National Democratic Alliance (India)

National Democratic Alliance
राष्ट्रीय प्रजातंत्रिक गठबंधन
Chairperson Amit Shah
Lok Sabha leader Narendra Modi
Rajya Sabha leader Arun Jaitley
Former Prime Minister(s) Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Founder Bharatiya Janata Party
Founded 1998
Political position Centre-right to Right-wing
No. of members 44 Parties
Seats in Lok Sabha
339 / 545

Present Members 541 + 1 Speaker

Seats in Rajya Sabha
73 / 245

Present Members 245

The National Democratic Alliance (NDA, Hindi: राष्ट्रीय जनतांत्रिक गठबंधन) is a centre-right[1] coalition of political parties in India. At the time of its formation in 1998, it was led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and had thirteen constituent parties. Its honorary chairman is former prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Also representing the alliance are L. K. Advani, former deputy prime minister, who is the acting chairman of the Alliance, Narendra Modi, current Prime Minister of India and Leader of the House in Lok Sabha; and Arun Jaitley, Leader of the House in the Rajya Sabha. The coalition was in power from 1998 to 2004. The alliance returned to power in the AprilMay 2014 election with a combined vote share of 38.5%.[2] Its leader, Narendra Modi, was sworn in as Prime Minister of India on 26 May 2014.


Prime Minister Narendra Modi

The National Democratic Alliance was formed in May 1998 as a coalition to contest the general elections. It was led by the Bharatiya Janata Party, and included several regional parties, including the Samta Party and the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), as well as Shiv Sena, the only member which shared the Hindutva ideology of the BJP.[3][4] With outside support provided by the Telugu Desam Party (TDP), the NDA was able to muster a slim majority in the elections of 1998, and Atal Bihari Vajpayee returned as prime minister.[5] The government collapsed within a year because the (AIADMK) withdrew its support. After the entry of a few more regional parties, the NDA proceeded to win the 1999 elections with a larger majority. Vajpayee became prime minister for a third time, this time for a full five-year term.[6]

The NDA called elections in early 2004, six months ahead of schedule. Its campaign was based around the slogan of "India Shining" which attempted to depict the NDA government as responsible for a rapid economic transformation of the country. However, the NDA unexpectedly suffered a heavy defeat, winning only a 186 seats in the Lok Sabha, compared to the 222 of the United Progressive Alliance led by the Congress, with Manmohan Singh succeeding Vajpayee as prime minister. Some commentators have stated that the NDA's failure to reach out to rural Indians was the explanation for its defeat; others have pointed to its "divisive" policy agenda as the reason.[7][8]


The National Democratic Alliance does not have a formal governing structure in place, such as an executive board or politburo. It has been up to the leaders of the individual parties to make decisions on issues such as sharing of seats in elections, allocation of ministries and the issues that are raised in Parliament. Given the varied ideologies among the parties, there have been many cases of disagreement and split voting among the allies. Owing to ill health, George Fernandes, who was the NDA convener until 2008, was discharged of his responsibility and replaced by Sharad Yadav, the national president of the Janata Dal(United) political party. On 16 June 2013, the JD(U) left the coalition and Sharad Yadav resigned from the role of the NDA convener.[9]

Present Members and Seats in Parliament

Currently, the parties in and supporting the NDA are:[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]

