European Broadcasting Union

"EBU" redirects here. For other uses, see EBU (disambiguation).
European Broadcasting Union
Union européenne de radio-télévision

Countries with one or more members are in dark blue. Associated members in light blue.
Predecessor International Broadcasting Union
Formation 12 February 1950 (1950-02-12)
Type Union of broadcasting organisations
Headquarters Geneva, Switzerland
  • 72 active members
  • (from 56 countries)
Official language
English, French
Jean-Paul Philippot[1]

The European Broadcasting Union (EBU; French: Union européenne de radio-télévision, UER) is an alliance of public service media entities, established on 12 February 1950. As of 2015, the organisation comprises 73 active members in 56 countries,[2] and 34 associate members from a further 20 countries.[3] Most EU states are part of this organisation and therefore EBU has been subject to supranational legislation and regulation.[4] It also hosted debates between candidates for the European Commission presidency for the 2014 parliamentary elections but is unrelated to the institution itself.[5] It is best known for producing the Eurovision Song Contest.

General description

The classic opening ident that preceded all Eurovision network transmissions until the mid-1990s. The logotypes of both the sending and receiving company were shown in the middle. The pattern around the middle is based on the Flag of Europe. This sample shows the old logo of the BBC.

Members of the EBU are radio and television companies, most of which are government-owned public service broadcasters or privately owned stations with public service missions. Active Members come from as far north as Iceland and as far south as Egypt, from Ireland in the west and Azerbaijan in the east, and almost every nation from geographical Europe in between. Associate Members are from countries and territories beyond Europe, such as Canada, Japan, Mexico, India, and Hong Kong. Associate Members from the United States include ABC, CBS, NBC, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Time Warner, and the only individual station, Chicago-based classical music station WFMT.

Active Members are those paying EBU members meeting all technical criteria for full membership, whose states are either within the European Broadcasting Area (EBA) or members of the Council of Europe.[6] Syria is an example of a country within the EBA not complying with all technical criteria for full membership, and thus it is currently only granted Associated Membership.

The EBU's highest profile production is the Eurovision Song Contest, organised by its Eurovision Network. The Eurovision Network also organises the Eurovision Dance Contest, the Junior Eurovision Song Contest, the Eurovision Young Dancers competition, and other competitions for young musicians and screenwriters, which are modelled along similar lines. The countries represented in the EBU also co-operate to create documentaries and (animated) children's programming.

Radio collaborations include Euroclassic Notturno – an overnight classical music stream, produced by BBC Radio 3 and broadcast in the United Kingdom as Through the Night – and special theme days, such as the annual Christmas music relays from around Europe.[7]

Most EBU broadcasters have a group deal to carry the Olympics[8] and FIFA World Cup (in particular, the games of their country and the Final). Another annually recurring event which is broadcast across Europe through the EBU is the Vienna New Year's Concert.[9]

The theme music played before EBU broadcasts is Marc-Antoine Charpentier's Prelude to Te Deum. It is well known to Europeans as it is played before and after the Eurovision Song Contest and other important events.


EBU logo used from 1993 to 2012.

The EBU was a successor to the International Broadcasting Union (IBU) that was founded in 1925 and had its administrative headquarters in Geneva and technical office in Brussels. It fostered programming exchanges between members and mediated technical disputes between members that were mostly concerned with frequency and interference issues. It was in effect taken over by Nazi Germany during the Second World War and when the conflict ended in the eyes of the Allies it was a compromised organisation that they could not trust.

In the spring of 1946, representatives of the Soviet radio committee proposed forming a new organisation; however, at the same time preparations were being made for an inter-governmental “European Broadcasting Conference” (EBC) in Copenhagen in 1948 to draw up a new plan for frequency use in the European Broadcasting Area (EBA). It was considered necessary to have an organisation that could implement the “Copenhagen Wavelength Plan” but there was disagreement among broadcasters and particularly a fear expressed by the BBC that a new association might be dominated by the USSR and its proposal to give each of its constituent states one vote. France proposed that it would have four votes with the inclusion of its North African colonies. Great Britain felt it would have little influence with just one vote.

