Llanfair Pwllgwyngyll shown within Anglesey
|Population||3,107 (2011 UK census)|
|OS grid reference||SH528716|
|Principal area||Isle of Anglesey|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|UK Parliament||Ynys Môn|
|Welsh Assembly||Ynys Môn|
Llanfair Pwllgwyngyll or Llanfairpwllgwyngyll (pronounced [ɬanˌvair puɬˈɡwɨ̞nɡɨ̞ɬ]) is a large village and community on the island of Anglesey in Wales, situated on the Menai Strait next to the Britannia Bridge and across the strait from Bangor. It is alternatively known as Llanfairpwll, Llanfair PG, or Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch.
At the 2001 census, the population of the community was 3,040, 76% of whom spoke Welsh fluently; the highest percentage of speakers were in the 10–14 age group, where 97.1% spoke Welsh. By the time of the 2011 Census the population had increased to 3,107, of whom 70.62% were able to speak Welsh. It is the sixth largest settlement on the island by population.
The long form of the name was invented for promotional purposes in the 1860s; with 58 characters it is the longest place name in Europe and the second longest official one-word place name in the world.
A settlement has existed on the site of the village since the Neolithic era (4000–2000 BC), with subsistence agriculture and fishing the most common occupations for much of its early history. The island of Anglesey was at that point reachable only by boat across the Menai Strait. The area was briefly invaded and captured by the Romans under Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, temporarily abandoned in order to consolidate forces against Boudicca, then held until the end of Roman Britain.
With the withdrawal of the Roman forces, the area fell under the control of the early medieval Kingdom of Gwynedd. Under this feudal system, the residents worked small farms for the king. The rural nature of the settlement meant that the village had a population of only around 80 in 1563.
With the introduction of estates in the 16th century, much of the land was absorbed into the Earldom of Uxbridge, which later became the Marquisate of Anglesey; the inhabitants became tenant farmers on enclosures. In 1844, for example, 92% of the land in Llanfairpwll was owned by just three individuals. The population of the village boomed, with a population of 385 in the 1801 census and 83 houses, most of them in the old village (Pentre Uchaf, Upper Village).
In 1826, Anglesey was connected to the rest of Wales by the construction of the Menai Suspension Bridge by Thomas Telford, and connected with London in 1850 with the building of the Britannia Bridge and the busy North Wales Coast railway line, which connected London to the ferry port of Holyhead. The village decentralised, splitting into Upper Village (Pentre Uchaf), which was made up mainly of the older houses and farms, and the new Lower Village (Pentre Isaf), built around the railway station and consisting mostly of shops and workshops. The village became a hub of commerce, as the railways and road network brought traders and customers from across north Wales.
The first ever meeting of the Women's Institute took place in Llanfairpwll in 1915 and the movement (which began in Canada) then spread through the rest of the British Isles.
The long form of the name is the longest place name in the United Kingdom and one of the longest in the world at 58 characters (51 "letters" since "ch" and "ll" are digraphs, and are treated as single letters in the Welsh language).
The name means: Parish [church] of [St.] Mary (Llanfair) [in] Hollow (pwll) of the White Hazel [township] (gwyn gyll) near (go ger) the rapid whirlpool (y chwyrn drobwll) [and] the parish [church] of [St.] Tysilio (Llantysilio) with a red cave ([a]g ogo[f] goch).
This village was originally known as Llanfair Pwllgwyngyll and is sometimes still referred to as Llanfairpwllgwyngyll and was given its long name in the 19th century in an attempt to develop it as a commercial and tourist centre (see Significance of the name below). The village is still signposted Llanfairpwllgwyngyll, marked on Ordnance Survey maps as Llanfair Pwllgwyngyll and known to locals as Llanfairpwll or Llanfair. The railway station, despite having signs displaying the long name, is officially named Llanfairpwll.
The name is also shortened to Llanfair PG, which is sufficient to distinguish it from the many other Welsh villages with Llanfair in their names. Other variant forms use the longer name but with tysilio mutated to dysilio, and/or with a hyphen between drobwll and llan. In Welsh, the initial Ll may be mutated to a single L in some contexts.
Significance of the name
The long name was contrived in the 1860s to bestow upon the station the feature of having the longest name of any railway station in Britain, an early example of a publicity stunt. The village's website credits the name to a cobbler from the nearby village of Menai Bridge. According to Sir John Morris-Jones the name was created by a local tailor, whose name he did not confide, letting the secret die with him. The current postmark shows the name Llanfairpwllgwyngyll, but there are contemporary examples of the longer name seen below.
The village was originally known as Llanfair Pwllgwyngyll ("St Mary's in Hollow of the White Hazel Township"). Pwllgwyngyll was the original medieval township where the village is today. Old variants (with the Welsh spelling normalised) were Llanfair y Pwllgwyngyll (y = "(of) the") and Llanfair Ymhwll Gwyngyll (mh is a sandhi change (nasal mutation) from 'n p', and "yn" = 'in').