No Party Current No. of MPs in Lok Sabha (As on 4 December 2016) Current No. of MPs in Rajya Sabha (As on 4 December 2016) Base State
1 Bharatiya Janata Party 283
(280 Elected + 2 Nominated + 1 Speaker)
55 National Party
2 Shiv Sena 18 3 Maharashtra
3 Telugu Desam Party 16 6 Telangana, Andhra Pradesh
4 Lok Janshakti Party 6 0 Bihar, Kerala
5 Shiromani Akali Dal 4 3 Punjab
6 Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party 1 2 Jammu and Kashmir
7 Rashtriya Lok Samta Party 3 0 Bihar
8 Apna Dal 2 0 Uttar Pradesh
9 Swabhimani Paksha 1 0 Maharashtra
10 Naga People's Front 1 1 Nagaland
11 Pattali Makkal Katchi 1 0 Tamil Nadu
12 National People's Party 1 0 Meghalaya
13 All India N.R. Congress 1 0 Puducherry
14 Sikkim Democratic Front 1 1 Sikkim
15 Republican Party of India (A) 0 1 Maharashtra
16 Bodoland People's Front 0 1 Assam
17 Mizo National Front 0 0 Mizoram
18 Rashtriya Samaj Paksha 0 0 Maharashtra
19 Shiv Sangram 0 0 Maharashtra
20 Kongunadu Makkal Desia Katchi 0 0 Tamil Nadu
21 Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi 0 0 Tamil Nadu
22 Puthiya Needhi Katchi 0 0 Tamil Nadu
23 Jana Sena Party 0 0 Telangana, Andhra Pradesh
24 Gorkha Janmukti Morcha 0 0 West Bengal
25 Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party 0 0 Goa
26 Goa Vikas Party 0 0 Goa
27 All Jharkhand Students Union 0 0 Jharkhand
28 Indigenous People's Front of Tripura 0 0 North-East
29 Manipur Peoples Party 0 0 Manipur
30 Kamtapur People's Party 0 0 West Bengal
31 Jammu and Kashmir People's Conference 0 0 Jammu and Kashmir
32 Hindustani Awam Morcha (Secular) 0 0 Bihar
33 Kerala Congress (Thomas) 0 0 Kerala
34 Bharath Dharma Jana Sena 0 0 Kerala
35 Asom Gana Parishad 0 0 Assam
36 Janathipathiya Samrakshana Samithy 0 0 Kerala
37 People's Party of Arunachal 0 0 Arunachal Pradesh
38 United Democratic Party (Meghalaya) 0 0 Meghalaya
39 Hill State People's Democratic Party 0 0 Meghalaya
40 Praja Socialist Party 0 0 Kerala
41 Janadhipathya Rashtriya Sabha 0 0 Kerala
42 Kerala Vikas Congress 0 0 Kerala
43 Pravasi Nivasi Party 0 0 Kerala
44 Manipur Democratic People's Front 0 0 North-East
Total 339 73 India

NDA Governments in various states

As of May 2016, states with BJP governments are shown in orange (7), and NDA governments in Light orange (8) States/UT where the INC is in power in Dark Blue(7), where INC is in power with other parties as Light blue(1) & States/UT with others Government in Green (8)

As of May 2016, the BJP holds a majority of assembly in 9 states: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Goa, Haryana, Maharashtra, Assam and Jharkhand. In 6 other states – Punjab, Nagaland, Jammu & Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh respectively – it shares power with other political parties of the NDA coalition. The BJP has previously been the sole party in power in Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, and Delhi. It has also ruled Odisha, and Bihar as part of coalition governments.[25] In 2014 Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly elections, BJP emerged as 2nd largest party by winning 25 seats and largest party by vote share of 23%.[26]

