l'Espresso, 6 December 2007
|Former editors||Arrigo Benedetti, Eugenio Scalfari, Daniela Hamaui, Bruno Manfellotto|
|Circulation||195,787 (June 2014)|
|Company||Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso|
History and profile
One of Italy's foremost newsmagazines, l'Espresso was founded as a weekly magazine in Rome, in October 1955, by the N.E.R. (Nuove Edizioni Romane) publishing house of Carlo Caracciolo and the progressive industrialist Adriano Olivetti, manufacturer of Olivetti typewriters. Its chief editors were Arrigo Benedetti and Eugenio Scalfari.
l'Espresso was characterized from the beginning by aggressive investigative journalism strongly focussed on corruption and clientelism by the Christian Democrat party. In the 1950s, it uncovered major scandals in the health and housing industries. This made the main shareholder Olivetti unpopular with the ministries and large companies that were the primary customers of his main business. In 1956, with the magazine losing money, Olivetti made Caracciolo a present of the majority shareholding. Benedetti and Scalfari entered as major shareholders, as well.
The experienced Benedetti, who had directed the newsmagazine L'Europeo (1945–54), was the editor-in-chief until 1963, when he handed over to Scalfari. At the time average circulation reached 70,000 copies. In 1968, Scalfari was elected to the Italian Chamber of Deputies (1968–1972) and handed over as editor to Gianni Corbi.
The magazine's original format was that of large newspaper; it was converted into a small glossy format in 1974. In 1965, it introduced colour printing for photos, text, and adverts. In 1975, the publishing company N.E.R. changed its corporate title to Editoriale L'Espresso; circulation at the time exceeded 300,000 copies. In January 1976, the Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso also launched the daily newspaper La Repubblica, with Eugenio Scalfari as editor-in-chief, in a joint venture with Arnoldo Mondadori Editore.
In 1967, l'Espresso revealed the attempted 1964 coup d'état by General Giovanni Di Lorenzo, and in 1976 it conducted a strong campaign against the then Italian President, Giovanni Leone, for his alleged involvement in the Lockheed scandal. During the 1970s and 1980s, it strongly supported the campaigns for divorce and abortion.
From the mid-1970s onwards, a fierce competition developed with Italy's other major newsmagazine, Panorama, founded in 1962. The rivalry increased dramatically in the early 1990s, when Silvio Berlusconi – already controlling Panorama – attempted to absorb l'Espresso as well. The clash between Berlusconi and Carlo De Benedetti over the control of the Mondadori Group resulted in a break-up of assets, leading to the creation of the Espresso Group in its current form, with the CIR Group as majority shareholder.
Renowned journalists and writers who worked for l'Espresso include Giorgio Bocca, Umberto Eco, Giampaolo Pansa, Enzo Biagi, Michele Serra, Marco Travaglio, Roberto Saviano, Naomi Klein, and Jeremy Rifkin. In 2002, Daniela Hamaui was appointed editor-in-chief of the weekly, becoming the first woman to hold the post.
l'Espresso is based in Rome, but its business and finance newsroom is in Milan, Italy, now under Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso property. The editor is Bruno Manfellotto. l'Espresso has a website with news and blogs.
In May 2016, l'Espresso set up a secure platform based on GlobaLeaks technology to collect testimonials about torture and human rights abuse from Egyptian whistleblowers, and to seek justice for Giulio Regeni and for every Regeni in Egypt.
L'Espresso's circulation was 300,057 copies in 1984; rose to 400,334 copies in 2007, making it the fourth best-selling news magazine in Italy; was 334,260 copies in 2010; was 239,000 in 2013, based on the report of the Gruppo Editoriale l'Espresso; and was 195,787 in June 2014.
- Arrigo Benedetti (1955–1963)
- Eugenio Scalfari (1963–1968)
- Gianni Corbi (1968–1970)
- Livio Zanetti (1970–1984)
- Giovanni Valentini (journalist) (1984–1991)
- Claudio Rinaldi (1991–1999)
- Giulio Anselmi (1999–2002)
- Daniela Hamaui (2002–2010)
- Bruno Manfellotto (2010–present)
L'Espresso's past contributors have included such well-known journalists and columnists as Giampaolo Pansa, Giorgio Bocca, Enzo Biagi, Peter Gomez, and Edmondo Berson. Its notable current contributors include Eugenio Scalfari, Umberto Eco, Michele Serra, Stefano Bartezzaghi, Marco Travaglio, Massimo Riva, Alessandro Gilioli, Massimo Cacciari, Gianni Vattimo, Umberto Veronesi, Luigi Zingales, the Vatican correspondent Sandro Magister, the writer Roberto Saviano, and the economist Jeremy Rifkin.
- Enzo Biagi
- Giorgio Bocca
- Massimo Cacciari
- Umberto Eco
- Carlo Fruttero
- Massimiliano Fuksas
- Daria Galateria
- Fabrizio Gatti
- Tahar Ben Jelloun
- Naomi Klein
- Franco Lucentini
- Sandro Magister
- Alberto Moravia
- Moisés Naím
- Jeremy Rifkin
- Roberto Saviano
- Michele Serra
- Andrzej Stasiuk
- Marco Travaglio
- Gianni Vattimo
- Bruno Zevi
- Kim Kavin (18 February 2010). The Everything Travel Guide to Italy: A complete guide to Venice, Florence, Rome, and Capri - and all the breathtaking places in between. Everything Books. p. 404. ISBN 978-1-4405-0180-7. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
- "Products" (PDF). Gruppo Espresso. October 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "The most important Italian magazines". Life in Italy. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- Carlo Caracciolo: newspaper publisher who set up La Repubblica, The Times, 8 January 2009
- Gino Moliterno, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Italian Culture (PDF). London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-203-74849-2. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- History, Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso (Retrieved 30 January 2010)
- Anna Momigliano (16 September 2008). "In Italy, Female Editor Signals Women's Rise". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 24 November 2014. – via Questia (subscription required)
- Maria Teresa Crisci. "Relationships between numbers of readers per copy and the characteristics of magazines" (PDF). The Print and Digital Research Forum. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
- "Dati ADS (tirature e vendite)". Fotografi (in Italian). Retrieved 26 April 2015.
- Anne Austin et. al. (2008). "Western Europe Market and Media Fact" (PDF). Zenith Optimedia. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
- "World Magazine Trends 2010/2011" (PDF). FIPP. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
- Data Accertamenti Diffusione Stampa