April 15, 1837|
May 29, 1921 84) (aged|
Manhattan, New York
|Buried at||West Long Branch, New Jersey|
United States of America|
United States Army|
|Years of service||1860–1873|
Brevet Brigadier General
Medal of Honor|
Legion of Honor
|Relations||David R. Porter (father)|
President of the Union League Club of New York
Held several government posts
Horace Porter (April 15, 1837 – May 29, 1921) was an American soldier and diplomat who served as a lieutenant colonel, ordnance officer and staff officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War, personal secretary to General and President Ulysses S. Grant and to General William T. Sherman, vice president of the Pullman Palace Car Company and U.S. Ambassador to France from 1897 to 1905.
Early life and education
Porter was born in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania on April 15, 1837, the son of David R. Porter, an ironmaster who later served as Governor of Pennsylvania. A first cousin, Andrew Porter, was a Mexican-American War veteran and Union Army brigadier general. Horace Porter was educated at The Lawrenceville School in Lawrenceville, New Jersey (class of 1856) and Harvard University. He graduated from West Point July 1, 1860. Porter was commissioned a second lieutenant on April 22, 1861 and a first lieutenant on June 7, 1861.
American Civil War
Porter served in the Union Army in the American Civil War, reaching the grade of lieutenant colonel by the end of the war. He initially served in the ordnance department of the Union Department of the South, Army of the Potomac, Department of the Ohio, Army of the Cumberland and Military Division of the Mississippi. He was distinguished in the Battle of Fort Pulaski, Georgia, at the Battle of Chickamauga, the Battle of the Wilderness and the Second Battle of Ream's Station (New Market Heights). On June 26, 1902 or July 8, 1902, Porter received the Medal of Honor for the Battle of Chickamauga as detailed in the citation noted below. In the last year of the war, he served on the staff of Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, later writing a lively memoir of the experience, Campaigning With Grant (1897).
From April 4, 1864 to July 25, 1865, Porter was aide-de-camp to General Ulysses S. Grant with the grade of lieutenant colonel in the regular army. On July 17, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Porter for appointment as brevet brigadier general, to rank from March 13, 1866, and the U.S. Senate confirmed the appointment on July 23, 1866. From July 25, 1866 to March 4, 1869, Porter was aide-de-camp to General Ulysses S. Grant with the grade of colonel in the regular army.
From 1869 to 1872, Porter served as President Grant's personal secretary in the White House. At the same time, he held the grade of colonel and an appointment as aide-de-camp to General William T. Sherman.
Porter had refused to take a $500,000 vested interest bribe from Jay Gould, a Wall Street financier, in the Black Friday gold market scam. He told Grant about Gould's attempted bribery, thus warning Grant about Gould's intention of cornering the gold market. However, during the Whiskey Ring trials in 1876, Treasury Solicitor Bluford Wilson claimed that Porter was involved with the scandal. Porter testified before the committee investigating the scandal, and was never formally charged with wrongdoing.
Later life and death
Resigning from the U.S. Army on December 31, 1873, Porter became vice president of the Pullman Palace Car Company, and later, president of the West Shore Railroad. He was U.S. Ambassador to France from 1897 to 1905, paying for the recovery of the body of John Paul Jones and sending it to the United States for re-burial. He received the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor from the French government in 1904. In addition to Campaigning with Grant, he also wrote West Point Life (1866).
He was elected an honorary member of the Pennsylvania Society of the Cincinnati in 1902. He was also a member of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States and the Sons of the American Revolution, where he served as President General from 1892 through 1896. He was also a Hereditary Companion of the Military Order of Foreign Wars by right of his descent from Lieutenant Colonel Andrew Porter who served in the American Revolution.
Horace Porter died at New York, New York, May 29, 1921. He was buried in West Long Branch Cemetery, West Long Branch, New Jersey.
Medal of Honor citation
Rank and Organization:
- Captain, Ordnance Department, U.S. Army. Place and date: At Chickamauga, Ga., September 20, 1863. Entered service at: Harrisburgh, Pa. Born: April 15, 1837, Huntington, Pa. Date of issue: July 8, 1902.
- While acting as a volunteer aide, at a critical moment when the lines were broken, rallied enough fugitives to hold the ground under heavy fire long enough to effect the escape of wagon trains and batteries.
- Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. pp. 435-436
- Eicher, 2001, p. 435 identifies this as the Lawrence Scientific School.
- The uncertainty as to the date is expressed in the source, Eicher, 2001, p. 435
- Eicher, 2001, p. 736
- Jean Edward Smith, Grant, pp. 481-490, Simon & Schuster, 2001.
- McFeeley 1981, p. 409
- New York Times, Western Whisky Frauds: Gen. Horace Porter's Testimony, August 13, 1876
- "Presidents General of the SAR and Annual Congress Sites". Sons of the American Revolution website. 2014-03-18. Retrieved 2015-02-19.
- "PORTER, HORACE, Civil War Medal of Honor recipient". American Civil War website. 2007-11-08. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
- "Civil War Medal of Honor recipients (M-Z)". Medal of Honor citations. United States Army Center of Military History. August 3, 2009. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "Horace Porter". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Horace Porter.|
- Modern Eloquence: Vol III, After-Dinner Speeches P-Z at Project Gutenberg, contains a number of speeches by Porter.
- Mende, Elsie Porter; Henry Greenleaf Pearson (1927). An American Soldier and Diplomat, Horace Porter. Frederick A. Stokes Company.
- Owens, Richard Henry (2002). Biography of General and Ambassador Horace Porter, 1837-1921: Vigilance and Virtue. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 0-7734-7242-8.
- Porter, Horace. Campaigning With Grant. New York: The Century Co., 1897. Time-Life Books reprint 1981. ISBN 0-8094-4202-7. (deluxe)
James B. Eustis
|U.S. Ambassador to France
| Succeeded by|
Robert S. McCormick