Heinz Leymann

Heinz Leymann was born on 17 July 1932 in Wolfenbüttel, Germany. He was a Swedish citizen, famous for his studies on mobbing among humans. He held a degree in pedagogical psychology, and another one in psychiatry and worked as a psychologist. He was a professor at Umeå University, and died in 1999 in Stockholm.

Academic background

Leymann, who became a Swedish citizen in the mid-1950s, was awarded his Ph.D. in pedagogical psychology from Stockholm University in 1978.[1] He then went on to get another research doctorate (doktor i medicinsk vetenskap, "doctor of medical science," typically translated into English as Ph.D.) in psychiatry in 1990 from Umeå University.[2] Somewhat unusually, his doctorate in psychiatry was based on his clinical background as a psychologist; he did not go through medical training.[3]

Leymann's work on mobbing

Leymann pioneered research into mobbing in the 1980s. His initial research in the area was based on detailed case studies of a number of nurses who had committed or tried to commit suicide due to events at the workplace.[4] He developed the Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror (LIPT), a questionnaire of 45 mobbing actions.

Although he preferred the term bullying in the context of school children, some have come to regard mobbing as a form of group bullying. As professor and practicing psychologist, Leymann also noted one of the side-effects of mobbing is post-traumatic stress disorder and is frequently misdiagnosed.

Among researchers who have built on Leymann's work are:

See also


  1. Leymann, Heinz, Kan arbetslivet demokratiseras?: om vikten av att se demokratiseringen som en inlärningsprocess = [Is democracy on the job possible?] : [the significance of the learning process underlying democratic participation], Pedagogiska inst., Stockholms univ., Diss. Stockholm : Univ.,Stockholm, 1978 - LIBRIS record
  2. Leymann, Heinz, Psychological reactions to violence in working life: bank robberies, Umeå, 1990 (Umeå University medical dissertations, 0346-6612 ; N.S., 289) - LIBRIS record
  3. The Mobbing Encyclopaedia: A presentation of Professor Heinz Leymann, PhD, MD sci, accessed 2010-06-07
  4. Maciej Zaremba, Fritt fram i Sverige. Men brottsligt i Frankrike, Dagens Nyheter 2010-06-03 (Swedish)
  5. Davenport NZ, Schwartz RD & Elliott GP Mobbing, Emotional Abuse in the American Workplace, 3rd Edition 2005, Civil Society Publishing. Ames, IA,
  6. Hecker TE "Workplace Mobbing: a Discussion for Librarians." Journal of Academic Librarianship. 33:4, pp. 439–445 2007
  7. Shallcross L, Ramsay S & Barker M "Workplace Mobbing: Expulsion, Exclusion, and Transformation (2008) (blind peer reviewed) Australia and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference (ANZAM)
  8. Westhues K Eliminating Professors: A Guide to the Dismissal Process . Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press.
    Westhues K The Envy of Excellence: Administrative Mobbing of High-Achieving Professors Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press.]
    Westhues K "At the Mercy of the Mob" OHS Canada, Canada's Occupational Health & Safety Magazine (18:8), pp. 30–36.
  9. Zapf D & Einarsen S 2005 "Mobbing at Work: Escalated Conflicts in Organizations." Counterproductive Work Behavior: Investigations of Actors and Targets. Fox, Suzy & Spector, Paul E. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association vii. p.

Duffy, M., & Sperry, L. (2012). Mobbing: Causes, Consequences, and Solutions. New York: Oxford University Press.

External links

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