The Grandes Écoles (French pronunciation: [ɡʁɑ̃d.z‿ekɔl], literally in French "Grand Schools") of France are higher education establishments outside the main framework of the French university system. Most were established by branches of the state; the oldest, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées, in 1741. Most Grandes Écoles select students for admission at the third year of undergraduate level based chiefly on national ranking in competitive written and oral exams, while French public universities have a legal obligation to accept in the first year of undergraduate studies all candidates of the region who hold a corresponding baccalauréat.
Usually candidates for the national exams have completed two years of dedicated preparatory classes, although this is not always the case: some Grandes Écoles also have an admission process open to university students (bachelor or master), others have an integrated preparation. The Grandes Écoles do not have large student bodies: most have a few hundred students each year, 6,000 (1200 engineering graduates each year) at the largest establishment, Arts et Métiers ParisTech. Officially considered as public service, they usually require low fees, or even none, with the exception of business schools, and allow grants to poor students like universities do.
Classification as Grandes Écoles
The phrase 'Grande École' originated in 1794 after the French Revolution, when the National Convention created the École Normale Supérieure, the mathematician Gaspard Monge and Lazare Carnot created the École Polytechnique and the abbot Henri Grégoire created the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers.
The model was probably the military academy at Mézières, of which Monge was an alumnus. The system of competitive entry was a means to open up higher education to more candidates based on merit.
Some schools included in the category have roots in the 17th and 18th century and are older than the phrase 'Grande École' dated 1794. Actually, their forerunners were civil servant schools aimed at graduating technical officers (Ecole d'Arts et Métiers, renamed Arts et Métiers ParisTech, established in 1780), mine supervisors (École des mines de Paris established in 1783), bridge and road engineers (École royale des ponts et chaussées established in 1747), shipbuilding engineers (École des ingénieurs-constructeurs des vaisseaux royaux established in 1741) and five military engineering academies and graduate schools of artillery established in the 17th century in France, such as the école de l'artillerie de Douai (established in 1697) and the école du génie de Mézière (established in 1748), wherein mathematics, chemistry and sciences were already a major part of the curriculum taught by first rank scientists such as Pierre-Simon de Laplace, Charles Étienne Louis Camus, Étienne Bézout, Sylvestre-François Lacroix, Siméon Denis Poisson, Gaspard Monge (most of whom were later to form the teaching corps of École polytechnique during the Napoleonic era).
Napoleon created in 1802 the École Spécial Militaire de Saint Cyr, which is also seen as a Grande École even though it only trains army officers.
These schools (as well the Revolution or Napoleonic ones and ex-royal ones) have always been regarded as the most prestigious of the Grandes Écoles. In the most prestigious of these schools, students can have a special status (civil servant or military in École Normale or École polytechnique respectively), specific access to higher French administration or academics, and sometimes a uniform (in École polytechnique, Arts et Metiers Paris Tech, Saint Cyr, Mines...).
During the 19th century, a number of higher education Grandes écoles were established to support industry and commerce, including École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne in 1816, Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Paris (today ESCP Europe, founded in 1819), L'institut des sciences et industries du vivant et de l'environnement (Agro ParisTech) in 1826, École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures (École centrale de Paris) in 1829, École des arts industriels et des mines (École centrale de Lille) in 1854, École centrale lyonnaise pour l'Industrie et le Commerce (École centrale de Lyon) in 1857 and Rouen Business School (NEOMA Business School) in 1871. Sciences Po Paris, the school that has produced most of the French Presidents since the end of the Second World War, was established in 1872.
During the latter part of the 19th century and in the 20th century, other Grandes Écoles were established so as to further develop education in newer fields of science and technology, including École nationale supérieure des télécommunications (1878), Hautes Études Commerciales (1881), École supérieure d'électricité (1894) and Supaero (1909).
Since then, France has had a unique dual higher education system, with small and middle-sized specialized graduate schools operating alongside the traditional university system. Some fields of study are nearly exclusive to one part of this dual system, such as medicine in universités only or architecture in écoles only.
The system of Grandes Écoles (and "prépa") also exists in former French Colonies, Switzerland and in Italy (because Napoleon, king of Italy for 10 years, established the French system there). The influence of this system was strong in the 19th century throughout the world, as can be seen in the original names of many world universities (Caltech was originally "Polytechnic Institute" as well as ETH Zürich -- "the Polytechnicum"—as well as the Polytechnique in Montréal, and as well as some institutions in China, US, UK, Russia who have the name of some of French "Grandes Écoles" adapted to their language). The influence of this model lost importance with the success of the German and then Anglo-Saxon university model during the end of the 19th century and in the 20th century.
