Rose Bowl Game

Rose Bowl Game
Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual[1]
"The Granddaddy of Them All"
Stadium Rose Bowl
Location Pasadena, California
Previous stadiums Tournament Park
(1902, 1916–1922)
Duke Stadium[lower-alpha 1]
Previous locations Durham, North Carolina[lower-alpha 1]
Operated 1902, 1916–present
Conference tie-ins Big Ten, Pac-12, CFP
Previous conference tie-ins Pacific Coast, BCS
Payout US$35 million/conference (As of 2016)[2]
Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association (1902, 1916–1998)
AT&T (1999–2002)
Sony/PlayStation 2 (2003)
Citi (2004–2010)
Vizio (2011–2014)
Northwestern Mutual (2015–2020)
Former names
Tournament East–West football game (1902, 1916–1922)
Rose Bowl (1923–1998)
Rose Bowl presented by AT&T (1999–2002)
Rose Bowl presented by PlayStation 2 (2003)
Rose Bowl presented by Citi (2004–2010)
Rose Bowl presented by Vizio (2011–2014)
2016 matchup
Stanford vs. Iowa (Stanford 45–16)

The Rose Bowl Game is an annual American college football bowl game, usually played on January 1 (New Year's Day) at the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California. When New Year's Day falls on a Sunday, the game is played on Monday, January 2 (14 times now). The Rose Bowl is nicknamed "The Granddaddy of Them All" because it is the oldest bowl game. It was first played in 1902, and has been played annually since 1916. Since 1945, it has been the highest attended college football bowl game.[3] It is a part of the Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association's "America's New Year Celebration," which also includes the historic Rose Parade.

Beginning with the 2015 game, the official name for sponsorship reasons is the "Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual". Vizio was the previous sponsor from 2012; prior sponsors included AT&T, Sony, and Citi. In 2015, the game was also officially known as the "College Football Playoff semifinal at the Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual."

The Rose Bowl Game has traditionally hosted the conference champions from the Big Ten and Pac-12 conferences (or their predecessors), but due to its past and present membership in two consortiums that seek to determine a national champion in Division I FBS, in 2002, the Rose Bowl began to infrequently deviate from its traditional match-up in order to facilitate championship games. In 2002 and 2006 (2001 and 2005 football seasons), under the Bowl Championship Series system, the Rose Bowl was designated as its championship game, and hosted the top two teams determined by the BCS system. Beginning in 2015, the Rose Bowl has been part of the College Football Playoff system and hosts one of its semi-final games every three years. During non-Playoff years, the Rose Bowl reverts to a Pac-12/Big Ten matchup.


Originally titled the "Tournament East–West football game",[4] the first Rose Bowl was played on January 1, 1902, starting the tradition of New Year's Day bowl games. The football game was added in 1902 to help fund the cost of the Rose Parade.[5] The inaugural game featured Fielding H. Yost's dominating 1901 Michigan team, representing the East, which crushed a previously 3-1-2 team from Stanford University, representing the West, by a score of 49–0 after Stanford quit in the third quarter. Michigan finished the season 11–0 and was crowned the national champion. Yost had been Stanford's coach the previous year. The game was so lopsided that for the next 13 years, the Tournament of Roses officials ran chariot races, ostrich races, and other various events instead of football.[6] But, on New Year's Day 1916 football returned to stay as The State College of Washington (now Washington State University) defeated Brown University in the first annual Rose Bowl with that explicit name.

Tournament Park and Rose Bowl stadium

Before the Rose Bowl was built for the January 1, 1923 match, games were played in Pasadena's Tournament Park, approximately three miles southeast of the current Rose Bowl stadium near the campus of Caltech. Tournament Park was determined to be unsuitable for the larger and larger crowds gathering to watch the game and a new, permanent home for the game was commissioned.

The Rose Bowl stadium, designed after the Yale Bowl in New Haven, then hosted the first "Rose Bowl" game in 1923. The name of the stadium was alternatively "Tournament of Roses Stadium" or "Tournament of Roses Bowl", until the name "Rose Bowl" was settled on before the 1923 Rose Bowl game.[7]

The stadium seating has been reconfigured several times since its original construction in 1922. For many years, the Rose Bowl stadium had the largest football stadium capacity in the United States, eventually being surpassed by Michigan Stadium in 1998.[8][9] The maximum stated seating capacity was 104,594 from 1972 to 1997. Capacity was lowered following the 1998 Rose Bowl. The 2006 Rose Bowl game, which was also the BCS championship game, had a crowd of 93,986; and a crowd of 94,118 saw the 2011 Rose Bowl game between TCU and Wisconsin.[10] As of 2012, the Rose Bowl is number seven on the List of American football stadiums by capacity with a current official seating capacity of 92,542 and is still the largest stadium that hosts post-season bowl games.[11] The Rose Bowl is also the only BCS bowl game that is held in a non-NFL stadium.

Team selection 1916–1946

In the game’s early years, except during World War I, the Rose Bowl always pitted a team—not necessarily the conference champion—from the Pacific Coast Conference (PCC), the predecessor of the current Pac-12 Conference, against an opponent from the Eastern U.S. During the last two years of World War I, teams from military bases met in the Rose Bowl. During its history, a number of notable matchups have been made with the top football teams and top coaches of the time. These include the 1925 Rose Bowl, featuring Knute Rockne's Notre Dame team, featuring the Four Horsemen, against "Pop" Warner's Stanford team; the 1926 Rose Bowl, featuring Alabama Crimson Tide’s win over Washington; and the 1940 Rose Bowl, featuring Howard Jones' USC Trojans against Bob Neyland's Tennessee Volunteers. During this period, there were ten games in which undefeated teams were matched.

1942 venue change to Durham, North Carolina

See also: 1942 Rose Bowl

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and a series of attacks on West Coast shipping beginning on December 18, 1941,[12] there were concerns about a possible Japanese attack on the West Coast. The Rose Parade, with a million watchers, and the Rose Bowl, with 90,000 spectators, were presumed to be ideal targets for the Japanese. Lieutenant General John L. DeWitt recommended that the Rose Parade and Rose Bowl festivities be canceled.[13][14][15] The Rose Bowl committee originally planned to cancel the game. On December 16, 1941, Duke University invited the game and Oregon State to Duke's home stadium in Durham, North Carolina.[16][17]

Big Nine–PCC agreement

During World War II, many college football schools had dropped some conference opponents and instead played football against local military base teams. Many colleges could not even field teams due to the draft and manpower requirements.[18] After the war was over, demobilization and the G.I. Bill enabled returning servicemen to attend college. The 1946 season was the first true post-war college football season with travel restrictions lifted and civilian college opponents returning to schedules.

