The Holiness movement refers to a set of beliefs and practices which emerged from 19th-century Methodism, and to a number of Evangelical Christian denominations, parachurch organizations, and movements which emphasize those beliefs as central doctrine. The movement is defined by its emphasis on John Wesley's doctrine of a second work of grace leading to Christian perfection. As of 2015 Holiness-movement churches had an estimated 12 million adherents.
Holiness adherents believe that the "second work of grace" (or "second blessing,") refers to a personal experience subsequent to regeneration, commonly called "salvation," in which the believer is cleansed of the tendency to commit sin. This experience of "entire sanctification" enables the believer to live a holy life, and ideally, to live entirely without willful sin, though it is generally accepted that a sanctified individual is still capable of committing sin.
Holiness groups believe the moral aspects of the law of God are pertinent for today, and so expect their adherents to obey behavioral rules—for example, many groups have statements prohibiting the consumption of alcohol, participation in any form of gambling, and entertainments such as dancing and movie-going. This position does attract opposition from certain evangelicals, who charge that such an attitude refutes or slights Reformation (particularly Calvinist) teachings that the effects of original sin remain even in the most faithful of souls.
The Methodists of the 19th century continued the interest in Christian holiness that had been started by their founder, John Wesley in England. They continued to publish Wesley's works and tracts, including his famous A Plain Account of Christian Perfection. From 1788 to 1808, the entire text of A Plain Account was placed in the Discipline manual of the Methodist Episcopal Church (USA), and numerous persons in early American Methodism professed the experience of entire sanctification, including Bishop Francis Asbury.
Second Great Awakening
By the 1840s, a new emphasis on Holiness and Christian perfection began within American Methodism, brought about in large part by the revivalism and camp meetings of the Second Great Awakening (1790-1840)
Two major Holiness leaders during this period were Phoebe Palmer and her husband, Dr. Walter Palmer. In 1835, Palmer's sister, Sarah A. Lankford, started holding Tuesday Meetings for the Promotion of Holiness in her New York City home. In 1837, Palmer experienced what she called entire sanctification and had become the leader of the Tuesday Meetings by 1839. At first only women attended these meetings, but eventually Methodist bishops and hundreds of clergy and laymen began to attend as well. At the same time, Methodist minister Timothy Merritt of Boston founded a journal called the Guide to Christian Perfection, later renamed The Guide to Holiness. This was the first American periodical dedicated exclusively to promoting the Wesleyan message of Christian holiness. In 1865, the Palmers purchased The Guide which at its peak had a circulation of 30,000.
At the Tuesday Meetings, Methodists soon enjoyed fellowship with Christians of different denominations, including the Congregationalist Thomas Upham. Upham was the first man to attend the meetings, and his participation in them led him to study mystical experiences, looking to find precursors of Holiness teaching in the writings of persons like German Pietist Johann Arndt and the Roman Catholic mystic Madame Guyon.
Other non-Methodists also contributed to the Holiness movement in the U.S. and in England. "New School" Calvinists such as Asa Mahan, the president of Oberlin College, and Charles Grandison Finney, an evangelist associated with the college, promoted the idea of Christian holiness and slavery abolition (which Wesleyans also supported). In 1836, Mahan experienced what he called a baptism with the Holy Spirit. Mahan believed that this experience had cleansed him from the desire and inclination to sin. Finney believed that this experience might provide a solution to a problem he observed during his evangelistic revivals. Some people claimed to experience conversion but then slipped back into their old ways of living. Finney believed that the filling with the Holy Spirit could help these converts to continue steadfast in their Christian life. This phase of the Holiness movement is often referred to as the Oberlin-Holiness revival.
Presbyterian William Boardman promoted the idea of Holiness through his evangelistic campaigns and through his book The Higher Christian Life, which was published in 1858, which was a zenith point in Holiness activity prior to a lull brought on by the American Civil War.
Hannah Whitall Smith, an English Quaker, experienced a profound personal conversion. Sometime in the 1860s, she found what she called the "secret" of the Christian life—devoting one's life wholly to God and God's simultaneous transformation of one's soul. Her husband, Robert Pearsall Smith, had a similar experience at the camp meeting in 1867. The couple became figureheads in the now-famous Keswick Convention, which gave rise to what is often called the Keswick-Holiness revival.