There is no standard definition or official list of Grandes Écoles. Legislation generally uses the term "classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles". The term "Grande École" is not employed in the Code of Education, with the exception of a quotation in the social statistics. It generally employs the expression of "écoles supérieures" to indicate higher educational institutions that are not universities.
The Conférence des Grandes Écoles (CGE) (Grandes Écoles Conference) is a non-profit organization. It uses a broad definition of "Grande École" which is not restricted to the school's selectivity or the prestige of the diploma awarded. The members of CGE have not made an official or "accepted" list of Grandes Écoles. For example, some engineering school members of the CGE cannot award state-recognized engineering degrees.
Methods of admission to the Grandes Écoles
Admission to the Grandes Écoles is very different from that of French universities. Except for certain special academic programs, French universities are required by law to admit in the first year of undergraduate studies any student having completed the national baccalauréat, regardless of students' other grades or qualifications. This is in contrast with the selective admissions system for French Grandes Écoles, as explained below.
To be admitted into most of the French Grandes Écoles, most students study in a two-year preparatory program in one of the CPGE (see below) before taking a set of competitive national exams. Different exams are required by groups (called "banques") of different schools. The national exams are sets of written tests, given over the course of several weeks, that challenge the student on the intensive studies of the previous two years. During the summer, those students who succeed in the written exams then take a further set of exams, usually one-hour oral exams, during which they are given a problem to solve. After 20 minutes of preparation, the candidate presents the solution to a professor, who challenges the candidate on the answer and the assumptions being made. Afterwards, candidates receive a final national ranking which determines admission to their Grandes Écoles of choice.
Preparatory classes to the Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
Classes préparatoires aux Grandes Écoles (CPGE) or prépas (preparatory classes for the Grandes Écoles) are two-year classes, in either sciences, literature or economics. There are the traditional way that most students prepare to pass the competitive recruitment examination of the main Grandes Écoles. Most are held in state lycées (high schools); a few are private. Admission is competitive and based on the students' lycée grades. The preparatory classes with highest success rates in the entrance examinations of the top Grandes Écoles are highly selective. Students who are not admitted to a Grande École of their choice often repeat the second year of preparatory classes and attempt the exam again the following year.
There are five categories of prépas:
- Scientifiques: These prepare for the engineering schools and teach mathematics, physics, chemistry, and technology. They are broken down in sub-categories according to the emphasis of their dominant subject: they are mainly focused on mathematics and either physics (MP), industrial sciences and technologies (TSI), physics and chemistry (PC), physics and engineering science (PSI), physics and technology (PT).
- BCPST: biology, chemistry, physics, geology, and mathematics. Commonly called "Agro-Véto", these classes prepare students primarily for agricultural and veterinary schools, but also for schools in geology, hydrology, and forestry, as well as for research and teaching careers via the Écoles normales supérieures.
- Lettres: humanities, essentially for the Écoles normales supérieures (students can also compete to enter business schools, but represent a small minority of those admitted). There are two main sub-categories: "Lettres", in either "A/L" (with Ancient Greek and/or Latin) or LSH (with geography), and B/L (with mathematics and social sciences).
- Économique et commerciale: mathematics and economics. These prepare for the entrance exams to the French business schools, and are subdivided between science (mathematics) and economics tracks - a third track also exists for students with a "technological", i.e. applied background.
- Chartes: humanities, with an emphasis on philology, history and languages, named after the school École Nationale des Chartes. By far the smallest prépa in number of students.
Recruitment at baccalauréat level
Some schools are accessible after a selection based on the grades of the two last years of lycée and/or the baccalaureate results. For example, there are the six schools of the INSA network, the three Universités de Technologie, the three engineering schools of the ISEN group, and the thirteen engineering schools of Polytech Group. It is also possible to join these schools in third year after a preparatory class or university and then the recruitment is based on a contest or the student results.
Most of them simply include the two-year preparatory class in their program while others like INSA Toulouse chose the LMD to start the specialization earlier. Most students choose to get their licence, master or doctorate close to home.
These years of preparation can be highly focused on the school program so students have a greater chance of succeeding in the admission exam or contest in their school if there is one, but they are not prepared to take the examinations for other schools so their chance of success in these other examinations is low.
The advantage is that instead of studying simply to pass the admission exams, the student will study topics more targeted to their training and future specialization. The main advantage is that students choose their speciality more according to their interests and less according to their rank. (Indeed, the rank obtained after standard preparatory classes determines a list of schools with their specialities).
The selection process during the first preparatory year is considered less stressful than in a standard first preparatory class. Nevertheless, the selection percentage can be the same as during standard preparatory classes. These schools also recruit people who did not manage to follow the programs of CPGE.
In many schools, there is also the possibility of “parallel admission” to Grandes Écoles. Parallel admissions are open to university students or students from other schools. The prépas years are not required to sit the entrance exams, provided that the candidates performed well in their previous studies. This method of recruitment is proving increasingly popular, with many students choosing to go first to university and then enrol in a Grande École.