The Big Nine and PCC were of the same accord when it came to treating players as amateurs, as compared to the semi-professional status that the Southern Universities proposed [citation needed. Latter citation addressees racial inequities, not amateurism evidence supported by any fact] Also, the Big Nine and PCC both had the same attitudes towards desegregation and allowing African-Americans to play football.[19] Many other universities were still segregated. None of the Southeastern Conference schools had an African American athlete until 1966. The Cotton Bowl, Orange Bowl, and Sugar Bowl would not be integrated until 1948, 1955, and 1956 respectively.[20]

The Big Nine agreed, after eight years of negotiating over payments, rules, and ticket allocations, to a five-year exclusive deal with the Rose Bowl to send the conference champion to meet the PCC conference champion.[21] UCLA, USC, Minnesota and Illinois all voted against it.[22]

Big Ten–AAWU/Pac-8/10 agreement

When the PCC dissolved prior to the 1959 season following a pay-for-play scandal in 1958, there was no official agreement in force. The Tournament of Roses selected from the former members of PCC and invited Washington, the first champion of the newly formed Athletic Association of Western Universities (AAWU), to play Big Ten champion Wisconsin in the 1960 Rose Bowl. The Big Ten authorized its members to accept any Rose Bowl invitation at their discretion.

The AAWU signed an agreement with the Rose Bowl that remained in force from the 1961 Rose Bowl until the advent of the BCS era in 1998. In 1962, after Minnesota changed its vote against pursuing a new agreement (resolving a 5–5 voting deadlock which had prevented any new negotiations for years), a Big Ten agreement was finalized, which went into effect with the 1963 Rose Bowl and lasted until the BCS era.

While the Big Ten supplied the "East" representative and the PCC, AAWU, or Pac-8/10 supplied the "West" representative from the 1947 Rose Bowl to the BCS era, statements about an "exclusive" Rose Bowl agreement existing during this period are not entirely accurate: the Big Ten was not part of any agreement for the 1961 and 1962 games and the status of the agreement for 1960 is questionable, at best. The fact that the 1961 Big Ten champion, Ohio State, declined the invitation to play in the 1962 Rose Bowl (without penalty) is the clearest evidence that this "exclusive agreement" did not exist in these years.

The AAWU used "Big Five", "Big Six", and "Pacific-8" as unofficial nicknames (each reflecting the number of conference members). It officially adopted the "Pacific-8" name for the 1968 season. The name changed to "Pacific-10" with the arrival of Arizona and Arizona State in 1978, its last official name change prior to the formation of the BCS in 1998. The Big Ten Conference retained the same name throughout this period, even though it had eleven members by the start of the BCS era due to the addition of Penn State in 1990.

Both conferences had a "no repeat" rule in force for a number of years. Under this rule, any team that had appeared in the Rose Bowl game the previous season could not go, even if they were the conference champion. The notable exceptions to this rule were Washington playing in the 1960 and 1961 games and Minnesota playing in the 1961 and 1962 games during the period when the conference agreements were in a state of flux. The Big Ten abolished this rule in 1972. The AAWU/Pac-8 had abandoned its no-repeat rule by the time Southern California played in four consecutive Rose Bowl games from 1967 to 1970.

Both conferences also had "exclusive agreements" with the Rose Bowl game, in the sense that member schools were not allowed to play in any other bowl game. Both conferences abolished this rule before the 1975 college football season. As a result, Michigan and USC were allowed to play in the 1976 Orange Bowl and the 1975 Liberty Bowl, respectively.

Bowl Championship Series

The Rose Bowl with the banners for the Rose Bowl Game (the right scoreboard has been removed during the 2011 renovation)
Stanford defeated Wisconsin 20–14 in the 2013 Rose Bowl on January 1, 2013

As of the 1998 season, with the creation of the Bowl Championship Series (BCS), team selection for the Rose Bowl was tied to the other three BCS bowls, although in any given year the Rose Bowl still attempted, if possible, to maintain the traditional Pac-10 (Pac-12 after the addition of Utah and Colorado in 2011) versus Big Ten format. Twice in this era, the Rose Bowl had served as the BCS championship game.

The 2002 game served as the BCS championship game between the BCS No. 1 ranked Miami, then a member of the Big East Conference, and the BCS No. 2 ranked Nebraska, then a member of the Big 12 Conference. The Nebraska selection as the BCS No. 2 team was controversial because Oregon was ranked No. 2 in both the AP and Coaches Polls, while Nebraska was ranked No. 4 in both polls and did not play in its conference championship game (No. 3 Colorado, who would play Oregon in that year's Fiesta Bowl, did and won the Big 12's automatic bid to the BCS). This prevented a West Coast team playing in the Rose Bowl for their first time, and it also marked the first match up since 1946 to not feature the traditional pairing of Pac-10 vs. Big Ten teams.

The 2006 Rose Bowl game featured offensive powerhouses Texas, riding a 19-game winning streak, and USC, which entered the game with a 34-game winning streak and two Heisman Trophy winners. Texas won 41–38. The game had a television viewership of 35.6 million,[23] the highest for college football contest since the 1987 Fiesta Bowl between Penn State and Miami.

On two other occasions during the BCS era, Rose Bowl participation had expanded beyond the Big Ten and Pac-10. The 2003 Rose Bowl couldn't select Big Ten co-champion and automatic qualifier Ohio State, who finished No. 2 in the BCS and thus received a bid to the Fiesta Bowl to play for the national championship. The Rose Bowl was poised to select Big Ten co-champion Iowa as an at-large in order to preserve the traditional Big Ten/Pac-10 match up. However, the Orange Bowl, which selected ahead of the Rose Bowl that year, chose the Hawkeyes. As a result, the Rose Bowl featured the first appearance by Oklahoma, who faced Pac-10 Champion Washington State. The 2005 game featured Texas of the Big 12 Conference, selected, amid some controversy, over California of the Pac-10, marking the second time a West Coast team did not make the Rose Bowl. The controversy was the result of the BCS computer rankings which elevated Texas over California. Texas went on to defeat Michigan in the 2005 game, featuring a four-touchdown performance by Vince Young, foreshadowing his 467-yard performance a year later in the 2006 defeat of USC that won the National Title for Texas.

The 2004 game is also noteworthy. In this game, USC defeated Michigan, 28–14, thus earning the top ranking in the AP Poll and a share of the national championship with BCS champion LSU. USC, despite being No. 1 in the AP poll, did not qualify for the BCS championship game because of their standing in the BCS system.