Also representative was the revivalism of Rev. James Caughey, an American missionary sent by the Wesleyan Methodist Church to work in Ontario, Canada from the 1840s through 1864. He brought in the converts by the score, most notably in the revivals in Canada West 1851-53. His technique combined restrained emotionalism with a clear call for personal commitment, thus bridging the rural style of camp meetings and the expectations of more "sophisticated" Methodist congregations in the emerging cities. Phoebe Palmer's ministry complemented Caughey's revivals in Ontario circa 1857.
At least two major Wesleyan denominations broke away from Methodism during this period. In 1843 Orange Scott organized the Wesleyan Methodist Connection (an antecedent of the Wesleyan Church) at Utica, New York. In 1860, B.T. Roberts and John Wesley Redfield founded the Free Methodist Church on the ideals of slavery abolition, egalitarianism, and second-blessing holiness. Advocacy for the poor remained a hallmark of these and other Methodist offshoots.
Following the American Civil War, many Holiness proponents—most of them Methodists—became nostalgic for the heyday of camp meeting revivalism during the Second Great Awakening.
The first distinct "Holiness camp meeting" convened at Vineland, New Jersey in 1867 under the leadership of John S. Inskip, John A. Wood, Alfred Cookman, and other Methodist ministers. The gathering attracted as many as 10,000 people. At the close of the encampment, while the ministers were on their knees in prayer, they formed the National Camp Meeting Association for the Promotion of Holiness, and agreed to conduct a similar gathering the next year. This organization was commonly known as the National Holiness Association. Later, it became known as the Christian Holiness Association and subsequently the Christian Holiness Partnership. The second National Camp Meeting was held at Manheim, Pennsylvania, and drew upwards of 25,000 persons from all over the nation. People called it a "Pentecost." The service on Monday evening has almost become legendary for its spiritual power and influence. The third National Camp Meeting met at Round Lake, New York. This time the national press attended and write-ups appeared in numerous papers, including a large two-page pictorial in Harper's Weekly. These meetings made instant religious celebrities out of many of the workers.
In the 1870s, the fervor of the Keswick-Holiness revival swept Great Britain, where it was sometimes called the higher life movement after the title of William Boardman's book The Higher Life. Higher life conferences were held at Broadlands and Oxford in 1874 and in Brighton and Keswick in 1875. The Keswick Convention soon became the British headquarters for this movement. The Faith Mission in Scotland was another consequence of the British Holiness movement. Another was a flow of influence from Britain back to the United States: In 1874, Albert Benjamin Simpson read Boardman's Higher Christian Life and felt the need for such a life himself. Simpson went on to found the Christian and Missionary Alliance.
American Holiness associations began to form as an outgrowth of this new wave of camp meetings, such as he Western Holiness Association—first of the regional associations that prefigured "come-outism"—formed at Bloomington, Illinois. In 1877 several "general holiness conventions" meet in Cincinnati and New York City.
In 1871, the American evangelist Dwight L. Moody had what he called an "endowment with power" as a result of some soul-searching and the prayers of two Free Methodist women who attended one of his meetings. He did not join the Wesleyan-Holiness movement but maintained a belief in progressive sanctification which his theological descendants still hold to.
While the great majority of Holiness proponents remained within the three major denominations of the American Methodist church, Holiness people from other theological traditions established standalone Wesleyan bodies. In 1881, D. S. Warner started the Church of God Reformation Movement, later the Church of God (Anderson, Indiana), bringing Restorationism to the Holiness family.
Palmer's The Promise of the Father, published in 1859 which argued in favor of women in ministry, later influenced Catherine Booth, co-founder of the Salvation Army (the practice of ministry by women is common but not universal within the denominations of the Holiness movement). The founding of the Salvation Army in 1878 helped to rekindle Holiness sentiment in the cradle of Methodism—a fire kept lit by Primitive Methodists and other British descendants of Wesley and George Whitefield in prior decades.
Overseas missions emerged as a central focus of the Holiness people. As one example of this world evangelism thrust, Pilgrim Holiness Church founder Martin Wells Knapp (who also founded the Revivalist in 1883, the Pentecostal Revival League and Prayer League, the Central Holiness League 1893, the International Holiness Union and Prayer League, and God's Bible School and College), saw much success in Korea, Japan, China, India, South Africa and South America. Methodist mission work in Japan led to the creation of the One Mission Society, one of the largest missionary-sending Holiness agencies in the world.