On 27 June 1946 the alternative International Broadcasting Organisation (IBO) was founded with 26 members and without British participation. The following day the IBU met in General Assembly and an attempt was made to dissolve it but failed; though 18 of its 28 members left to join the IBO. For a period of time in the late 1940s both the IBU and IBO vied for the role of organising frequencies but Britain decided to be in involved in neither. The BBC attempted but failed to find suitable working arrangements with them. However, for practical purposes the IBO rented the IBU technical centre in Brussels and employed its staff. The BBC then proposed a new solution based on the IBO changing its constitution so there will be only one member per ITU country, thus ensuring a Western majority over the USSR and its satellite states. In August 1949 a meeting took place in Stresa, Italy but it resulted in disagreement between delegates on how to resolve the problems. One proposal was for the European Broadcasting Area to be replaced by one that would exclude Eastern Europe, the Levant and North Africa.

After Stresa, a consensus emerged among the Western Europeans to form a new organisation and the BBC proposed it be based in London. Meetings in Paris on 31 October and 1 November 1949 sealed the fate of the IBU and IBO, but it was decided not to allow West Germany to be a founder of the new organisation. On 13 February 1950 the European Broadcasting Union had its first meeting with 23 members from the ITU defined European Broadcasting Area at the Imperial Hotel in Torquay, England. The first president was Ian Jacob of the BBC who remained at the helm for 10 years while its operation was largely dominated by the BBC due to its financial, technical and staff input. The most important difference between the EBU and its predecessors was that EBU membership was for broadcasters and not governments. Early delegates said EBU meetings were cordial and professional and very different from the abrupt tone of its predecessors. West Germany was admitted in 1951 and a working relationship forged with the USSR’s Organisation for International Radio and TV (OIRT) which existed in parallel with the EBU until its merger in 1993. (Source: Diffusion, Journal of the EBU, ‘50 years of the EBU’, Winter 1999/2000).

Technical activities

The objective of the EBU's technical activities is simply to assist EBU Members (see below) in this period of unprecedented technological changes. This includes provision of technical information to Members via conferences and workshops, as well as in written form (such as the EBU Technical Review, and the EBU tech-i magazine).

The EBU also encourages active collaboration between its Members on the basis that they can freely share their knowledge and experience, thus achieving considerably more than individual Members could achieve by themselves. Much of this collaboration is achieved through Project Groups which study specific technical issues of common interest: for example, EBU Members have long been preparing for the revision of the 1961 Stockholm Plan.

The EBU places great emphasis on the use of open standards. Widespread use of open standards (such as MPEG-2, DAB, DVB, etc.) ensures interoperability between products from different vendors, as well as facilitating the exchange of programme material between EBU Members and promoting "horizontal markets" for the benefit of all consumers.

EBU members and the EBU Technical Department have long played an important role in the development of many systems used in radio and television broadcasting, such as:

The EBU has also actively encouraged the development and implementation of:

Greek state broadcaster controversy of 2013

On 11 June 2013, the Greek government shut down the state broadcaster ERT, at short notice, citing government spending concerns related to the Euro crisis.[11] In response, the European Broadcasting Union set up a makeshift studio on the same day, near the former ERT offices in Athens, in order to continue providing EBU members with the news-gathering and broadcast relay services which had formerly been provided by ERT.[12]

The EBU put out a statement expressing its "profound dismay" at the shutdown, urged the Greek Prime Minister "to use all his powers to immediately reverse this decision" and offered the "advice, assistance and expertise necessary for ERT to be preserved".[13]

Starting on 4 May 2014, the New Hellenic Radio, Internet and Television (NERIT) broadcaster began nationwide transmissions, taking over ERT's vacant active membership slot in the EBU. On 11 June, 2015, two years after ERT's closure, Nerit SA closed and ERT SA reopened with a comprehensive program in all radio stations (with 19 regional radio stations, 2 world-Range, and 5 the Panhellenic range) and four TV channels ERT1 ERT2 ERT3 and ERT HD.


Countries with Active EBU Membership coloured in order of accession from 1950.

