Soccer-specific stadium is a term used mainly in the United States and Canada, to refer to a sports stadium either purpose-built or fundamentally redesigned for soccer and whose primary function is to host soccer matches, as opposed to a multipurpose stadium which is for a variety of sports. A soccer-specific stadium may host other sporting events (such as lacrosse, American football and rugby) and concerts, but the design and purpose of a soccer-specific stadium is primarily for soccer. Some facilities (for example Toyota Park, Toyota Stadium and Mapfre Stadium) have a permanent stage at one end of the stadium used for staging concerts.
A soccer-specific stadium typically has amenities, dimensions and scale suitable for soccer in North America, including a scoreboard, video screen, luxury suites and possibly a roof. The field dimensions are within the range found optimal by FIFA: 110–120 yards (100–110 m) long by 70–80 yards (64–73 m) wide. These soccer field dimensions are wider than the regulation American football field width of 53 1⁄3 yards (48.8 m), or the 65-yard (59 m) width of a Canadian football field. The playing surface should also consist of grass as opposed to artificial turf, since the latter makes players more susceptible to injuries. However, Portland's Providence Park has artificial turf.
Lastly, the seating capacity is generally small enough to provide an intimate setting, between 18,000 and 30,000 for a Major League Soccer franchise, or smaller for minor league soccer teams. This is in comparison to the much larger American football stadiums that mostly range between 60,000 – 80,000 in which the original North American Soccer League teams played at and most MLS teams participated in during the league's inception.
In the 1980s and 1990s, Division I professional soccer leagues in the United States, such as the North American Soccer League and Major League Soccer, primarily used American football fields, many of which were oversized in terms of seating capacity, undersized in terms of width of the soccer pitch, and often used artificial turf (none of which, at the time, were approved for international soccer under FIFA rules). Although many of the baseball parks had smaller capacities, natural grass and a wider field in which to place the pitch, these parks were generally in-use during the summer season, when North American–based soccer leagues, such as Major League Soccer, also hold their seasons.
Soccer-specific stadiums first came into use in the 1990s, after the multi-purpose stadium era.
The term "soccer-specific stadium" was coined by Lamar Hunt, who financed the construction of the Columbus Crew Stadium, the first soccer specific stadium used in Major League Soccer. In the 2000s, other Major League Soccer teams in the United States began constructing their own stadiums. Canada's first soccer-specific stadium was BMO Field in Toronto, home to Toronto FC. This stadium is slated to be renovated to accommodate Canadian football for the 2016 season.
Major League Soccer (MLS)
Current MLS soccer-specific stadiums
|Avaya Stadium||San Jose Earthquakes||San Jose, California||18,000||2015|
|BBVA Compass Stadium||Houston Dynamo||Houston, Texas||22,039||2012|
|Children's Mercy Park||Sporting Kansas City||Kansas City, Kansas||18,467||2011|
|Dick's Sporting Goods Park||Colorado Rapids||Commerce City, Colorado||19,680||2007|
|Mapfre Stadium||Columbus Crew SC||Columbus, Ohio||20,145||1999|
|Orlando City Stadium||Orlando City SC||Orlando, Florida||25,500||2017|
|Providence Park||Portland Timbers||Portland, Oregon||21,144||1926|
|Red Bull Arena||New York Red Bulls||Harrison, New Jersey||25,189||2010|
|Rio Tinto Stadium||Real Salt Lake||Sandy, Utah||20,008||2008|
|Saputo Stadium||Montreal Impact||Montreal, Quebec||20,801||2008|
|StubHub Center||LA Galaxy||Carson, California||27,000||2003|
|Talen Energy Stadium||Philadelphia Union||Chester, Pennsylvania||18,500||2010|
|Toyota Park||Chicago Fire||Bridgeview, Illinois||20,000||2006|
|Toyota Stadium||FC Dallas||Frisco, Texas||20,500||2005|
Future MLS soccer-specific stadiums
| Planned |
|D.C. United Stadium||D.C. United||Washington, D.C.||20,000||2016||2018|
|Banc of California Stadium||Los Angeles FC||Los Angeles, California||22,000||2016||2018|
|Minnesota United FC Stadium||Minnesota United FC||Saint Paul, Minnesota||20,000||2016||2018|
Proposed MLS soccer-specific stadiums
|Stadium||Club(s)||Metro area||Proposed capacity|
|Miami MLS stadium||Miami MLS team||Miami, Florida||25,000|
North American Soccer League (NASL)
Current NASL soccer-specific stadiums
|WakeMed Soccer Park||Carolina RailHawks||Cary, North Carolina||10,000||2002|