List of Current NDA Chief Ministers

No State/UT Govt Since Chief Minister CM's Party CM Since Alliance Partner Seats in Assembly Percentage of Seats
1 Sikkim 12 December 1994 Pawan Kumar Chamling SDF 12 December 1994 BJP 21/32 65
2 Gujarat 28 February 1998 Vijay Rupani BJP 07 August 2016 None 123/182 67
3 Chhattisgarh 4 December 2003 Raman Singh BJP 7 December 2003 None 49/90 54
4 Madhya Pradesh 4 December 2003 Shivraj Singh Chouhan BJP 29 November 2005 None 166/230 72
5 Punjab 13 February 2007 Prakash Singh Badal SAD 1 March 2007 BJP 72/117 62
6 Nagaland 8 March 2008 T. R. Zeliang NPF 24 May 2014 BJP 50/60 83
7 Goa 6 March 2012 Laxmikant Parsekar BJP 8 November 2014 MGP 24/40 60
8 Rajasthan 8 December 2013 Vasundhara Raje BJP 13 December 2013 None 160/200 80
9 Andhra Pradesh 16 May 2014 N. Chandrababu Naidu TDP 8 June 2014 BJP 107/175 61
10 Haryana 19 October 2014 Manohar Lal Khattar BJP 26 October 2014 None 47/90 52
11 Maharashtra 19 October 2014 Devendra Fadnavis BJP 31 October 2014 Shiv Sena 186/288 65
12 Jharkhand 23 December 2014 Raghubar Das BJP 28 December 2014 AJSU 47/81 57
13 Jammu and Kashmir 4 April 2016 Mehbooba Mufti PDP 4 April 2016 BJP JKPC 55/87 63
14 Assam 19 May 2016 Sarbananda Sonowal BJP 19 May 2016 AGP BPF GP 86/126 68
15 Arunachal Pradesh 16 September 2016 Pema Khandu PPA 16 September 2016 BJP 54/60 90

BJP Strength in State Legislatives Vidhan Sabha

No State/UT Seats in Assembly Seats- BJP Seats- NDA Partners Government Ref(s)
1 Andhra Pradesh 175 4 Telugu Desam Party (103) NDA [27]
2 Arunachal Pradesh 60 11 People's Party of Arunachal (43) People's Party of Arunachal [28]
3 Assam 126 60 Bodoland People's Front (12), Asom Gana Parishad (14), Ganashakti Party (1) BJP [29]
4 Bihar 243 53 Lok Janshakti Party (2), Rashtriya Lok Samata Party (2), Hindustani Awam Morcha (1) RJD + JDU + Congress [30]
5 Chhattisgarh 90 49 NA BJP [31]
6 Goa 40 21 Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party (3), Goa Vikas Party (2) BJP [32]
7 Gujarat 182 123 NA BJP [33]
8 Haryana 90 47 None BJP [34]
9 Himachal Pradesh 68 26 NA Congress [35]
10 Jammu and Kashmir 87 25 Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party (28), Jammu & Kashmir People's Conference (2), Independents(2) NDA [36]
11 Jharkhand 81 43 All Jharkhand Students Union (4) BJP [37]
12 Karnataka 224 46 NA Congress [38]
13 Kerala 140 1 NA LDF [39]
14 Madhya Pradesh 230 166 NA BJP [40]
15 Maharashtra 288 122 Shiv Sena (63), Rashtriya Samaj Paksha (1), Independent(1) NDA [41]
16 Manipur 60 2 Naga People's Front (4), Lok Janshakti Party (1) Congress [42]
17 Meghalaya 60 0 United Democratic Party (8), National Peoples Party (2), Hill State People's Democratic Party (4) Congress [43]
18 Mizoram 40 0 Mizo National Front (5) Congress [44]
19 Nagaland 60 4 Naga People's Front (46) NDA [45]
20 Odisha 147 10 NA BJD [46]
21 Punjab 117 12 Shiromani Akali Dal (60) NDA [47]
22 Rajasthan 200 160 National Peoples Party(4) BJP [48]
23 Sikkim 32 0 Sikkim Democratic Front (21) NDA [49]
24 Tamil Nadu 234 0 NA AIADMK [50]
25 Telangana 119 5 Telugu Desam Party (3) TRS [51]
26 Tripura 60 0 NA CPIM [52]
27 Uttar Pradesh 403 41 Apna Dal (1) SP [53]
28 Uttarakhand 70 28 NA Congress [54]
29 West Bengal 294 3 Gorkha Janmukti Morcha (3) AITC [55]
30 NCT of Delhi 70 3 NA AAP [56]
31 Puducherry 30 0 All India N.R. Congress (8) Congress [57]
TOTAL 4120 1065 463 NDA STATES -15