The second BCS-era Rose Bowl arrangement ran from 2004 through 2014. The Big Ten and Pac-12 (the new name of the Pac-10) retained their bids, but a provision was inserted mandating that the first time that either conference could not fill their bid (due to a school from the Big Ten or Pac-12 qualifying for the BCS National Championship Game), and if a non-BCS conference school qualified, the Rose Bowl was required to take that school.[24] As a result, Texas Christian University (TCU) became the first team from a non-automatic qualifying conference to play in the Rose Bowl in the BCS era. The 2010 TCU Horned Frogs finished their second consecutive regular season at 12–0, were back-to-back champions of the Mountain West Conference, and ranked No. 3 in the final BCS Poll. TCU defeated No. 5 Wisconsin 21–19 in the 2011 Rose Bowl. TCU's appearance satisfied the 'first time' clause of the current agreement.

The 100th Rose Bowl Game featured a traditional pairing of Big Ten champion versus Pac-12 champion, with Michigan State playing against Stanford on January 1, 2014. Michigan State won the game, 24–20.

The Bowl Championship Series format ended with the 2014 BCS National Championship Game, played at the Rose Bowl stadium on January 6.

College Football Playoff

The BCS was replaced in 2014 by the College Football Playoff, which selects four teams for two national semifinal games, leading to a championship game. As part of the arrangement, the Rose Bowl game functions as a semifinal playoff game every three years. In years when the Rose Bowl is not hosting a semifinal, it takes the Pac-12 and Big Ten champions, provided they are outside of the top four and not in a semifinal.

The first game under the new arrangement was played on January 1, 2015 and was known as the College Football Playoff semifinal at the Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual. It featured the Oregon Ducks of the Pac-12 Conference and the Florida State Seminoles, the first Atlantic Coast Conference team to participate in the Rose Bowl. Oregon defeated Florida State, 59–20, ending the Seminoles' 29 game-winning streak, which dated back to the end of the 2012 season. As a result, Oregon advanced to the 2015 College Football Playoff National Championship played on January 12. The 59 points were a new Rose Bowl scoring record.

The 2016 Rose Bowl featured Pac-12 champions Stanford against Big Ten West Division champions Iowa. Stanford defeated Iowa 45–16, scoring 35 points in the first half, the most points ever scored in the first half of a Rose Bowl. Big Ten champions Michigan State defeated Iowa 16–13 in the Big Ten championship Game, but lost 0–38 to Alabama in a CFP semifinal on New Year's Eve. There was some controversy over the selection of the Big Ten's Rose Bowl representative, given that both Iowa and Ohio State finished their seasons with only one loss, both losing to Michigan State. In the end, the College Football Playoff Committee ranked Iowa ahead of Ohio State, which led to Iowa's first Rose Bowl berth since 1991.[25][26] Iowa was ranked fifth in the final College Football Playoff rankings, and Stanford sixth, meaning that the 2016 Rose Bowl featured the strongest matchup that was not part of the College Football Playoff.

The next semifinal to be hosted at the Rose Bowl will be on January 1, 2018.

Sponsorship and broadcasting rights

Large card stunt[27] performed at the 2004 Rose Bowl Game

For many years the Rose Bowl eschewed sponsorship, but for the 1999 Rose Bowl, the game became known as The Rose Bowl Game presented by AT&T. Unlike the other bowl games, the sponsor was not added to the title of the game, but instead as a presenter.[28] In 2002 it was branded The Rose Bowl Game presented by PlayStation 2. From 2003 to 2010, after the agreement with Sony expired, the game was presented by Citi.

In June 2010, Citi decided to end sponsorship of the Rose Bowl games, including the National Championship game.[29] In October 2010, HDTV maker Vizio signed a 4-year contract to be the official sponsor of the Rose Bowl games through 2014.[30] After Vizio declined to renew sponsorship in 2014, financial services giant Northwestern Mutual became the new presenting sponsor.[31]

The 1952 Rose Bowl game was the first nationally televised bowl game and the first nationally televised college game of any sport.[32] From 1952 to 1988, the Rose Bowl was televised by NBC at 2 p.m. PST, and in most years was the only New Year's Day bowl airing at that time. The 1962 Rose Bowl was the first college football game broadcast in color.

From 1989 to 2010, the game was broadcast on ABC, usually at 2 p.m. PST; the 2005 Rose Bowl was the first one broadcast in HDTV. Though, beginning in 2007, FOX had the broadcast rights to the other Bowl Championship Series games, the Rose Bowl, which negotiates its own television contract independent of the BCS, had agreed to keep the game on ABC.

Beginning with the 2010 season, ESPN (majority-owned by ABC's parent company, The Walt Disney Company) now broadcasts all the BCS games, including the Rose Bowl game.[33][34] The game is also broadcast nationally by ESPN Radio and by ESPN International for Latin America. In 2013 ESPN Deportes provided the first Spanish language telecast in the U.S. of the Rose Bowl Game.[35]

The Rose Bowl game contract with ESPN was extended on June 28, 2012, to 2026, for a reportedly $80 million per year.[36][37] Northwestern Mutual takes over as presenting sponsor beginning in 2015 and will continue until 2020.