The village is split into two smaller villages, Llanfairpwllgwyngyll-uchaf (Upper Llanfairpwllgwyngyll), the original part of the village, and Llanfairpwllgwyngyll-isaf (Lower Llanfairpwllgwyngyll), the newer area nearer the railway station. These are occasionally referred to as Pentre Uchaf and Pentre Isaf (Upper Village and Lower Village).
The approximate pronunciation in English orthography is given at the station as: Llan-vire-pooll-guin-gill-go-ger-u-queern-drob-ooll-llandus-ilio-gogo-goch. The ch is a voiceless uvular fricative [χ] or voiceless velar fricative as in "Bach" ([bax]: see ach-Laut) in most varieties of German. The ll is a voiceless lateral fricative [ɬ], a sound that does not occur in English, but can be approximated by holding the tongue in the position for an [l] and pronouncing an [h].
In popular culture
The Welsh band Super Furry Animals called their debut E.P. Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch (In Space).
The song "Red Cave" by Brooklyn-based indie rock band Yeasayer references the English translation of the village name with these lyrics: "Mary's house in the hollow of the white hazel rapid whirlpool at the church of the red cave."
The name was used in the movie Barbarella as the password for the headquarters of Dildano, the comical revolutionary, and by Peter Sellers in the film The Road to Hong Kong where he plays a quack doctor who asks Bob Hope to say it instead of the more usual "Ahh" when examining his teeth.
The name was used as a solution in a cryptic crossword compiled by Roger Squires for The Telford and Wrekin News when royalty visited Ironbridge in 1979 on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the first iron bridge. It was submitted to Guinness World Records as the longest word to appear in a published crossword. The clue was "Giggling troll follows Clancy, Larry, Billy and Peggy who howl, wrongly disturbing a place in Wales (58)", where all but the last five words formed an anagram.
Actress Naomi Watts once lived in the village with her grandfather. Watts and Taron Egerton, who also spent years of his childhood in the village, both appeared on U.S. late-night talk shows where they pronounced the name of their home.
In September 2015, Channel 4 Welsh weatherman Liam Dutton successfully pronounced the full name of the village during a live forecast. Within 24 hours of being uploaded to YouTube by Channel 4, the video of the pronunciation had accumulated well over five million views, and as of July 2016, the video had 14.3 million views.
|Climate data for Llanfairpwllgwyngyll, 1961–1990, Altitude: 15 metres above mean sea level|
|Record high °C (°F)|| 15
|Average high °C (°F)|| 7.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)|| 5.2
|Average low °C (°F)|| 2.6
|Record low °C (°F)|| −9
|Average rainfall mm (inches)|| 107
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)||19.7||15.0||18.9||14.1||18.9||13.7||13.1||15.1||15.8||18.7||19.5||19.5||202|
|Average snowy days||2.9||3.1||1.7||0.7||0.1||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.4||1.6||10.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||49.6||73.5||105.4||153.0||195.3||183.0||173.6||164.3||126.0||93.0||57.0||40.3||1,414|
|Source: Met Office|
- Wilfred Mitford Davies – artist and publisher
- Siobhan Owen – soprano/harpist
- Naomi Watts – actress
- John Lasarus Williams – Welsh nationalist activist
- Kyffin Williams – landscape painter
- Taron Egerton – actor
- "Check Browser Settings".
- "Community population and percentage of Welsh speakers". Retrieved 18 May 2015.
- "Here's the story behind the 58-letter town name in Wales that everyone is talking about". Retrieved 18 September 2016.
- David Barnes, The Companion Guide to Wales, 2005, p.318
- Eugene Byrne, "Pronounced how?", HistoryExtra, 22 July 2011
- Melville Richards, "Place Names", in An Atlas of Anglesey (Anglesey Community Council. Llangefni, 1972). The late Professor Melville was one of Wales' leading authorities on place names.
- "Llanfairpwllgwyngyll". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "Blog Archive » Guardian 25,102 / Rufus". Fifteensquared.net. 30 August 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- "Steam Community :: Sid Meier's Civilization V :: Achievements".
- "Watch Jimmy Kimmel Live: Naomi Watts' Unpronounceable Town Name Online – Hulu". Hulu.
- Naomi Watts’ Unpronounceable Town Name. 6 March 2015 – via YouTube.
- Hugh Jackman and Jimmy Try Pronouncing Taron Egerton's Hometown. 23 February 2016 – via YouTube.
- "Liam Dutton pronounces Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch perfectly". Mail Online. 9 September 2015.
- Channel 4 News (9 September 2015), Liam Dutton nails pronouncing Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch, retrieved 20 July 2016
- "Example climate estimate". Met Office.
- Village website, listed in the 2002 Guinness Book of Records as the world's longest valid Internet domain name
- Llanfairpwllgwyngyll at DMOZ
- Explanation of village name
- Flickr photos
- Photos of Llanfair PG and surrounding area on geograph