List of Prime Ministers

No. Prime Ministers Year Duration Constituency
1 Atal Bihari Vajpayee 1996, 1998–04 6 years Lucknow
2 Narendra Modi 2014 Incumbent Varanasi

List of NDA Candidates for 2014

Alliance Election wise

For Lok Sabha Election 2014

Party Base State Seats Contested Seats Won Seat Change
Bharatiya Janata Party National Party 426 282 Increase166
Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam Tamil Nadu 15 0 0
Pattali Makkal Katchi Tamil Nadu 8 1 Increase1
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Tamil Nadu 7 0 Decrease1
Kongunadu Makkal Desia Katchi Tamil Nadu 1 0 0
Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi Tamil Nadu 1 0 0
New Justice Party Tamil Nadu 1 0 0
Telugu Desam Party AP, Telangana 30 16 Increase10
Jana Sena Party AP, Telangana 0
Shiv Sena Maharashtra 20 18 Increase7
Swabhimani Paksha Maharashtra 2 1 Increase0
Republican Party of India (Athvale) Maharashtra 1 0 0
Rashtriya Samaj Paksha Maharashtra 1 0 0
Shiromani Akali Dal Punjab 10 4 Increase0
Lok Janshakti Party Bihar 7 6 Increase6
Rashtriya Lok Samata Party Bihar 3 3 Increase3
Haryana Janhit Congress Haryana 2 0 Decrease1
Apna Dal Uttar Pradesh 2 2 Increase2
Kerala Congress (Nationalist) Kerala 1 0 0
Revolutionary Socialist Party (Bolshevik) Kerala 1 0 0
All India N.R. Congress Puducherry 1 1 Increase1
National People's Party (India) Meghalaya 1 1 Increase1
Naga People's Front Nagaland 1 1 Increase0
Mizo National Front Mizoram 1 0 0
Manipur Peoples Party Manipur 0
North-East Regional Political Front North East #
Gorkha Janmukti Morcha West Bengal 0
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party Goa 0
Goa Vikas Party Goa 0
National Democratic Alliance – Total India 543 336 Increase195

^ BJP had fielded 427 candidates on 427 seats out of 543 but nomination of BJP candidate S. Gurumoorthy was rejected from Niligiris for failing to submit mandatory forms during his nomination.[58][59][60][61][62][63]
(#) NPP, NPF and MNF are contesting in each Seats & Other 8 Members supporting NDA Candidates

For Lok Sabha election 2009

Prime minister candidate Parties
L. K. Advani Bhartiya Janata Party

Janata Dal (United)
Shiv Sena
Indian National Lok Dal
Rashtriya Lok Dal
Asom Gana Parishad
Nagaland People's Front
Gorkha Janmukti Morcha
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal
Kamtapur Progressive Party
Ladakh Union Territory Front

Telangana Rashtra Samithi[64]

For Lok Sabha Election 2004

Prime Minister Candidate Parties
A B Vajpayee Bharatiya Janata Party

Janata Dal (United)
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Telugu Desam Party
Biju Janata Dal
Shiromani Akali Dal
All India Trinamool Congress
Shiv Sena
Janata Party
Mizo National Front
Indian Federal Democratic Party
Manipur State Congress Party

For Lok Sabha election 1999

Prime Minister Candidate Parties
A B Vajpayee Bharatiya Janata Party

Janata Dal (United)
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Samata Party
Biju Janata Dal
Shiromani Akali Dal
Nationalist Trinamool Congress
Shiv Sena
Pattali Makkal Katchi
Lok Shakti
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhhagam
Haryana Vikas Party
Indian National Lok Dal
Mizo National Front
Sikkim Democratic Front
Manipur State Congress Party
Telugu Desam Party (External Support)