Game results

Winners in boldface

Italics denote a tie game

Date played West / Pac-12 East / Big Ten Attendance[38] Notes
January 1, 1902 Stanford 0 Michigan 49 8,000 notes
January 1, 1916 Washington State 14 Brown 0 7,000 notes
January 1, 1917 Oregon 14 Pennsylvania 0 26,000 notes
January 1, 1918[lower-alpha 2] Mare Island – USMC 19 Camp Lewis – US Army 7 N/A notes
January 1, 1919[lower-alpha 2] Mare Island – USMC 0 Great Lakes – US Navy 17 N/A notes
January 1, 1920 Oregon 6 Harvard 7 30,000 notes
January 1, 1921 California 28 Ohio State 0 42,000 notes
January 2, 1922 California 0 Washington & Jefferson 0 40,000 notes
January 1, 1923 USC 14 Penn State 3 43,000 notes
January 1, 1924 Washington 14 Navy 14 40,000 notes
January 1, 1925 Stanford 10 Notre Dame 27 53,000 notes
January 1, 1926 Washington 19 Alabama 20 50,000 notes
January 1, 1927 Stanford 7 Alabama 7 57,417 notes
January 2, 1928 Stanford 7 Pittsburgh 6 65,000 notes
January 1, 1929 California 7 Georgia Tech 8 66,604 notes
January 1, 1930 USC 47 Pittsburgh 14 72,000 notes
January 1, 1931 Washington State 0 Alabama 24 60,000 notes
January 1, 1932 USC 21 Tulane 12 75,562 notes
January 2, 1933 USC 35 Pittsburgh 0 78,874 notes
January 1, 1934 Stanford 0 Columbia 7 35,000 notes
January 1, 1935 Stanford 13 Alabama 29 84,474 notes
January 1, 1936 Stanford 7 SMU 0 84,474 notes
January 1, 1937 #5 Washington 0 #3 Pittsburgh 21 87,196 notes
January 1, 1938 #2 California 13 #4 Alabama 0 90,000 notes
January 2, 1939 #7 USC 7 #3 Duke 3 89,452 notes
January 1, 1940 #3 USC 14 #2 Tennessee 0 92,200 notes
January 1, 1941 #2 Stanford 21 #7 Nebraska 13 91,500 notes
January 1, 1942 #12 Oregon State 20 #2 Duke 16 56,000[lower-alpha 1] notes
January 1, 1943 #13 UCLA 0 #2 Georgia 9 93,000 notes
January 1, 1944 USC 29 #12 Washington 0 68,000 notes
January 1, 1945 #7 USC 25 #12 Tennessee 0 91,000 notes
January 1, 1946 #11 USC 14 #2 Alabama 34 93,000 notes
January 1, 1947 #4 UCLA 14 #5 Illinois 45 90,000 notes
January 1, 1948 #8 USC 0 #2 Michigan 49 93,000 notes
January 1, 1949 #4 California 14 #7 Northwestern 20 93,000 notes
January 2, 1950 #3 California 14 #6 Ohio State 17 100,963 notes
January 1, 1951 #5 California 6 #9 Michigan 14 98,939 notes
January 1, 1952 #7 Stanford 7 #4 Illinois 40 96,825 notes
January 1, 1953 #5 USC 7 #11 Wisconsin 0 101,500 notes
January 1, 1954 #5 UCLA 20 #3 Michigan State 28 101,000 notes
January 1, 1955 #17 USC 7 #1 Ohio State 20 89,191 notes
January 2, 1956 #4 UCLA 14 #2 Michigan State 17 100,809 notes
January 1, 1957 #10 Oregon State 19 #3 Iowa 35 97,126 notes
January 1, 1958 Oregon 7 #2 Ohio State 10 98,202 notes
January 1, 1959 #16 California 12 #2 Iowa 38 98,297 notes
January 1, 1960 #8 Washington 44 #6 Wisconsin 8 100,809 notes
January 2, 1961 #6 Washington 17 #1 Minnesota 7 97,314 notes
January 1, 1962 #16 UCLA 3 #6 Minnesota 21 98,214 notes
January 1, 1963 #1 USC 42 #2 Wisconsin 37 98,698 notes
January 1, 1964 Washington 7 #3 Illinois 17 96,957 notes
January 1, 1965 #8 Oregon State 7 #4 Michigan 34 100,423 notes
January 1, 1966 #5 UCLA 14 #1 Michigan State 12 100,087 notes
January 2, 1967 USC 13 #7 Purdue 14 100,807 notes
January 1, 1968 #1 USC 14 #4 Indiana 3 102,946 notes
January 1, 1969 #2 USC 16 #1 Ohio State 27 102,063 notes
January 1, 1970 #5 USC 10 #7 Michigan 3 103,878 notes
January 1, 1971 #12 Stanford 27 #2 Ohio State 17 103,839 notes
January 1, 1972 #16 Stanford 13 #4 Michigan 12 103,154 notes
January 1, 1973 #1 USC 42 #3 Ohio State 17 106,869 notes
January 1, 1974 #7 USC 21 #4 Ohio State 42 105,267 notes
January 1, 1975 #5 USC 18 #3 Ohio State 17 106,721 notes
January 1, 1976 #11 UCLA 23 #1 Ohio State 10 105,464 notes
January 1, 1977 #3 USC 14 #2 Michigan 6 106,182 notes
January 2, 1978 #13 Washington 27 #4 Michigan 20 105,312 notes
January 1, 1979 #3 USC 17 #5 Michigan 10 105,629 notes
January 1, 1980 #3 USC 17 #1 Ohio State 16 105,526 notes
January 1, 1981 #16 Washington 6 #5 Michigan 23 104,863 notes
January 1, 1982 #12 Washington 28 #13 Iowa 0 105,611 notes
January 1, 1983 #5 UCLA 24 #19 Michigan 14 104,991 notes
January 2, 1984 UCLA 45 #4 Illinois 9 103,217 notes
January 1, 1985 #18 USC 20 #6 Ohio State 17 102,594 notes
January 1, 1986 #13 UCLA 45 #4 Iowa 28 103,292 notes
January 1, 1987 #7 Arizona State 22 #4 Michigan 15 103,168 notes
January 1, 1988 #16 USC 17 #8 Michigan State 20 103,847 notes
January 2, 1989 #5 USC 14 #11 Michigan 22 101,688 notes
January 1, 1990 #12 USC 17 #3 Michigan 10 103,450 notes
January 1, 1991 #8 Washington 46 #17 Iowa 34 101,273 notes
January 1, 1992 #2 Washington 34 #4 Michigan 14 103,566 notes
January 1, 1993 #9 Washington 31 #7 Michigan 38 94,236 notes
January 1, 1994 #14 UCLA 16 #9 Wisconsin 21 101,237 notes
January 2, 1995 #12 Oregon 20 #2 Penn State 38 102,247 notes
January 1, 1996 #17 USC 41 #3 Northwestern 32 100,102 notes
January 1, 1997 #2 Arizona State 17 #4 Ohio State 20 100,635 notes
January 1, 1998 #8 Washington State 16 #1 Michigan 21 101,219 notes
January 1, 1999 #6 UCLA 31 #9 Wisconsin 38 93,872 notes
January 1, 2000 #22 Stanford 9 #4 Wisconsin 17 93,731 notes
January 1, 2001 #4 Washington 34 #14 Purdue 24 94,392 notes
January 3, 2002[lower-alpha 3] #4 Nebraska 14 #1 Miami (FL) 37 93,781 notes
January 1, 2003 #7 Washington State 14 #8 Oklahoma 34 86,848 notes
January 1, 2004 #1 USC 28 #4 Michigan 14 93,849 notes
January 1, 2005 #6 Texas 38 #13 Michigan 37 93,468 notes
January 4, 2006[lower-alpha 3] #1 USC 38 #2 Texas 41 93,986 notes
January 1, 2007 #8 USC 32 #3 Michigan 18 93,852 notes
January 1, 2008 #6 USC 49 #13 Illinois 17 93,923 notes
January 1, 2009 #5 USC 38 #6 Penn State 24 93,293 notes
January 1, 2010 #7 Oregon 17 #8 Ohio State 26 93,963 notes
January 1, 2011 #3 TCU 21 #4 Wisconsin 19 94,118 notes
January 2, 2012 #6 Oregon 45 #9 Wisconsin 38 91,245 notes
January 1, 2013 #8 Stanford 20 Wisconsin 14 93,359 notes
January 1, 2014 #5 Stanford 20 #4 Michigan State 24 95,173 notes
January 1, 2015[lower-alpha 4] #2 Oregon 59 #3 Florida State 20 91,322 notes
January 1, 2016 #6 Stanford 45 #5 Iowa 16 94,268 notes
January 2, 2017 #9 USC #5 Penn State
  1. 1 2 3 The 1942 game was played in Duke Stadium in Durham, North Carolina, due to a restriction on crowds allowed on the West Coast after Pearl Harbor
  2. 1 2 During World War I, military teams played
  3. 1 2 Denotes BCS National Championship Game
  4. Denotes College Football Playoff semifinal game

