating who can or cannot grant autocephaly.
- "The Oriental Orthodox churches, along with those of the Byzantine tradition or Eastern Orthodox, belong to the larger family of the Orthodox churches. The two groups are not in communion with each other" Orthodox churches (Oriental)
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- John Binns: An Introduction to the Christian Orthodox Churches (Cambridge University Press, 2005 ISBN 978-0-521-66738-8)
- Orthodox Christianity - Orthodoxy on the Web