For Lok Sabha Election 1998

Prime Minister Candidate Parties
A B Vajpayee Bharatiya Janata Party

All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Samata Party
Biju Janata Dal
Shiromani Akali Dal
Nationalist Trinamool Congress
Shiv Sena
Pattali Makkal Katchi
Lok Shakti
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhhagam
Haryana Vikas Party
Janata Party
Mizo National Front

Past members

No Party Base State Withdrawal Date Reason for Withdrawal
1 Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Tamil Nadu 1999 Aligned with Indian National Congress during 1999 elections[65]
2 Lok Shakti Bihar 1999 Merged with Janata Dal (United) for 1999 Elections
3 J & K National Conference J & K 2002 Blaming the BJP for its loss in the Jammu and Kashmir state elections.
4 Samta Party Bihar 2003 Merged with Janata Dal (United) in 2003
5 Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Tamil Nadu 2004 Aligned with Congress Party during 2004 elections
6 Haryana Vikas Party Haryana 2004 Aligned with Congress Party during 2004 elections
7 Indian Federal Democratic Party Kerala 2004 Following the 2004 election, Merged with Kerala Congress
8 All India Trinamool Congress West Bengal 2007 Aligned with the Congress party before the 2009 elections.
9 Indian National Lok Dal Haryana 2009 Left due to seat sharing disagreements during assembly elections 2009.
10 Biju Janata Dal Odisha 2009 Left the alliance just over a month before the 2009 elections.
11 Telangana Rashtra Samithi Telangana 2009 Left the alliance post defeat in 2009 election.
12 Janata Dal (Secular) Karnataka 2010 Left the alliance in 2010
13 Ladakh Union Territory Front J & K 2010 Merged with BJP.
14 Kamtapur Progressive Party West Bengal 2010 Withdrew Support due to Merger with Kamtapur People's Party.
15 Uttarakhand Kranti Dal Uttarakhand 2012 Withdrew Support before State Elections
16 Rashtriya Lok Dal UP 2012 Has allied with Congress for 2012 Uttar Pradesh legislative assembly election
17 Jharkhand Mukti Morcha Jharkhand 2012 Withdrew from alliance in 2012
18 Janata Dal (United) Bihar 2013 Withdrew on 16 June 2013 against Narendra Modi's candidate-ship as PM.
19 Janata Party Tamil Nadu 2013 Merged with BJP
20 Haryana Janhit Congress (BL) Haryana 2014 Withdrew from alliance before Haryana Legislative Assembly election, 2014[66]
21 Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Tamil Nadu 2014 Withdrew alliance in a view to Tamil Nadu Elections 2016
22 Kerala Congress (Nationalist) Kerala 2016 Merged with BJP[67]
23 Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam Tamil Nadu 2016 Withdrew alliance in a view to Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly election, 2016
24 Revolutionary Socialist Party of Kerala (Bolshevik) kerala 2016 Withdrew alliance in a view to Kerala Legislative Assembly election, 2016[68]

Year by year changes


New parties that have joined NDA coalition are Haryana based Haryana Janhit Congress (BL) and Maharashtra based Republican Party of India.
Ajit Singh led Rashtriya Lok Dal has withdrawn from NDA.


Presidential election

NDA nominated P. A. Sangma as its presidential candidate who lost against UPA's Pranab Mukherjee.

Vice-Presidential election

Jaswant Singh was named as the candidate for the post of Vice-President against UPA's Hamid Ansari. Ansari won his second term in office.[69]


On 16 June 2013, Nitish Kumar led Janta Dal United(JD-U) has withdrawn from NDA.

On 13 September 2013, Narendra Modi declared as PM candidate for 2014 Elections

On 11 August 2013, after a discussion with BJP President Rajnath Singh, Janata Party Chairman Dr.Subramanian Swamy officially joined Bharatiya Janata Party and merged his Janata Party with the Bharatiya Janata Party in presence of BJP president Rajnath Singh.The announcement was made by Mr Swamy and BJP president Rajnath Singh after they met at the latter's residence in Delhi. Former BJP chief Nitin Gadkari and senior party leader Arun Jaitley were also present at the meet.