Frequent participants

If there are any Big Ten teams that shoot for a national championship, they're damn fools...You play to win the Big Ten championship, and if you win it and go to the Rose Bowl and win it, then you've had a great season.
 Bo Schembechler of Michigan, July 1989[39]

USC has played the most times in the Rose Bowl, with 33 appearances, followed by Michigan (20), Stanford (15), Ohio State and Washington (14 each), and UCLA (12). Alabama, 4–1–1 in Rose Bowls, has made the most appearances of any team outside the Pac-12 and Big Ten conferences. Pittsburgh appeared four times in a nine-year period, from 1927 to 1936. Among Pac-8/10/12 and Big Ten schools, the record for longest drought since a team's last Rose Bowl appearance is held by California (1959), followed by Minnesota (1962), Oregon State (1965), and Indiana (1968).

USC has also won the most Rose Bowls (24), followed by Michigan (8); Washington, Ohio State, and Stanford (7 each); and UCLA (5). Michigan has lost the most (12), followed by USC (9), Ohio State, UCLA and Stanford (7 each), Washington and Wisconsin (6 each). Among Pac-8/10/12 and Big Ten schools who have played in at least one Rose Bowl, the record for the longest period since a win is held jointly by Indiana and Nebraska, who have never won, followed by Washington State (1916), Cal (1939), Oregon State (1942), Northwestern (1949), and Iowa (1959). As of 2016, head coaches Howard Jones (5–0) and John Robinson (4–0) lead the list of undefeated Rose Bowl records.[40]

The most frequent Rose Bowl matchup is USC–Michigan, occurring for the eighth time in 2007, with USC holding a 6–2 advantage (including rare meetings outside the Rose Bowl, USC leads this series 6–4). The next most frequent matchup is USC–Ohio State, occurring for the seventh time in 1985, with USC holding a 4–3 advantage.

From the 1946 season (1947 Rose Bowl), when the Big Ten-Rose Bowl agreement began, through the 1971 season (1972 Rose Bowl), the Big Ten did not permit the same team to represent that Conference in the Rose Bowl in consecutive years. There was one exception: Minnesota played in the 1961 Rose Bowl and 1962 Rose Bowl games, as previously explained in the section on the conference agreements after the collapse of the Pacific Coast Conference.

Also of note, during this era Big Ten and Pac-8 teams could play only in the Rose Bowl; this restriction was not lifted until the 1975 season.

Archie Griffin of Ohio State and Brian Cushing of USC are the only players to ever start in four Rose Bowl games. Legendary coach Woody Hayes led Ohio State to the Rose Bowl from 1973 to 1976, while USC head coach Pete Carroll led the Trojans to the Rose Bowl from 2006 to 2009.

Current members of the Pac-12 or the Big Ten to have not appeared in the Rose Bowl are Arizona (who joined the then-Pac-10 in 1978), Colorado and Utah (who both joined the Pac-12 in 2011), and Maryland and Rutgers (who both joined the Big Ten in 2014), though California appeared in the Rose Bowl only as a member of a predecessor league to the Pac-12.[41] Similar to Cal, Nebraska played in the 1941 and 2002 games, but was not a member of the Big Ten Conference at these times. The Idaho and Montana, who were members of the Pacific Coast Conference from 1922 until 1958 and 1950 respectively, never finished near the top in the PCC football standings. Former Big Ten member Chicago withdrew from the league prior to the bowl arrangement being set. Relatively new Pac-12 members Colorado and Utah have yet to appear in one, having joined the Pac-12 on July 1, 2011. The most recent additions to the Big Ten, Maryland and Rutgers, have yet to appear in one, having joined the Big Ten on July 1, 2014.

USC has played every current Big Ten school in the Rose Bowl except for Iowa, Nebraska, Minnesota, and the two that have yet to appear in the Rose Bowl: Maryland and Rutgers. Michigan has played every school in the Pac-12 in the Rose Bowl except Oregon and the three that have yet to appear in the Rose Bowl: Arizona, Utah, and Colorado.

The Rose Bowl was exclusively a Big Ten-Pac-10 affair for 52 years, from 1946 (1947 Rose Bowl) through 1997 (1998 Rose Bowl). While the Big Ten dominated the game in the late 1940s and 1950s, and the Pac-10 dominated during the 1970s and early 1980s, over the entire 52-year span, each conference won 26 games.

The BCS era covered sixteen games, starting with the 1999 (85th) Rose Bowl to the 2014 (100th) Rose Bowl . Of the eleven games featuring a Big Ten-Pac-12 matchup, the Pac-12 leads in wins, 7-4. However, the 2007 (93rd) Rose Bowl and 2008 (94th) Rose Bowl, each Big Ten losses to the Pac-12, actually featured the Big Ten runner-up, as conference champion Ohio State was selected to play each of those years in the BCS National Championship Game.

The 2002 and 2006 Rose Bowls represented the National Championship game. In 2002, there was neither a Big Ten or Pac-10 school, as Oregon was in the Fiesta Bowl while Illinois was in the Sugar Bowl. In 2006, top-ranked USC represented the Pac-10 in the National Championship Game in the Rose Bowl against second-ranked Texas from the Big 12 Conference. Third-ranked Penn State, the Big Ten Champion, played in the Orange Bowl while fourth-ranked Ohio State played in the Fiesta Bowl that year.

The other two non-Big Ten vs. Pac-10 matchups in the BCS era involved Big 12 Conference teams: Oklahoma in the 2003 (89th) Rose Bowl and Texas in the 2005 (91st) Rose Bowl.

The 2011 Rose Bowl Game marked the sole time during the BCS era that a school from a non-BCS conference played in the game (as Oregon, the Pacific-10 champion, was selected to play in the BCS National Championship Game). TCU, led by Quarterback Andy Dalton, beat Wisconsin 21–19.

