A pension fund, also known as a superannuation fund in some countries, is any plan, fund, or scheme which provides retirement income.
Pension funds typically have large amounts of money to invest and are the major investors in listed and private companies. They are especially important to the stock market where large institutional investors dominate. The largest 300 pension funds collectively hold about $6 trillion in assets. In January 2008, The Economist reported that Morgan Stanley estimates that pension funds worldwide hold over US$20 trillion in assets, the largest for any category of investor ahead of mutual funds, insurance companies, currency reserves, sovereign wealth funds, hedge funds, or private equity.
Open vs. closed pension funds
Closed pension funds are further subclassified into:
- Single employer pension funds
- Multi-employer pension funds
- Related member pension funds
- Individual pension funds
Public vs. private pension funds
A public pension fund is one that is regulated under public sector law while a private pension fund is regulated under private sector law.
In certain countries the distinction between public or government pension funds and private pension funds may be difficult to assess. In others, the distinction is made sharply in law, with very specific requirements for administration and investment. For example, local governmental bodies in the United States are subject to laws passed by the states in which those localities exist, and these laws include provisions such as defining classes of permitted investments and a minimum municipal obligation.
Largest pension funds
|Country||Fund||Assets US$ (in billions)|| Reporting
|United States||Federal Old-age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund (Social Security)||$2837||2015||1935||Non-commodity|
|Japan||Government Pension Investment Fund||$1103||2015||2006||Non-commodity|
|Norway||Government Pension Fund of Norway||$898||2015||1990||Oil|
|United States||Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund||$850||2014||1920||Non-commodity|
|United States||Military Retirement Fund||$474||2014||Non-commodity|
|South Korea||National Pension Service (NPS)||$419||2015||1988||Non-commodity|
|Netherlands||Stichting Pensioenfonds ABP (ABP)||$388 (€344)||1922||Non-commodity|
|United States||Thrift Savings Plan (TSP)||$407||2014||1986||Non-commodity|
|United States (California)||California Public Employees' Retirement System (CalPERS)||$289.8||1932||Non-commodity|
|China||National Social Security Fund||$251||2015||2000||Non-commodity|
|Canada||Canada Pension Plan and CPP Investment Board||$217||2015||1965||Non-commodity|
|Singapore||Central Provident Fund||$208||2014||1955||Non-commodity|
|Netherlands||Stichting Pensioenfonds Zorg en Welzijn (PFZW, formerly PGGM)||$183 (€162)||1969||Non-commodity|
|United States (California)||California State Teachers' Retirement System (CalSTRS)||$189.1||1913||Non-commodity|
|Malaysia||Employees Provident Fund||$185||2014||1991||Non-commodity|
|Canada (Quebec)||Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec (The Caisse, or CDPQ)||$176||1965||Non-commodity|
|Canada (Ontario)||Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan||$150||1990||Non-commodity|
|South Africa||Government Employees Pension Fund (GEPF)||$112 (ZAR1426b)||1996||Non-commodity|
|India||Employees' Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO)||$123||2015||1952||Non-commodity|
|Denmark||Arbejdsmarkedets Tillægspension (ATP)||$119||2015||1964||Non-commodity|
|Brazil||Caixa de Previdencia dos Funcionários do Banco do Brasil (PREVI)||$80||1904||Finance|
|Ireland||National Pension Reserve Fund (NPRF)||$30||2001||Non-commodity|
|France||Pensions Reserve Fund (France) (NPRF)||$56||2001||Non-commodity|
- Public Sector Superannuation accumulation plan (current scheme for federal civil servants)
- Military Superannuation and Benefits Scheme (current scheme for Australian Defence Force personnel)
- Public Sector Superannuation Scheme (old scheme for federal civil servants)
- Commonwealth Superannuation Scheme (old scheme for federal civil servants)
- State Super (for New South Wales state civil servants)
- MTAA Super
- LUCRF Super
- NGS Super
- Media Super
- AustSafe Super
- Energy Super
- REI Super
- The Retail Employees Superannuation Trust
- ANZ Australian Staff Superannuation Scheme (for employees of ANZ Bank)
- Fundação Banrisul
- Fundação CESP
- Fundação Itaubanco
- Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec
- Canada Pension Plan (investments directed by the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board)
- Public Sector Pension Investment Board
- Alberta Investment Management
- British Columbia Investment Management Corporation
- Ontario Teachers Pension Plan
- Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology Pension Plan (CAAT)
- Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan
- Healthcare of Ontario Pension Plan (HOOPP)
- OMERS Administration Corporation (OMERS)
- Ontario Pension Board (OPB)
- OPSEU Pension Trust (OPTrust)
- BC Pension Corporation including the College Pension Plan, the Municipal Pension Plan, the Public Service Pension Plan, the Teachers' Pension Plan, and WorkSafeBC
- Chile pension system
- AFP Modelo
- Social Security Fund (China) - managed by National Council for Social Security Fund
- TAPILTAT, the Fund for Mutual Assistance of the Employees of Ioniki Bank and Other Banks, the multi-employer auxiliary pension fund.