|Clarke Stadium||FC Edmonton||Edmonton, Alberta||5,000||1938|
|Juan Ramón Loubriel Stadium||Puerto Rico FC||Bayamón, Puerto Rico||22,000||1974 (2012 renovation)|
Proposed NASL soccer-specific stadiums
|New York Cosmos Stadium||New York Cosmos||Elmont, New York||25,000|
United Soccer League (USL)
Current USL soccer-specific stadiums
All USL teams will be required to play in self-owned, soccer-specific stadiums by the 2020 season. The following is a list of current USL stadiums that are soccer-specific stadiums:
Premier Development League (PDL)
Current PDL soccer-specific stadiums
|City Park Stadium||Westchester Flames||PDL||New Rochelle, New York||1,845||1970s|
|Lusitano Stadium||Western Mass Pioneers||PDL||Ludlow, Massachusetts||3,000||1918|
|Macpherson Stadium||Carolina Dynamo||PDL||Browns Summit, North Carolina||1,600||2002|
NCAA (Division I)
Other soccer-specific stadiums
|Fifth Third Bank Stadium||Kennesaw State Owls||NCAA||Kennesaw, Georgia||8,300||2010|
|King George V Park|| National Stadium
|St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador||10,000||1925|
|Kiwanis Municipal Park Stadium||Williamsburg, Virginia|
|Maryland SoccerPlex||Washington Spirit||NWSL||Germantown, Maryland||5,128||2000|
|Metropolitan Oval||Queens, New York||1,500||1925 (2001 renovation)|
|Orange Beach Sportsplex||Local teams||Local||Orange Beach, Alabama||1,500||2001|
|Starfire Sports|| Seattle Reign FC
Seattle Sounders Women
|Uihlein Soccer Park||MSOE Raiders||NCAA||Milwaukee, Wisconsin||7,000||1994|
|Virginia Beach Sportsplex||Virginia Beach, Virginia||10,500||1999|
|WRAL Soccer Center||CASL teams||CASL||Raleigh, North Carolina||3,200||1990|
Past soccer-specific stadiums
|Mark's Stadium||Fall River F.C.||North Tiverton, Rhode Island||15,000||1922|
|BMO Field||Toronto FC||Toronto, Ontario||30,991||2007||2007–present||Changed into a multi-purpose stadium in 2016 after becoming the home of the CFL's Toronto Argonauts.|
The term "football-specific stadium" is sometimes used in countries where the sport is known as football rather than soccer, although the term is not common in countries where football is the dominant sport and thus football-specific stadiums are quite common. The term tends to have a slightly different meaning in these countries, usually referring to a stadium without an athletics track surrounding the pitch.
- List of soccer stadiums in the United States
- List of soccer stadiums in Canada
- List of football (soccer) stadiums by capacity
- List of Major League Soccer stadiums
- List of NASL stadiums
- List of National Women's Soccer League stadiums
- List of Women's Professional Soccer stadiums
- Also used by the Houston Dash of the NWSL.
- Also used by the Orlando Pride of the NWSL and Orlando City B of the USL.
- Also used by the Real Monarchs SLC of the USL.
- Was also used by the Los Angeles Sol of Women's Professional Soccer in that team's only season in 2009.
- Also used by the Chicago Red Stars of the NWSL.
- The stadium is located in Germantown, but has a Boyds postal address.
- Sakiewicz, Edward Paul (2006). "Chapter I: Introduction". A Comparative Study of Enterprise Risk Management and Decision Making Criteria Used in Developing Soccer-specific Stadiums for Major League Soccer. p. 24. Retrieved August 1, 2015 – via Google Books.
- "Laws of the Game 2010/2011" (PDF). FIFA. p. 7. Retrieved October 9, 2010. Although the official Laws of the Game allow for pitches in adult matches to be 100–130 yards (91–119 m) long by 50–100 yards (46–91 m) wide. The more restrictive range is specified for international matches like the ones used in the FIFA World Cup.
- Fox Sports (September 10, 2014). "USWNT stars not backing down on artificial playing surface stance". FOX Sports. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- Andrews, Phil (December 31, 2005). "Philadelphia's Field of Dreams: MLS' Newest Home". Bleacher Report. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- "M.L.S. Continues to Bolster Growing Brand With New Stadium in Houston". The New York Times. Associated Press. May 12, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- Arace, Michael (September 10, 2013). "Michael Arace commentary: Aging Crew Stadium still has a big advantage". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- Granillo, Larry (September 14, 2009). "Football, Baseball, and the Era of the "Superstadium"". Wezen-Ball. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- "BMO Field". The Stadium Guide. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- Weber, Mark (May 14, 2012). "Fenway Park and the Waterfront Stadium". The Vancouver Province. Retrieved February 27, 2013.