Some Grandes Écoles have dual diploma arrangement in which a student can switch establishments in the last year to receive diplomas from both establishments.
The Grandes Écoles can be classified into several broad categories:
Écoles Normales Supérieures
These schools train researchers, professors and may be a beginning for executive careers in public administration or business. Many French Nobel Prize and Fields Medal laureates were educated at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, Lyon or Paris-Saclay. There are four ENS:
- the École Normale Supérieure of Paris, nicknamed "Ulm" from its address rue d'Ulm (Ulm Street) (sciences and humanities);
- the École Normale Supérieure de Lyon in Lyon (sciences and humanities);
- the École normale supérieure Paris-Saclay in Cachan, Paris (sciences, engineering, social sciences, economics and management, foreign languages).
- the École Normale Supérieure de Rennes near Rennes (sciences, engineering, social sciences, economics and management, sport).
These schools' entrance exams are extremely selective. They recruit mainly from taupes, biology prépas and khâgnes.
Until recently, unlike most other Grandes Écoles, the écoles normales supérieures (ENS) did not award specific diplomas. Students who completed their curriculum were entitled to be known as "ENS alumni" or "normaliens". The schools encourage their students to obtain university diplomas in partner institutions while providing extra classes and support. Many ENS students obtain more than one university diploma. Normaliens from France and other European Union countries are considered civil servants in training, and as such paid a monthly salary in exchange for agreeing to serve France for ten years, including those years spent as students. Following the Paris ENS model, Napoleon also founded Scuola Normale Superiore in Pisa.
List of graduate engineering schools (grandes écoles d'ingénieurs)
Many engineering schools recruit students after scientific preparatory class. Many schools have a lengthy official name (often beginning with école nationale supérieure or école supérieure), a shortened name, an acronym and often a nickname for both the schools and their students. Many are also joint graduate schools from several regional universities, sometimes in association with other international higher education networks.
- Some of the engineering schools within ParisTech or becoming part of Paris-Saclay University:
- the École polytechnique (EP, nicknamed l'X) – Military engineering school in France, administered by the French Ministry of Defense (more precisely the Technology and Armament Directorate General); founded in 1794.
- the École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris (MINES ParisTech, administered by the French Ministry for Industry) – founded in 1783;
- the École nationale des ponts et chaussées (École des Ponts ParisTech, administered by the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy, nicknamed les Ponts) – founded in 1747
- the Arts et Métiers ParisTech (École nationale d'Arts et Métiers previously called ENSAM or les Arts et Metiers or "Les Arts", administered by the French Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research) – engineering school founded in 1780
- the Institut d'Optique Graduate School (IOGS, nicknamed SupOptique);
- the École nationale supérieure de techniques avancées (ENSTA ParisTech) administered by the French Ministry of Defense (more precisely the Technology and Armament Directorate General) - founded in 1741;
- the École supérieure de physique et de chimie industrielles de la ville de Paris, administered by the City of Paris (ESPCI ParisTech) ;
- the École nationale supérieure des télécommunications (TELECOM ParisTech,administered by the French Ministry of Industry, previously nicknamed Télécom Paris or SupTélécom) – part of Institut TELECOM;
- the Institut des sciences et industries du vivant et de l'environnement (or AgroParisTech, administered by the French Ministry for Agriculture, nicknamed Agro includes an internal school called Ecole Nationale du Génie Rural, des Eaux et des Forêts) – part of the Pôle des sciences de la vie et environnementales et technologies de la région de Paris;
- the École nationale de la statistique et de l'administration économique (ENSAE ParisTech) – formed by the Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (INSEE : French Statistical Authority);
- the École nationale supérieure de chimie de Paris (Chimie ParisTech)
- Schools which are part of Centrale Graduate School; the students of which are referred to as pistons (as in a piston engine)
- CentraleSupélec, which is the result of the 2015 merger between École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures (also called the École centrale Paris or simply Centrale Paris) which was founded in 1829, and Ecole Supérieure d'Electricité (also called Supélec) which was founded in 1894.
- the École centrale de Lille (ECLi, EC-Lille or Centrale Lille)
- the École centrale de Lyon (ECL, EC-Lyon, or Centrale Lyon) was founded in 1857 as the École centrale lyonnaise pour l'Industrie et le Commerce
- the École centrale de Marseille (ECM, EC-Marseille, or Centrale Marseille)
- the École centrale de Nantes (ECN, EC-Nantes, or Centrale Nantes)
- ex-groupe des écoles des mines, part of Institut Mines-Telecom, their students are called "mineurs", administered by the French Ministry of Industry :
- the École nationale supérieure des mines d'Albi
- the École nationale supérieure des mines d'Alès
- the École nationale supérieure des mines de Douai
- the École nationale supérieure des mines de Nantes
- the École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris (MINES ParisTech)(also member of ParisTech);
- the École nationale supérieure des mines de Nancy
- the École nationale supérieure des mines de Saint-Étienne
- ex-Institut Telecom, part of Institut Mines-Telecom:
These groups constitute mostly the so-called "generalist" Grandes Ecoles, and the leading ones of these groups constitute the major part of the French scientific elite education system.