Though many Holiness preachers, camp meeting leaders, authors, and periodical editors were Methodists, this was not universally popular with Methodist leadership. Out of the four million Methodists in the United States during the 1890s, probably one-third to one-half were committed to the idea of sanctification as a second work of grace.
Southern Methodist minister B. F. Haynes wrote in his book, Tempest-Tossed on Methodist Seas, about his decision to leave the Methodist church and join what would become Church of the Nazarene. In it he described the bitter divisions within the Methodist church over the Holiness movement, including verbal assaults made on Holiness movement proponents at the 1894 conference. This tension reached a head at the 1898 conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, when it passed rule 301:
Any traveling or local preacher, or layman, who shall hold public religious services within the bounds of any mission, circuit, or station, when requested by the preacher in charge not to hold such services, shall be deemed guilty of imprudent conduct, and shall be dealt with as the law provides in such cases.
Many Holiness evangelists and traveling ministers found it difficult to continue their ministry under this new rule—particularly in Methodist charges and circuits that were unfriendly to the Holiness movement. In the years that followed, a score of new Methodist and Holiness denominations and associations were formed. The largest of these were the Church of the Nazarene and the Wesleyan Methodist Church which were consolidations of many smaller Holiness "come-outer" associations and parties alienated by Mainline Methodism.
Holding the line (early 20th century)
Throughout the early 20th century, week-long revival campaigns with local churches (and revival elements brought into the worship service) carried on the tradition of camp meetings.
Pentecostalism and the Charismatic movement competed for the loyalties of Holiness advocates (see related section below), and a separate Pentecostal-Holiness movement was born. This new dichotomy gradually dwindled the population of the mainstream of the Holiness movement.
Holiness advocates found themselves at home with Fundamentalism and later the Evangelical movement. They held the line in some denominations and institutions of higher learning against a tide of liberal skepticism and scholarly Higher Criticism (e.g. Azusa Pacific University), but lost ground in others (e.g. The Methodist Church merger).
It was during this time (1939) that the Methodist Episcopal Church (North and South) and the Methodist Protestant Church merged to form The Methodist Church. This merger created a Mainline Christian organization which made remaining Holiness elements within U.S. Methodism less influential.
Toward the Evangelical mainstream (mid-to-late 20th century)
Cultural shifts following World War II resulted in a further division in the Holiness movement.
Not content with what they considered to be a lax attitude toward sin, several small groups left Wesleyan-Holiness denominations to form the Conservative Holiness movement. Staunch defenders of Biblical inerrancy, they stress modesty in dress and revivalistic worship practices. They identify with classical Fundamentalism more so than Evangelicalism.
As the Holiness Conservatives were distancing themselves even further, Mainline Methodism was becoming larger with the merger between The Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church, forming the United Methodist Church in 1968. A slow trickle of disaffected Holiness-friendly United Methodists left for Holiness movement denominations, while other Holiness advocates fought for recognition via the Good News Movement and Confessing Methodism.
Meanwhile, the bulk of the Wesleyan-Holiness churches began to appear more like their colleagues in the National Association of Evangelicals from various theological and ecclesiastical traditions. Holiness Evangelicals developed a disdain for what they considered to be legalism, and gradually dropped prohibitions against dancing and theater patronage, while maintaining rules against alcohol and tobacco use. Continued stances on the sanctity of marriage and abstinence matched similar convictions held by other Evangelicals. In the 1970s, opposition to abortion became a recurring theme, and by the 1990s statements against practicing homosexuality were increasingly common. A devotion to charity work continued, particularly through the Salvation Army and other denominational and parachurch agencies.
Recovering an identity (21st century)
Faced with a growing identity crisis and continually dwindling numbers, Wesleyan-Holiness Evangelicals have hosted several inter-denominational conferences and begun several initiatives to draw a clearer distinction between Wesleyan theology and that of other Evangelicals and to explore how to address contemporary social issues and appear winsome to a "post-modern world." As one such example, in 2006 the Wesleyan Holiness Consortium published "The Holiness Manifesto" in conjunction with representatives from historic Holiness denominations.
