Zimbabweans in South Africa
|(1 to 2 million (2008))|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Limpopo · Mpumalanga · North West|
|English · Ndebele · Shona|
|Related ethnic groups|
There is a significant population of Zimbabweans in South Africa, making up South Africa's largest group of foreign migrants. Estimates of their numbers range from one to five million.
Temporary labour migration to South Africa has long been a feature of Rhodesian and then Zimbabwean society. A 2002 survey by the Southern African Migration Project show that almost 25% of adult Zimbabweans' parents or grandparents had worked in South Africa at some point in their lives. However, permanent emigration is a relatively new phenomenon. There have been two major waves of emigration from Zimbabwe. The first was that of whites in Zimbabwe who left the country soon after the Lancaster House Agreement ended the Zimbabwe Rhodesia government; the second, still ongoing, was that of black Zimbabweans beginning in the 1990s. In both cases, South Africa was again their primary destination. From 1994 onwards, the South African government displayed increasing hostility to skilled immigration from the rest of Africa. However, this has not served to limit the number of immigrants; Zimbabwean migration to South Africa since 2000 has been described as the "largest concentrated flow" in the country's history. Migrants previously consisted of young people arriving alone to look for work, but since 2000 have increasingly shifted towards women, children, and the elderly who are not able to work and require humanitarian assistance.
A large proportion of the migrants are irregular; they typically pay R200 to people smugglers to take them across the Limpopo River at night and coordinate with taxi drivers who transport the migrants to Johannesburg and watch for the approach of police or soldiers.
Numbers and distribution
Estimates of the number of Zimbabwean migrants to South Africa since 2000 range from one to five million. Exact figures are difficult to obtain due to the large proportion of undocumented migrants. There was some return migration to Zimbabwe as a result of xenophobic violence in the 2008 riots.
- Trevor Ncube, businessman
- Roy Bennett, former parliamentarian who received asylum in South Africa in May 2007
- Polzer 2008, p. 22
- Polzer 2008, p. 6
- Tevera & Zinyama 2002, p. 2
- Tevera & Zinyama 2002, p. 3
- Polzer 2008, p. 4
- Guerin, Orla (2007-05-10), "Zimbabwe's starving border jumpers", BBC News, retrieved 2009-08-25
- Lindow, Megan (2008-05-23), "Zimbabweans Fleeing South Africa", Time Magazine, retrieved 2009-08-25
- Tevera, Daniel S.; Zinyama, Lovemore (2002), Zimbabweans Who Move: Perspectives on International Migration in Zimbabwe (PDF), Migration Policy Series, 25, Cape Town, South Africa/Ontario, Canada: The Southern African Migration Project, ISBN 1-919798-40-4, retrieved 2009-04-18
- Polzer, Tara (2008), South African Government and Civil Society Responses to Zimbabwean Migration (PDF), Migration Policy Briefs, 22, Cape Town, South Africa/Ontario, Canada: Southern African Migration Project
- South Africa Criticized for Zimbabwe Deportations
- Unprotected Migrants: Zimbabweans in South Africa’s Limpopo Province
- Plight of Zimbabweans in South Africa alarms church officials
- Zimbabweans in South Africa: Denied Access to Political Asylum