Game arrangements

2006 Rose Bowl: Texas defeated Southern California 41–38 on January 4, 2006

Beginning with the 1947 Rose Bowl, the Pacific Coast representative was the home team, and the Big Nine representative was the visitor. This arrangement would alternate each year. The stadium seating started with the Big Nine representatives in the end zone, but eventually was set with the Big Ten fans and team on the West (press box) side, and Pacific-10 fans and team on the East side. The home team wears their darkest home jerseys, and the visiting team wears the visiting jerseys. There have been exceptions. UCLA wore their home jerseys in the 1962, 1966, and 1976 Rose Bowl games.

From 1947 through 2001, the Big Ten team was the home team in odd-numbered years, and the Pac-10 team was the home team in even-numbered years. In 2003, Washington State was the home team, as a non-Big Ten or Pac-10 school (Oklahoma of the Big 12) was the opponent; the same applied in 2005, when Michigan played another Big 12 school, Texas.

Beginning with the 2002 Rose Bowl, Nebraska was home, with team and fans on the East sideline. Since 2006, the home team has been the team with the highest BCS season ending ranking. For the 2005 Rose Bowl, the Michigan team was on the East sideline, Texas was the visiting team and was on the West sideline. For the 2006 Rose Bowl, USC was the home team and Texas was the visiting team on the West sideline. Traditionally, the Big Ten (or its BCS replacement) is on the West side (press box) and the Pac-12 team is on the East side.

During the BCS era, the institution with the higher BCS ranking performed the national anthem, and performed first at halftime. With the exception of BCS championship years, the National Anthem was performed by the band. In BCS Championship years, a performer was invited to sing the Anthem, the last being LeAnn Rimes in 2006. The Rose Bowl does not have other performers during the halftime show besides the school marching bands. As part of the television contract, a portion of each band's halftime performance is shown on television. Each school and each conference are allocated television spots to advertise. For the 100th game on January 1, 2014, Merry Clayton, Lisa Fischer, Judith Hill and Darlene Love sang the national anthem. This was the first time in Rose Bowl history that the anthem was performed by singers rather than by a marching band.[42] Today, the institution with the higher ranking by the CFP selection committee performs the national anthem and performs first at halftime.

Appearances and win-loss records

Big Ten and Pac-12 teams
Team Appearances Won Lost Tied Latest
USC 34 24 9 2017
Michigan 20 8 12 2007
Stanford^ 15 7 7 1 2016
Washington 14 7 6 1 2001
Ohio State 14 7 7 2010
UCLA 12 5 7 1999
Wisconsin 9 3 6 2013
California 8 2 5 1 1959
Oregon 7 3 4 2015
Iowa 6 2 4 2016
Michigan State 5 4 1 2014
Illinois 5 3 2 2008
Washington State^ 4 1 3 2003
Penn State* 4 1 2 2017
Oregon State 3 1 2 1965
Arizona State 2 1 1 1997
Minnesota 2 1 1 1962
Northwestern 2 1 1 1996
Purdue 2 1 1 2001
Nebraska 2 0 2 2002
Indiana 1 0 1 1968
Big Ten Conference 68 31 37 0 2016
Pac-12 Conference 96 49 43 3 2016

Other teams
Team Appearances Won Lost Tied Latest
Alabama 6 4 1 1 1946
Pittsburgh 4 1 3 1937
Texas 2 2 0 2006
Duke 2 0 2 1942
Tennessee 2 0 2 1945
Columbia 1 1 0 1934
Georgia 1 1 0 1943
Georgia Tech 1 1 0 1929
Harvard 1 1 0 1920
Miami (FL) 1 1 0 2002
Notre Dame 1 1 0 1925
Oklahoma 1 1 0 2003
TCU 1 1 0 2011
Navy 1 0 0 1 1924
Washington & Jefferson 1 0 0 1 1922
Brown 1 0 1 1916
Florida State 1 0 1 2015
Penn 1 0 1 1917
SMU 1 0 1 1936
Tulane 1 0 1 1932

^ The Pacific Coast Conference, predecessor to the Pac-12 Conference, had their first football season in 1916, so Washington State's appearance in 1916 for the 1915 season and Stanford's appearance in 1902 for the 1901 season do not count toward the conference's total.

* Penn State was not a member of the Big Ten at the time of their 1923 Rose Bowl appearance, so Penn State's appearance in 1923 for the 1922 season does not count toward the Big Ten's conference's total

† Nebraska was not a member of the Big Ten at the time of either of their appearances. Therefore, as of 2014, they have not represented the Big Ten in the Rose Bowl.

‡ The Southeastern Conference has one current member and two former members who made additional appearances in the Rose Bowl while those schools were not members of the SEC. Alabama made additional appearances in 1926, 1927, and 1931 before becoming a charter member of the SEC in 1932. Another SEC charter member, Georgia Tech, made an appearance in 1929, and left the SEC in 1964. Tulane, also a charter member, made an appearance in 1932, prior to the SEC's establishment in December of that year. Tulane left the SEC in 1966.

Rose Bowl Player of the Game Awards

Rose Bowl records at the Hall of Champions

The most valuable player in the Rose Bowl game is given a crystal trophy that is the Rose Bowl Player of the Game Award. The award was created in 1953 and awarded retroactively for players all the way back to the 1902 Rose Bowl. Occasionally, the award has been shared by two players. Beginning with the 2005 Rose Bowl Game, the Rose Bowl Player of the Game Award has been given to both offensive and defensive players of the game.[43] Only four players have ever been named the Player of the Game in more than one Rose Bowl: Bob Schloredt, Washington (1960, 1961), Charles White, USC (1979, 1980), Ron Dayne, Wisconsin (1999, 2000), and Vince Young, Texas (2005, 2006).