- Employees' Provident Fund Organisation - A Statutory body of the Government Of India that administers a compulsory Provident Fund Scheme, Pension Scheme and an Insurance Scheme. Provident Fund is applicable across for employees across establishments (Private as well as Govt - subject to criteria). EPF is the Largest Social Security Organisations in India with Assets well over ₹ 5 Lakh Crore (US$104 Billion) as of 2014. EPF
- National Pension Scheme - A defined-contribution-based pension scheme launched by the Government Of India open to all Citizens of India on a voluntary basis and mandatory for the employees of Central Government (except Indian Armed Forces) who are appointed on or after 1 January 2004. Indian citizens between the age of 18-55 are eligible to join. PFRDA
- Employees Provident Fund (Malaysia's largest, total assets of around RM407 billion in diversified portfolio)
- The Government Pension Fund - Global (Statens pensjonsfond - Utland)
- The Government Pension Fund - Norway (Statens pensjonsfond - Norge)
The pension system in Romania is made of 3 pillars, one is the state pension (Pillar I - Mandatory), second is a private mandatory pension were the state transfers a percentage of the contribution it collects for the public pension and third an optional private pension (Pillar III - Voluntary).
- Public Pension Agency (PPA)
- the general organization for social insurance
- Sosyal Güvenlik Kurumu (Social Security Institution, SGK)
Social Security Institution was established by the Social Security Institution Law No:5502 which was published in the Official Gazette No: 26173 dated 20.06.2006 and brings the Social Insurance Institution, General Directorate of Bağ-kur and General Directorate of Emekli Sandığı whose historical development are summarized above under a single roof in order to transfer five different retirement regimes which are civil servants, contractual paid workers, agricultural paid workers, self-employers and agricultural self-employers into a single retirement regime that will offer equal actuarial rights and obligations. The Social Security Institution is continuing its activities to provide better quality of services for our citizens with the participation of whole staff putting all their energy individually and institutionally.
OYAK, (Ordu Yardımlaşma Kurumu/Armed Forces Pension Fund) provides its members with "supplementary retirement benefits" apart from the official retirement fund, T.C.Emekli Sandığı/SSK, to which they are primarily affiliated.
In addition to the retirement benefit, OYAK pays "disability benefits" to the members on duty when they become partially or fully disabled as well as "death benefits" to the heirs of the deceased member if the death occurs during the member's subscription to the Foundation.
OYAK is incorporated as a private entity under its own law subject to Turkish civic and commercial codes. OYAK while fulfilling its legal duties, as set in the Law, also provides its members with social services such as loans, home loans and retirement income systems.
The initial source of OYAK's funds is a compulsory 10 percent levy on the base salary of Turkey's 200,000 serving officers who, together with 25,000 current pensioners, make up OYAK's members.
Some other Turkish private pension funds:
- YAPI ve KREDİ BANKASI A.Ş. Mensupları Yardım ve Emekli Sandığı Vakfı
- AKBANK T.A.Ş. Mensupları Tekaüt Sandığı Vakfı
- TÜRKİYE GARANTİ BANKASI A.Ş. Memur ve Müstahdemleri Emekli ve Yardım Sandığı Vakfı
- TÜRKİYE ODALAR BORSALAR VE BİRLİK PERSONELİ SİGORTA VE EMEKLİ SANDIĞI VAKFI
- TÜRKİYE İŞ BANKASI A.Ş. Mensupları Emekli Sandığı Vakfı
In the United States pension funds include schemes which result in a deferral of income by employees, even if retirement income provision isn't the intent. The United States has $24.5 trillion in retirement and pension assets ($15.5 trillion in private funds, $9 trillion in public funds) as of June 30, 2014. The largest 200 pension funds accounted for $4.540 trillion as of September 30, 2009.
- California Public Employees' Retirement System (CalPERS)
- California State Teachers' Retirement System (CalSTRS)
- Civil Service Retirement System
- Fire and Police Pension Association of Colorado (FPPA)
- Illinois Municipal Retirement Fund
- Kansas City Public School Retirement System (KCPSRS)
- Kansas Public Employees Retirement System (KPERS)
- Minnesota Public Employees' Retirement Association (MNPERA)
- Minnesota Teachers' Retirement Association (MNTRA)
- New York State Teachers' Retirement System (NYSTRS)
- Railroad Retirement Board
- Retirement Systems of Alabama (RSA)
- Social Security Trust Fund
- Teacher Retirement System of Texas (TRS of Texas)
- Thrift Savings Plan (TSP)
- Pension regulation
- Global assets under management
- Pension insurance contract
- Sovereign wealth fund
- Qualifying registered overseas pension schemes
- Global Investment Review
- The Economist Jan 17, 2008 (economist.com)
- "Investment results for the third quarter of fiscal 2015" (PDF). Bloomberg. 2015.
- For examples, see "Local Government Law Library". Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Annual Survey of Large Pension Funds and Public Pension Reserve Funds" (PDF). OECD. 2016-04-21. Retrieved 2016-10-28.
- Budget of the United States Government, FY2016, as of September 30, 2014. Office of Management and Budget Retrieved March 1, 2015
- Financial Statements of the Thrift Savings Fund. As of April 14, 2014
- "Current Investment Fund Values". Calpers.ca.gov. Retrieved 2014-05-10.
- "The world's 300 largest pension funds – year end 2014". Willis Towers Watson.
- "Investments Overview". calstrs.com. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- FRR 2012 Annual Report
- Archived November 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- 29 USC § 1002 - Definitions | Title 29 - Labor | U.S. Code | LII / Legal Information Institute. Law.cornell.edu. Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
- http://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/z1/Current/z1.pdf, see pp.131-135, Federal Reserve Board of Governors, Reported December 11, 2014
- P&I Online