The active member list as of June 2016, comprised the following 73 broadcasting companies from 56 countries.[14]

Active members

Country Broadcasting organisation Abbr. Year
 Albania Radio Televizioni Shqiptar RTSH 1999
 Algeria Etablissement public de Télévision Algérienne,
Enterprise nationale de radiodiffusion,
Télédiffusion d'Algérie
 Andorra Ràdio i Televisió d'Andorra RTVA 2002
 Armenia Public Television and Radio Armenia: AMPTV 2005
 Austria Österreichischer Rundfunk ORF 1953
 Azerbaijan İctimai İCTI/İTV 2007
 Belarus Belaruskaja Tele-Radio Campanija BTRC 1993
 Belgium Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie,
Radio-Télévision Belge de la Communauté Française
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Javna Radio Televizijska servis Bosnie i Hercegovine BHRT 1993
 Bulgaria Bâlgarsko Nacionalno Radio BNR 1993
Bâlgarska Nacionalna Televiizija BNT 1993
 Croatia Hrvatska Radiotelevizija HRT 1993
 Cyprus Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation CYBC 1969
 Czech Republic Český Rozhlas ČR 1994
Česká Televize ČT 1994
 Denmark DR DR 1950
TV2 DK/TV2 1989
 Egypt Egyptian Radio and Television Union ERTU 1985
 Estonia Eesti Rahvusringhääling ERR 1993
 Finland Yleisradio YLE 1950
MTV3 FI/MTV 1993
 France Groupement des Radiodiffuseurs Français de l'UER: GRF 1950
Europe 1 E1 1978
 Georgia Georgian Public Broadcaster GPB 2005
 Germany Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: ARD 1952
Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen ZDF 1963
 Greece Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation ERT 1950-2013
 Hungary Hungarian Media Group: HMG 2014
 Iceland Ríkisútvarpið RÚV 1956
 Ireland Raidió Teilifís Éireann RTÉ 1950
TG4 TG4 2007
 Israel Israel Broadcasting Authority IBA 1957
 Italy Radiotelevisione Italiana RAI 1950
 Jordan Jordan Radio and Television Corporation JRTV 1970
 Latvia Latvijas Televīzija LTV 1993
Latvijas Radio LR 1993
 Lebanon Télé Liban TL 1950
 Libya Libya National Channel LNC 2011
 Lithuania Lietuvos Radijas ir Televizija LRT 1993
 Luxembourg CLT Multi Media CLT 1950
Établissement de Radiodiffusion Socioculturelle du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ERSL 1996
 Macedonia MKRTV MKRTV 1993
 Malta Public Broadcasting Services PBS 1970
 Moldova TeleRadio-Moldova TRM 1993
 Monaco Groupement de Radiodiffusion monégasque: GRMC 1950
 Montenegro Radiotelevizija Crne Gore RTCG 2006
 Morocco Société Nationale de Radiodiffusion et de Télévision SNRT 1969
 Netherlands Nederlandse Publieke Omroep: NPO 1950
 Norway Norsk Rikskringkasting NRK 1950
TV2 NO/TV2 1993
 Poland Polskie Radio i Telewizja: PRT 1993
 Portugal Rádio e Televisão de Portugal RTP 1950
 Romania Societatea Română de Radiodifuziune ROR 1993
Televiziunea Română RO/TVR 1993
 Russia Channel One Russia C1R 1996
Rossijskoe Teleradio RTR 1993
Radio Dom Ostankino: RDO 1996
 San Marino San Marino RTV SMRTV 1995
 Serbia Radiotelevizija Srbije RTS 2006
 Slovakia Rozhlas a televízia Slovenska RTVS 2011
 Slovenia Radiotelevizija Slovenija RTVSLO 1993
 Spain Radiotelevisión Española RTVE 1955
Sociedad Española de Radiodifusión SER 1982
Radio Popular SA COPE COPE 1998
 Sweden Sveriges Television och Radio Grupp: STR 1950
TV4 SE/TV4 2004
  Switzerland SRG SSR SRG SSR 1950
 Tunisia Radio tunisienne et Télévision tunisienne:
  • Radio tunisienne
  • Télévision tunisienne
RTTT 1950
 Turkey Türkiye Radyo-Televizyon Kurumu TRT 1950
 Ukraine Natsionalna Telekompanya Ukraïny NTU 1993
 United Kingdom British Broadcasting Corporation BBC 1950
United Kingdom Independent Broadcasting: UKIB 1960
  Vatican City Radio Vaticana RV 1950