On 1 January 2014, Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhhagam leader Vaiko has announced that MDMK formally joined back to NDA. Vaiko also announced Modi will be the best candidate for Prime Minister.[70] The two small parties viz Kongunadu Munnetra Kazhagam and Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi have also joined NDA Alliance. The BJP would like Two more southern parties such as Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam, Pattali Makkal Katchi to also join the alliance.[71]

In Maharashtra, two regional political outfits, Swabhimani Paksha and Rashtriya Samaj Paksha, joined NDA in January. [72] The coalition of Five parties is termed as Mahayuti. So in Maharashtra now NDA alliance consist of 5 Parties viz BJP, Shiv Sena, Republican Party of India, Swabhimani Paksha and Rashtriya Samaj Paksha.[73]

On 23 February 2014, Rashtriya Lok Samata Party led by Upendra Kushwaha joined NDA and will be contesting at 3 Lok Sabha seats in Bihar.[74] On 27 February 2014 Lok Janshakti Party led by Ramvilas Paswan joined NDA[75] It would contest at 7 Lok Sabha Seats in Bihar during 2014 Elections.[76]

DMDK will be fighting Lok Sabha Election through an alliance with BJP led NDA.[77] MDMK, PMK led Social Democratic Alliance are the other allies of NDA in Tamil Nadu.

Maharashtra Navnirman Sena : Its President, Sh. Raj Thackeray announced external support to NDA on 9 March 2014 which is marked as Party's formation day, supporting Sh. Narendra Modi as Prime Ministerial Candidate.

Indian National Lok Dal : Its Gen. Sec., Sh. Ajay Singh Chautala announced external support to NDA, supporting Sh. Narendra Modi as Prime Ministerial Candidate.

Lok Satta Party : President Shri J P Narayan announced external support to NDA, supporting PM candidate Narendra Modi ji.

All India NR Congress (AINRC) formally joined NDA on 13 March 2014 and will be contesting in Puducherry Lok Sabha constituency.[13]

Telugu Desam Party (TDP) has rejoined NDA on 6 April, after breaking alliance in 2004 post general election defeat.[78]

Shiv Sena Though Shiv Sena has quit Mahayuti in Maharashtra, before Maharashtra Legislative Assembly Elections 2014, but has decided to remain with NDA at the Centre.[79]

All Jharkhand Students Union BJP on Monday clinched an alliance with All Jharkhand Students Unions for Jharkhand Assembly elections under which its junior partner will contest eight of the 81 seats in the state.[80]


Bharatiya Janata Party on Friday, February 27, 2015 clinched an alliance with People's Democratic Party for Government Formation in Jammu & Kashmir under which its CM will be from PDP in the state.[81]


In January 2016, Bharatiya Janata Party clinched an alliance with Bodoland People's Front in Assam for its upcoming state elections in Assam.[82]

In March 2016, after a meeting with AGP President Atul Bora and Former Chief minister Prafulla Kumar Mahanta ,BJP Strikes alliance with Asom Gana Parishad for upcoming Assam legislative assembly election 2016.[83] Bjp also aligned with Rabha and Tiwa Tribe outfit Rabha Jatiya Aikya Manch and Tiwa Jatiya Aikya Manch....

In March 2016, BJP forges alliance with Kerala-based Ezhava outfit Bharath Dharma Jana Sena Party for Kerala Vidhansabha election 2016.[84]

Following BJP's victory in the Assam Legislative Assembly Elections 2016, the party formed an alliance of like-minded non-Congress parties in the Northeast, called the North-East Democratic Alliance, consisting of 11 regional parties of Northeast India. Himanta Biswa Sarma, BJP leader from Assam has been appointed Convenor of the regional alliance.

See also


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  55. West Bengal Legislative Assembly
  56. Delhi Legislative Assembly
  57. Puducherry Legislative Assembly
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