Year played MVP Team Position
1902 Neil Snow Michigan FB
1916 William Henry Dietz Washington State FB
1917 John Beckett Oregon T
1918 Hollis Huntington Mare Island FB
1919 George Halas Great Lakes E
1920 Edward Casey Harvard HB
1921 Harold Muller California E
1922 Russell Stein Washington & Jefferson T
1923 Leo Calland USC G
1924 Ira McKee Navy QB
1925 Elmer Layden Notre Dame FB
Ernie Nevers Stanford FB
1926 Johnny Mack Brown Alabama HB
George "Wildcat" Wilson Washington HB
1927 Fred Pickhard Alabama T
1928 Clifford "Biff" Hoffman Stanford FB
1929 Benjamin Lom California HB
1930 Russell Saunders USC QB
1931 John "Monk" Campbell Alabama QB
1932 Erny Pinckert USC HB
1933 Homer Griffith USC QB
1934 Cliff Montgomery Columbia QB
1935 Millard "Dixie" Howell Alabama HB
1936 James "Monk" Moscrip Stanford E
Keith Topping Stanford E
1937 Bill Daddio Pittsburgh E
1938 Victor Bottari California HB
1939 Doyle Nave USC QB
Al Krueger USC E
1940 Ambrose Schindler USC QB
1941 Peter Kmetovic Stanford HB
1942 Donald Durdan Oregon State HB
1943 Charles Trippi Georgia HB
1944 Norman Verry USC G
1945 Jim Hardy USC QB
1946 Harry Gilmer Alabama HB
1947 Claude "Buddy" Young Illinois HB
Julius Rykovich Illinois HB
1948 Bob Chappuis Michigan HB
1949 Frank Aschenbrenner Northwestern HB
1950 Fred "Curly" Morrison Ohio State FB
1951 Don Dufek Michigan FB
1952 William Tate Illinois HB
1953 Rudy Bukich USC QB
1954 Billy Wells Michigan State HB
1955 Dave Leggett Ohio State QB
1956 Walter Kowalczyk Michigan State HB
1957 Kenneth Ploen Iowa QB
1958 Jack Crabtree Oregon QB
1959 Bob Jeter Iowa HB
1960 Bob Schloredt Washington QB
George Fleming Washington HB
1961 Bob Schloredt Washington QB
1962 Sandy Stephens Minnesota QB
1963 Pete Beathard USC QB
Ron Vander Kelen Wisconsin QB
1964 Jim Grabowski Illinois FB
1965 Mel Anthony Michigan FB
1966 Bob Stiles UCLA DB
1967 John Charles Purdue DB
1968 O.J. Simpson USC TB
1969 Rex Kern Ohio State QB
1970 Bob Chandler USC FL
1971 Jim Plunkett Stanford QB
1972 Don Bunce Stanford QB
1973 Sam Cunningham USC FB
1974 Cornelius Greene Ohio State QB
1975 Pat Haden USC QB
John McKay, Jr. USC SE
1976 John Sciarra UCLA QB
1977 Vince Evans USC QB
1978 Warren Moon Washington QB
1979 Charles White USC TB
Rick Leach Michigan QB
1980 Charles White USC TB
1981 Butch Woolfolk Michigan RB
1982 Jacque Robinson Washington RB
1983 Don Rogers UCLA FS
Tom Ramsey UCLA QB
1984 Rick Neuheisel UCLA QB
1985 Tim Green USC QB
Jack Del Rio USC LB
1986 Eric Ball UCLA TB
1987 Jeff Van Raaphorst Arizona State QB
1988 Percy Snow Michigan State LB
1989 Leroy Hoard Michigan FB
1990 Ricky Ervins USC TB
1991 Mark Brunell Washington QB
1992 Steve Emtman Washington DT
Billy Joe Hobert Washington QB
1993 Tyrone Wheatley Michigan RB
1994 Brent Moss Wisconsin RB
1995 Danny O'Neil Oregon QB
Ki-Jana Carter Penn State RB
1996 Keyshawn Johnson USC WR
1997 Joe Germaine Ohio State QB
1998 Brian Griese Michigan QB
1999 Ron Dayne Wisconsin RB
2000 Ron Dayne Wisconsin RB
2001 Marques Tuiasosopo Washington QB
2002 Ken Dorsey Miami QB
Andre Johnson Miami WR
2003 Nate Hybl Oklahoma QB
2004 Matt Leinart USC QB
2005 Vince Young Texas QB
LaMarr Woodley Michigan LB
2006 Vince Young Texas QB
Michael Huff Texas S
2007 Dwayne Jarrett USC WR
Brian Cushing USC OLB
2008 John David Booty USC QB
Rey Maualuga USC LB
2009 Mark Sanchez USC QB
Kaluka Maiava USC LB
2010 Terrelle Pryor Ohio State QB
Kenny Rowe Oregon DE
2011 Andy Dalton TCU QB
Tank Carder TCU LB
2012 Lavasier Tuinei Oregon WR
Kiko Alonso Oregon LB
2013 Stepfan Taylor Stanford RB
Usua Amanam Stanford DB
2014 Connor Cook Michigan State QB
Kyler Elsworth Michigan State LB
2015 Marcus Mariota Oregon QB
Tony Washington Oregon LB
2016 Christian McCaffrey Stanford RB
Aziz Shittu Stanford DE

Game records

Team Performance vs. opponent Year
Most points scored 59, Oregon vs. Florida State 2015
Most points scored in regulation (both teams) 83, Oregon and Wisconsin 2012
Most points scored in a half 41 (second half), Oregon vs. Florida State 2015
Most points scored in a half (both teams) 56 (first half), Oregon and Wisconsin 2012
Fewest points allowed 0, Washington vs. Iowa (tied with 17 others) 1982
First downs 32, Wisconsin vs. USC 1963
Rushing yards 503, Michigan vs. Stanford 1902
Passing yards 456, Oregon vs. Penn State 1995
Total yards 639, Oregon vs. Florida State 2015
Individual Performance, team vs. opponent Year
Total offense 467, Vince Young, Texas vs. USC (59 plays) 2006
Touchdowns 4, Vince Young, Texas vs. USC (tied with 4 others) 2006
Rushing yards 247, Charles White, USC vs. Ohio State (39 attempts, 1 TD) 1980
Rushing TDs 5, Neil Snow, Michigan vs. Stanford 1902
Passing yards 456, Danny O'Neil, Oregon vs. Penn State (41-61-2, 2 TD) 1995
Tackles 17, John Boyett, Oregon vs. Wisconsin (tied with 1 other) 2012
Sacks 3, Kenny Rowe, Oregon vs. Ohio State (tied with 3 others) 2010
Interceptions 3, Bill Paulman, Stanford vs. SMU (tied with 1 other) 1936
Long plays Performance, team vs. opponent Year
Touchdown run 91, De'Anthony Thomas, Oregon vs. Wisconsin 2012
Touchdown pass 76, Rick Leach to Curt Stephenson, Michigan vs. Washington 1978
Kickoff return 103, Al Hoisch, UCLA vs. Illinois (TD) 1947
Punt return 86, Aramis Dandoy, USC vs. Ohio State (TD) 1955
Interception return 78, Elmer Layden, Notre Dame vs. Stanford (TD) 1925
Fumble return 58, Tony Washington, Oregon vs. Florida State (TD) 2015
Punt 73, Don Bracken, Michigan vs. Washington 1981
Field goal 52, Rob Houghtlin, Iowa vs. UCLA 1986

Note: When there is a tie, the most recent one will be listed.