Past active members

Country Broadcasting organisation Abbr. From To
 Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Television CST 1991 1992
 Greece New Hellenic Radio, Internet and Television NERIT 2014 2015
 Hungary Duna Televízió Duna 2013 2015
Magyar Rádió MR 1993 2015
Magyar Televízió MTV 1993 2015
 Monaco  Italy Telemontecarlo TMC 1981 2001
 Libya Libyan Jamahiriya Broadcasting Corporation (الجماهيرية اللّيبيّة) LJBC 1974 2011
 Serbia and Montenegro Alliance of Public Radio and Television UJRT 2001 2006
 Slovakia Slovenský rozhlas SRo 1993 2011
Slovenská televízia STV 1993 2011
 Spain Antena 3 Radio A3R 1986 1993
  Vatican City Vatican Television Center CTV 1950[15] 2012
 Yugoslavia Yugoslav Radio Television JRT 1950 1992

EBU membership applications

Below is a table of broadcasting networks who have submitted applications for Active EBU Membership and are either still under review, or have had their applications rejected.[16]

Country Broadcasting organisation Abbr. Notes Years
 Kosovo[note 1] Radio Television of Kosovo RTK RTK has shown interest into obtaining active EBU membership. However, they have yet to fulfil all the criteria set by the EBU for admission.[17][18][19] 2008
 Liechtenstein 1 Fürstentum Liechtenstein Television 1FLTV Liechtenstein's only television broadcaster began broadcasting on 15 August 2008. In July 2009, Peter Kölbel, broadcaster's managing director officially announced its intent to apply to join the EBU by the end of July 2009.[20] 2009, 2010
 Morocco La deuxième Télévision 2M TV The second commercial channel of Morocco has asked for membership of the EBU.[16][21] 2011
 Palestine Palestinian Broadcasting Corporation PBC The broadcasting corporation is a former Associate Member, and was alleged to have held negotiations with the EBU to become Active Members.[22] However, Palestine is not a member of the required organisations, and thus does not comply with the criteria.[16] 2007
 Qatar Qatar Radio QR Recently shown interest at Eurovision 2009, by sending delegates in the hope of applying for active membership.[23] However, their application has been denied under the current rules, due to the Gulf State being completely outside the European Broadcasting Area.[16] 2009

Associate members

Countries with Associate EBU Membership.

Any group or organisation member of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), which provide a radio or television service outside of the European Broadcasting Area, are permitted to submit applications to the EBU for Associate Membership. Countries which have this status also pay an annual fee to maintain this status. It was also noted by the EBU that any country that is granted Associate Member status does not include any access into the Eurovision system.[24]

The list of Associate Members of EBU, comprised the following 33 broadcasting companies from 21 countries as of May 2016.[3]

Country Broadcasting organisation Abbr. Year
 Australia Australian Broadcasting Corporation ABC 1950
FreeTV Australia Free 1962
Special Broadcasting Service SBS 1979
 Bangladesh National Broadcasting Authority of Bangladesh NBAB 1974
 Brazil Rádio Cultura RC 2012
 Canada Canadian Broadcasting Corporation/Societé Radio Canada CBC 1950
 Chile Canal 13 UCCTV 1971
 China China Central Television CCTV 2010
Shanghai Media Group SMG 2016
 Cuba Cuban Institute of Radio and Television ICRT 1992
 Georgia Teleimedi TEME 2004
Rustavi 2 RB 2003
 Hong Kong Radio Television Hong Kong RTHK 1983
 India All India Radio AIR 1979
 Iran Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting IRIB 1969
 Japan Nippon Hoso Kyokai NHK 1951
Tokyo Broadcasting System TBS 2000
Tokyo FM TFM 1986
 Kazakhstan Khabar Agency KA 2016
South Korea Republic of Korea Korean Broadcasting System KBS 1974
 Malaysia Radio Televisyen Malaysia RTM 1970
 Mauritius Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation MBC 1980
 New Zealand Radio New Zealand RNZ 1950
Television New Zealand TVNZ 1950
 Oman Public Authority for Radio and TV of Oman PART 1976
 South Africa South African Broadcasting Corporation SABC 1951
 Syria Organisme de la Radio-Télévision Arabe Syrienne ORTAS 1978
 United States Capital Cities/American Broadcasting Company ABC 1959
American Public Media APM 2004
CBS Corporation CBS 1956
National Public Radio NPR 1971
National Broadcasting Company NBC 1953
WFMT Radio Network WFMT 1980