The divide between classical Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism became greater following the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the U.S. by militant Muslim fundamentalists—as the term "fundamental" became associated with intolerance and aggressive attitudes. Several Evangelical Holiness groups and publications have denounced the term "fundamentalist" (preferring Evangelical) while others are reconciling to what extent the Fundamentalist movement of the 1920s remains a part of their history
The Church of the Nazarene, the Wesleyan Church, and the Free Methodist Church were the largest Wesleyan-Evangelical Holiness bodies as of 2015. Talks of a merger were tabled, but new cooperatives such as the Global Wesleyan Alliance were formed as the result of inter-denominational meetings.
The main roots of the Holiness movement are as follows:
- The Reformation itself, with its emphasis on salvation by grace through faith alone.
- Puritanism in 17th century England and its transplantation to America with its emphasis on adherence to the Bible and the right to dissent from the established church.
- Pietism in 17th century Germany, led by Philipp Jakob Spener and the Moravians, which emphasized the spiritual life of the individual, coupled with a responsibility to live an upright life.
- Quietism, as taught by the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), with its emphasis on the individual's ability to experience God and understand God's will for himself.
- The 1730s Evangelical Revival in England, led by Methodists John Wesley and his brother Charles Wesley, which introduced the concept of Entire Sanctification and certain teachings of German Pietism to England and eventually to the United States.
- The First Great Awakening in the 18th and early 19th centuries in the United States, propagated by George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, and others, with its emphasis on the initial conversion experience of Christians.
- The Second Great Awakening in the 19th century in the United States, propagated by Francis Asbury, Charles Finney, Lyman Beecher, Phoebe Palmer and others, which also emphasized the need for personal holiness and is characterized by the rise of evangelistic revival meetings.
Relation and reaction to Pentecostalism
The traditional Holiness movement is distinct from the Pentecostal movement, which believes that the baptism in the Holy Spirit involves supernatural manifestations such as speaking in unknown tongues. Many of the early Pentecostals originated from the Holiness movement, and to this day many "classical Pentecostals" maintain much of Holiness doctrine and many of its devotional practices. Several of its denominations include the word "Holiness" in their names, including the Pentecostal Holiness Church.
The terms pentecostal and apostolic, now used by adherents to Pentecostal and charismatic doctrine, were once widely used by Holiness churches in connection with the consecrated lifestyle described in the New Testament.
During the Azusa Street Revival (often considered the advent of Pentecostalism), the practice of speaking in tongues was strongly rejected by leaders of the traditional Holiness movement. Alma White, the leader of the Pillar of Fire Church, a Holiness denomination, wrote a book against the Pentecostal movement that was published in 1936; the work, entitled Demons and Tongues, represented early rejection of the tongues-speaking Pentecostal movement. White called speaking in tongues "satanic gibberish" and Pentecostal services "the climax of demon worship". However, many contemporary Holiness churches now believe in the legitimacy of speaking in unknown tongues, but not as a sign of entire sanctification as classical Pentecostals still teach.
There are an estimated 78 million classical Pentecostals, and 510 million assorted Charismatics who share a heritage or common beliefs with the Pentecostal movement. If the Holiness movement and Pentecostal/Charismatic Christians were counted together the total population would be around 600 million.
Denominations and associations
Several organizations and programs exist to promote the Holiness movement, plan missions, and unite churches:
- Christian Holiness Partnership
- Interchurch Holiness Convention
- Global Wesleyan Alliance
- Holiness Unto the Lord
- Worldwide Faith Missions
- One Mission Society
- Wesleyan Holiness Consortium
- World Gospel Mission
The Holiness movement led to the formation and further development of several Christian denominations and associations. Below are denominations which substantially adhere to Holiness movement doctrine (excluding Conservative Holiness movement and distinctively Pentecostal bodies).