Top ranked teams

No. 1 ranked teams

No. 1 vs. No. 2 teams

Twice in a season

Five times in Rose Bowl Game history, the two participants had played during the regular season. In three of those occurrences the same team won both the regular season game and the Rose Bowl Game. UCLA won three of those five Rose Bowl games, including both instances in which a different team won the Rose Bowl than the regular season game.

Rose Bowl Hall of Fame

Inductees (by year):

All-Century Class

The Rose Bowl Game All-Century Class was announced by Rose Bowl Hall of Fame member Keith Jackson, on Sunday, December 8, 2013 at 4:00 p.m. at Tournament House.

They are:

In addition to being named as All-Century representatives for their respective decades, John McKay and Archie Griffin were named the 100th Rose Bowl Game All-Century Coach and Player respectively. Griffin and McKay (represented by his son John McKay, Jr.) will participate in the 2014 Rose Parade.

The finalists:

Nominated by The Football Writers Association of America.[47]

Player and coach

Nine former players have come back to coach a team in the game (played and coached, as listed by the Tournament of Roses Association):[48]

Coaches with two teams





See also


  1. Myerberg, Paul (May 14, 2014). "Northwestern Mutual to sponsor Rose Bowl". USA Today. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
  2. Media Guide, Tournament of Roses Association, December 2015
  3. NCAA Division 1 football records book. NCAA, 2007 Edition, pages 296–302 Major Bowl Game Attendance
  4. Cohen, Rich (2013). Monsters: The 1985 Chicago Bears and the Wild Heart of Football. Macmillan. p. 39. ISBN 9780374298685.
  5. Mary L. Grady, Mercer Island High School Marching Band to march in 2012 Tournament of Roses Parade, Mercer Island Reporter, September 24, 2010
  6. Bowl Games: College Football's Greatest Tradition, by Robert Ours, 2004, pgs. 3-4
  7. Huge Flagstaff For Pasadena. Enormous Steel Pole 122 and ½ Feet Long Will Stand in Rose Bowl. Los Angeles Times, December 10, 1922. Monday afternoon at 2 o'clock the new flagstaff of the Tournament of Roses stadium, now called the Rose Bowl, will be put in place with suitable ceremony under auspices of the Pasadena Lions Club, donor of the pole.
  8. The Michigan Stadium Story
  9. University of Michigan Official Athletics site – Michigan Stadium
  10. Tournament of Roses Parade FAQs. In 2006, attendance was 93,986.
  11. Historic information on the Rose Bowl
  12. The Way We Really Were: The Golden State in the Second Great War. Lotchin, Roger W. 2000. Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. ISBN 0-252-02505-9. page 14.
  13. "ROSE BOWL GAME CALLED OFF", San Antonio Light, December 14, 1941, pB-1
  14. Forbidding Crowds. Los Angeles Times, December 16, 1941
  15. Zimmerman, Paul - Duke Likely to Play Beavers in Durham. Blue Devils Invite Foes Rose Bowl, Shrine Grid Games Halted as Other Sports Events in Balance. Los Angeles Times, December 15, 1941.
  16. "Rose Bowl Timeline". Pasadena Tournament of Roses. Retrieved 2007-11-05.
  17. Zimmerman, Paul - Scene of Rose Bowl Shifted to Durham, N.C. Los Angeles Times, December 16, 1941. Perpetuation of the annual Rose Bowl intersectional football classic was assured yesterday when the Tournament of Roses officials and Oregon State College accepted the hospitality of Duke University.
  18. R.I.P. Time Magazine, December 6, 1943
  19. Michael Oriard - King Football: Sport and Spectacle in the Golden Age of Radio & Newsreels, Movies & Magazines, The Weekly & The Daily Press. Published 2004 UNC Press. ISBN 0-8078-5545-6 Chapter 3:Who cares about reform?
  20. football, gridiron. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 28, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Football in the United States - The racial transformation of American football. Encyclopædia Britannica
  21. Big Ten Football media guide (2007 Edition) page 5
  22. Rose Bowl History Big Ten Tamed the West from 1948–59. Seattle Post-Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), December 30, 1997
  23. Rose Bowl sets record - Michael Starr, New York Post, 6 January 2006
  24. Non-BCS teams to get vacated bids
  25. Rittenberg, Adam. "New Year's Six bowl matchups announced". ESPN. ESPN. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  26. Sherman, Mitch. "Rose Bowl makes right call choosing Iowa over Ohio State". ESPN. ESPN. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  28. RICHARD SANDOMIR - TV SPORTS; A Private Line for the Rose Bowl. New York Times, January 1, 1999
  29. Citi out as Rose Bowl sponsor,, June 22, 2010
  30. ,'', October 19, 2010
  31. "Northwestern Mutual lands Rose Bowl deal". L.A. Biz.
  32. Gruver, 2002 pg. 48
  33. Disney makes $125 million BCS bid. Variety, November 12, 2008
  34. Reid Cherner & Tom Weir, "Rose Bowl headed to ESPN", USA today, June 12, 2009
  35. "BCS National Championship and Bowl Games on ESPN Deportes". ESPN. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
  37. Sam Farmer, ESPN agrees to pay $80 million a year to broadcast Rose Bowl, Los Angeles Times, July 16, 2012
  38. Moran, Malcolm (1989-08-27). "COLLEGE FOOTBALL '89; Defining the 80's? No Easy Task". The New York Times.
  39. Rittenberg, Adam (December 26, 2012). "Alvarez savors return to Rose Bowl". ESPN. Retrieved December 29, 2012.
  40. "List of Rose Bowl Games from official website".
  41. Celebrated Singers Merry Clayton, Lisa Fischer, Judith Hill and Darlene Love to Sing National Anthem at Historic 100th Rose Bowl Game, Tournament of Roses Association, December 8, 2013
  42. 2008 Rose Bowl Program, 2008 Rose Bowl. Accessed 26 January 2008.
  43. Knute Rockne, Dick Vermeil and Ki-Jana Carter to be Inducted into the Rose Bowl Hall of Fame, Tournament of Roses Association, August 26, 2014
  44. Mark Brunell, Fritz Pollard, Tyrone Wheatley and Jim Muldoon to be Inducted into the Rose Bowl Hall of Fame presented by Northwestern Mutual
  45. Bobby Bell, Ricky Ervins, Tommy Prothro, and journalist Art Spander to be Inducted into the Rose Bowl Hall of Fame Class of 2016, Tournament of Roses, August 24, 2016
  46. First Group of Finalists Unveiled for Rose Bowl Game All-Century Class, Tournament of Roses Association, September 22, 2013
  47. 2012 Rose Bowl Game presented by Vizio Historical Media Guide, Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association, December 2011
  48. All Events, Tournament of Roses Association, July 25, 2013


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