Approved participant members

Any groups or organisations from a country with International Telecommunication Union (ITU) membership, which do not qualify for either the EBU's Active or Associate memberships, but still provide a broadcasting activity for the EBU, are granted a unique Approved Participants membership, which lasts approximately five years. An application for this status may be submitted to the EBU at any given time, providing an annual fee is paid.[25]

The following seven EBU broadcast members had status as Approved Participants in May 2016.[26]

Broadcasting organisation Abbr.
Catalunya Música CAT
Cellnex Telecom CELLNEX
Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Network RTRN
TV5Monde TV5

Organised events

The EBU in co-operation with the respective host broadcaster, organises competitions and events in which its Members can participate, if they wish to do so. These include:

Eurovision Song Contest

The Eurovision Song Contest (French: Concours Eurovision de la Chanson)[27] is an annual international song competition, that was first held in Lugano, Switzerland, on 24 May 1956. Seven countries participated – each submitting two songs, for a total of 14. This was the only contest in which more than one song per country was performed: since 1957 all contests have allowed one entry per country. The 1956 contest was won by the host nation, Switzerland.[28] In this competition, only countries that are members of the EBU can participate. The first winner was Switzerland, and the most recent is Ukraine with a new voting system. The first host city was Lugano, and the most recent is Stockholm.

Let the Peoples Sing

Main article: Let the Peoples Sing

Let the Peoples Sing is a biennial choir competition, the participants of which are chosen from radio recordings entered by EBU radio members. The final, encompassing three categories and around ten choirs, is offered as a live broadcast to all EBU members. The overall winner is awarded the Silver Rose Bowl.

Jeux Sans Frontières

Main article: Jeux Sans Frontières

Jeux Sans Frontières (English: Games Without Frontiers, or Games Without Borders) was a Europe-wide television game show. In its original conception, it was broadcast from 1965 to 1999 under the auspices of the EBU. The original series run ended in 1982 but was revived in 1988 with a different complexion of nations and was hosted by smaller broadcasters.

Eurovision Young Musicians

Eurovision Young Musicians is a competition for European musicians that are younger than 19 years old. It is organised by the EBU and is a member of EMCY. The first competition was held in Manchester, United Kingdom on 11 May 1982.

The televised competition is held every two years, with some countries holding national heats. Since its foundation in 1982, the Eurovision Young Musicians competition has become one of the most important music competitions on an international level.

Eurovision Young Dancers

The Eurovision Young Dancers is a biennial dance showcase broadcast on television throughout Europe. The first competition was held in Reggio Emilia, Italy on 16 June 1985.

It uses a format similar to the Eurovision Song Contest, every country that is a member of the EBU has had the opportunity to send a dance act to compete for the title of "Eurovision Young Dancer". The act can be either a solo act or a dance couple, and all contestants must be between the ages of 16 and 21 years and not professionally engaged.

Euroclassic Notturno

Main article: Euroclassic Notturno

Euroclassic Notturno is a six-hour sequence of classical music recordings assembled by BBC Radio from material supplied by members of the EBU and streamed back to those broadcasters by satellite for use in their overnight classical-music schedules. The recordings used are taken not from commercial CDs but from earlier (usually live) radio broadcasts.[29][30]

Junior Eurovision Song Contest

Junior Eurovision Song Contest (French: Concours Eurovision de la Chanson Junior),[31] is an annual international song competition, that was first held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 15 November 2003. Sixteen countries participated – each submitting one song, for a total of 16 entries. The 2003 Contest was won by Croatia and the current winner is Malta. The first host city was Copenhagen (2003) and the most recent is Valletta (2016).

Eurovision Dance Contest

The Eurovision Dance Contest (not to be confused with the Eurovision Young Dancers Competition) was an international dancing competition that was held for the first time in London, United Kingdom on 1 September 2007. The competition was repeated in 2008 when it was held in Glasgow, United Kingdom, but has not been held since.