- Bible Missionary Church
- Brethren in Christ Church
- Christian and Missionary Alliance
- Christ's Sanctified Holy Church
- The Church of the Nazarene
- Church of Christ Holiness (USA)
- Churches of Christ in Christian Union
- Church of Daniel's Band
- Church of God (Anderson)
- Congregational Methodist Church
- Evangelical Christian Church
- Evangelical Church of North America
- Evangelical Friends Church International-Eastern Region
- Evangelical Methodist Church
- Free Methodist Church
- Freewill Baptists
- Immanuel General Mission (Japan)
- International Fellowship of Bible Churches
- Korea Evangelical Holiness Church
- Korea Jesus Holiness Sungkyul Church
- Korea Holiness Church of the Nazarene
- Korea Church of God
- Korea Evangelical Church of America
- Missionary Church (North-Central District and others)
- National Association of Wesleyan Evangelicals
- Pillar of Fire International
- Primitive Methodist Church
- The Salvation Army
- Southern Baptist Convention (certain congregations and associations)
- United Holiness Church of Korea
- United Methodist Church (certain districts and local churches)
- The Wesleyan Church
Colleges, Bible schools, and universities
- Ambrose University College
- American Indian College
- Anderson University (Indiana)
- Asbury University
- Azusa Pacific University
- Bible Missionary Institute
- Booth College
- Central Christian College of Kansas
- Eastern Nazarene College
- God's Bible School and College
- Global University
- Greenville College
- Houghton College
- Indiana Wesleyan University
- Kentucky Mountain Bible College
- Kingswood University
- Laurel University
- Life Pacific College
- Malone University
- Messiah College
- MidAmerica Nazarene University
- Mid-America Christian University
- Mount Vernon Nazarene University
- Native American Bible College
- Nazarene Bible College
- North Central University
- Northwest Nazarene University
- Ohio Christian University
- Oklahoma Wesleyan University
- Olivet Nazarene University
- Peniel School of Ministry
- Pillar College
- Point Loma Nazarene University
- Roberts Wesleyan College
- Seattle Pacific University
- Simpson University
- Southwestern Christian University
- Southern Nazarene University
- Southern Wesleyan University
- Tyndale University College & Seminary
- Toccoa Falls College
- Trevecca Nazarene University
- Trinity Bible College
- Trinity Western University
- Valley Forge Christian College
- Vanguard University
- Warner Pacific College
- Warner University
- "Holiness churches". oikoumene.org. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Russell, Thomas Arthur (June 2010). Comparative Christianity: A Student's Guide to a Religion and Its Diverse Traditions. Universal-Publishers. pp. 121–. ISBN 9781599428772. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition: Charismatic Movements in the Twentieth Century, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1997 2nd ed.), p. 8.
- Synan 1997, p. 17.
- Synan 1997, p. 18.
- Yrigoyen, Charles Jr. (2013). Historical Dictionary of Methodism. Scarecrow Press. p. 186.
- http://nazarene.org/ministries/administration/archives/sources/whbibliography/display.html (retrieved 20 February 2015)
- Peter Bush, "The Reverend James Caughey and Wesleyan Methodist Revivalism in Canada West, 1851-1856," Ontario History, Sept 1987, Vol. 79 Issue 3, pp 231-250
- http://www.christianitytoday.com/ch/2004/issue82/6.26.html (Retrieved 20 February 2015)
- http://www.moodychurch.org/get-to-know-us/what-we-believe (retrieved 20 February 2015)
- http://www.primitivemethodistchurch.org/preface.html (retrieved 20 February 2015)
- "The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition: Charismatic Movements in the Twentieth Century," Vinson Synan, Wm. B. Eerdman Publishers, 1971
- Pete, Reve M., The Impact of Holiness Preaching as Taught by John Wesley and the Outpouring of the Holy Ghost on Racism
- Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1898, pg. 125
- "Fundamental Wesleyan". fwponline.cc. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "About Us". holinesslegacy.com. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "About". Seedbed. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Mannoia, Kevin W.; Thorsen, Don (2008). The Holiness Manifesto. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. pp. 18–21.
- "Early Church Lesson #1: Fundamentals without Fundamentalism". Seedbed Daily Text. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "- Church of the Nazarene". ncnnews.com. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- http://wesleyananglican.blogspot.com/2011/08/wesleyan-holiness-mergers-not-taking.html (retrieved 20 February 2015)
- "Global Wesleyan Alliance has 3rd annual gathering - The Wesleyan Church". wesleyan.org. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "The Outpouring of the Holy Ghost at Azusa Street Mission". revempete.us. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Pentecostal churches". oikoumene.org. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Dave Imboden. "Universities & Colleges". holinessandunity.org. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Boardman, William E. The Higher Christian Life, (Boston: Henry Hoyt, 1858).