Eurovision Magic Circus Show

The Eurovision Magic Circus Show is an entertainment show organised by the EBU, which began in 2010. Children aged between 7-14 representing countries within the EBU membership area, perform a variety of circus acts at the Geneva Christmas Circus (French: Cirque de Noël Genève). The main show is also accompanied by the Magic Circus Show Orchestra.[32]

Eurovision Choir of the Year

The Eurovision Choir of the Year is a new event being launched by the EBU, and the latest event to be launched since the Eurovision Magic Circus Show 2010. The event will consist of non-professional choirs who are members of the EBU, with the inaugural contest scheduled to take place on 22 July 2017, hosted by the Latvian broadcaster Latvijas Televīzija (LTV), and to coincide with the closing ceremony of the European Choir Games 2017.[33] The event will be officially confirmed on 30 November 2016 depending on a reasonable amount of interest from active members of the European Broadcasting Union.[34]

European Sports Championships

The European Sports Championships is a multi-sport event involving some of the leading sports in Europe. The European Governing Bodies for athletics, swimming, cycling, rowing and triathlon, will co-ordinate their individual championships as part of the first edition[35] in the summer of 2018, hosted by the cities of Berlin (already chosen as the host for the 2018 European Athletics Championships) and Glasgow (already chosen as the host for the 2018 European Aquatics Championships, and which will now also host the events of the other sports).[36][37]

See also

Notes and references


  1. Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received recognition as an independent state from 110 out of 193 United Nations member states.


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  2. "EBU Active Members". EBU. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
  3. 1 2 "EBU Associate Members". EBU. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
  4. "European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - Commission approves the EBU-Eurovision system". Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  5. "EBU - Eurovision Debate". EBU. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  6. "Which countries can take part in Eurovision?". Eurovision. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  7. "Joy to the World 2013: a Euroradio holiday music special on CBC Radio 2". CBC News.
  8. "Live Broadcasts Finally Okayed". Variety Asia Online. 10 July 2008. Retrieved 10 July 2008.
  9. (EBU), European Broadcasting Union. "EBU - Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra New Year's Concert". Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  10. EBU Media portal. Retrieved on 16 December 2011.
  11. "Greek public broadcaster ERT to be shut down, reopened with fewer employees". 11 June 2013. Retrieved 2014-04-28.
  12. O'Carroll, Lisa (12 June 2013). "ERT (Greek state broadcaster),Media,Television industry (Media),Radio industry (Media),Greece (News),Europe (News),World news,Digital media,Internet,Social media". The Guardian. London.
  13. "EBU - EBU urges Greek government to reverse decision on ERT.". EBU. 11 June 2013. Retrieved 2014-04-28.
  14. EBU Active Member list, EBU, last revised on 11 May 2015
  15. "Active members of the European Broadcasting Union" (PDF). European Jazz Competition. 4 September 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  16. 1 2 3 4 Repo, Juha (6 June 2012). "New EBU members? Not very likely". ESCToday. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  17. "EBU to launch Radio Television Kosovo from Pristina on 19 September 1999".
  18. "Radio Television Kosovo to go on air from Pristina on Sunday 19 September 1999".
  19. "Radio Television Kosovo launched successfully by EBU with Kouchner interview".
  20. Harley, Lee (21 July 2009). "Liechtenstein: Set to debut in Eurovision 2010?". Oikotimes. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
  21. "Morocco: No Return in 2014".
  22. Karhapää, Ilari (11 May 2007). "Palestinians wants to tell a different story". ESCToday. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  23. Repo, Juha (12 May 2009). "Gulf nation wants to join Eurovision". ESCToday. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
  24. "Admission". Retrieved 27 June 2009.
  25. "Approved Participants". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  26. "EBU Directory" (PDF). Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  27. "Winners of the Eurovision Song Contest" (PDF). European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  28. "Historical Milestones". European Broadcasting Union. 2005. Archived from the original on 26 May 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2006.
  29. "Euroradio Notturno". EBU. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  30. "Through the Night". BBC. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  31. "Official information page" (in French). European Broadcasting Union. 10 December 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
  32. Burkhardt, Nadja (6 August 2012). "Eurovision Magic Circus Show". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  33. Granger, Anthony (8 August 2016). "EBU to launch "Choir of the Year" contest". Eurovoix. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  34. Trustram, Matthew. "Choir of the Year 2017". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  36. "European Athletics - Leading sports bring together their European championships in 2018". Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  37. "Rowing joins the innovative European Sports Championships -". Retrieved 24 October 2016.

External links

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