- Brown, Kenneth O. Holy Ground, Too, The Camp Meeting Famil Tree. Hazleton: Holiness Archives, 1997.
- Brown, Kenneth O. Inskip, McDonald, Fowler: "Wholly And Forever Thine." (Hazleton: Holiness Archives, 2000.)
- Cunningham, Floyd. T. " Holiness Abroad: Nazarene Missions in Asia. " Pietist and Wesleyan Studies, No. 16. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2003.
- Cunningham, Floyd T. ed. "Our Watchword & Song: The Centennial History of the Church of the Nazarene." By Floyd T. Cunningham; Stan Ingersol; Harold E. Raser; and David P. Whitelaw. Kansas City, MO: Beacon Hill Press of Kansas City, 2009.
- Dieter, Melvin E. The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century (Rowman & Littlefield, 1996).
- Grider, J. Kenneth. A Wesleyan-Holiness Theology, 1994 (ISBN 0-8341-1512-3).
- Hong, Paul Yongpyo, " Spreading the Holiness Fire: The History of OMS Korea Holiness Church 1902-1957." D. Miss dissertation of Fuller Theological Seminary (1996).
- Hong, Paul Yongpyo, " A History of the Korea Evangelical Holiness Church for 110 Years. " (Seoul: WWGT, 2010).
- Hong, Paul Yongpyo ed. " Pentecostal Holiness Theology With Regard To M. W. Knapp." (Seoul: Pentecost Press, 2013).
- Hong, Paul et al., " The Founders and Their Thoughts of the Holiness Movement in the Late 19th Century: M. W. Knapp, S. C. Rees, W. Godbey and A. M. Hills." (KEHC Love Press, 2014).
- Kostlevy, William C., ed. Historical Dictionary of the Holiness Movement (Rowman & Littlefield, 2001).
- Kostlevy, William C. Holy Jumpers: Evangelicals and Radicals in Progressive Era America (2010) on the influential Metropolitan Church Association in 1890s Chicago excerpt and text search
- Mannoia, Kevin W. and Don Thorsen. "The Holiness Manifesto", (William B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2008)
- Sanders, Cheryl J. Saints in exile: The Holiness-Pentecostal experience in African American religion and culture (Oxford University Press, 1999)
- Smith, Logan Pearsall, ed. Philadelphia Quaker: The Letters of Hannah Whitall Smith (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1950).
- Smith, Timothy L. Called Unto Holiness: The Story of the Nazarenes—The Formative Years, (Nazarene Publishing House, 1962).
- Spencer, Carol. Holiness: The Soul Of Quakerism" (Paternoster. Milton Keynes, 2007)
- Stephens, Randall J. The Fire Spreads: Holiness and Pentecostalism in the American South." (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008).
- Thornton, Wallace Jr. The Conservative Holiness Movement: A Historical Appraisal, 2014 excerpt and text search
- Thornton, Wallace Jr. When the Fire Fell: Martin Wells Knapp's Vision of Pentecostal and the Beginnings of God's Bible School " (Emeth Press, 2014).
- Thornton, Wallace Jr. From Glory to Glory: A Brief Summary of Holiness Beliefs and Practices
- Thornton, Wallace Jr. Radical Righteousness: Personal Ethics and the Development of the Holiness Movement
- White, Charles Edward. The Beauty of Holiness: Phoebe Palmer as Theologian, Revivalist, Feminist, and Humanitarian (Zondervan/Francis Asbury Press, 1986).
- McDonald, William and John E. Searles. The Life of Rev. John S. Inskip, President of the National Association for the Promotion of Holiness (Chicago: The Christian Witness Co., 1885).
- Smith, Hannah Whitall. The Unselfishness of God, and How I Discovered It: A Spiritual Autobiography (New York: Fleming H. Resell Co., 1903).
- Holiness history from the Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online
- "The Cleansing Wave", article from Christianity Today
- "Holiness Movement: Dead or Alive," article by Keith Drury (CRI Voice)
- A Look At Holiness And Perfectionism Theology by Armin J. Panning
- Christian Cyclopedia article on Holiness Churches
- How They Entered Canaan: A collection of holiness experience accounts by B. G. Paddock