Other Grandes ecoles with multiple specializations:
- ESTIA Institute of Technology (École supérieure des technologies industrielles avancées in Biarritz), founded in 1985. A generalist engineering school, former IDLS.
- the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace (ISAE) was formed from a merger of two institutes known as Supaéro and ENSICA) in Toulouse;
- the EPF Graduate School of Engineering (EPF) known as "École Polytechnique Féminine", was only for women until 1994.
- the Institut national des sciences appliquées (INSA) network is the largest engineer training group in France has grandes écoles of applied technology within regional universities: in Lyon, Rennes, Toulouse, Rouen, and Strasbourg.
- the Universités de technologie (UT) group: Compiègne (UTC), Troyes (UTT); Belfort-Montbéliard (UTBM);
- the "Ecole des Hautes Etudes d'Ingénieur" (HEI)in Lille;
- the "Ecole Ingenieur du Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers" (EI CNAM)
- the "Écoles Nationales Supérieures d'Ingénieurs" (ENSI), which encompasses approximately 40 engineering schools, including;
- the École nationale supérieure d'électronique, d'électrotechnique, d'informatique, d'hydraulique, et de télécommunications (ENSEEIHT, nicknamed N7), considered the largest ENSI, with more than 400 graduates every year. It is one of the schools of the INP Toulouse;
- the École nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs de Caen (ENSICAEN);
- the École nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs de Bretagne sud (ENSIBS);
- the École nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs de Bourges (ENSIB);
- the École nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs de Poitiers (ENSIP);
- the École nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs de Limoges (ENSIL);
- the École Nationale Supérieure d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Systèmes Industriels (ENSGSI);
- the École nationale supérieure des arts et industries textiles (ENSAIT);
- the École Nationale Supérieure d'Ingénieurs en Informatique Automatique Mécanique Énergétique Électronique (ENSIAME);
- the Institut polytechnique de Grenoble: includes the Grenoble Institute of Technology, and the Grenoble INP (formerly INPG) which has six departments (ENSIMAG, Ense3, Phelma, ESISAR, Génie Industriel, Pagora);
- the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine: includes the EEIGM, the European School of Materials Sciences and Engineering, the École Nationale Supérieure d'Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires (ENSAIA, the National School of Agronomy and Food Sciences), the École Nationale Supérieure d'Électricité et de Mécanique (ENSEM, the National School of Electricity and Mechanics), the École Nationale Supérieure de Géologie (ENSG, the National School of Geology), the École Nationale Supérieure en Génie des Systèmes Industriels (ENSGSI, the National School of Industrial Systems Engineering), the École Nationale Supérieure des Industries Chimiques (ENSIC, the National School of Chemical Industries), the École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Nancy (ENSMN, the National School of Mines of Nancy) and the École Nationale Supérieure d'Architecture de Nancy (ENSA Nancy, the School of Architecture));
- the École Nationale Supérieure des Sciences Appliquées et de Technologie (ENSSAT);
- the Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs (ENI) network is an engineer training group:
- the Ecole Speciale de Mecanique et d'Electricite also called ESME Sudria in Paris since 1905
- the École supérieure d'ingénieurs de recherche en matériaux et en InfoTronique (ESIREM).
- the Centre des études supérieures industrielles (CESI);
- the École Supérieure d'Ingénieurs de Luminy (ESIL);
- the École Supérieure d'Ingénieurs de Rennes (ESIR);
- the École centrale d'électronique (ECE Paris);
Grandes écoles of actuarial sciences, statistics and econometrics:
- the Institut de Science Financiere et d'Assurances (ISFA);
- the Institut de Statistiques de l'Université de Paris (ISUP);
Grandes écoles of chemistry:
- the École nationale supérieure de chimie de Rennes (ENSCR);
- the École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille (ENSCL);
- the École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier (ENSCM);
- the École européenne de Chimie, Polymères et Matériaux de Strasbourg (ECPM);
- the École nationale supérieure de chimie de Clermont-Ferrand (ENSCCF);
Grandes écoles of physics:
- the Institut d'Optique Graduate School (IOGS, nicknamed SupOptique);
- the École supérieure de physique et de chimie industrielles de la ville de Paris (ESPCI ParisTech);
- the École nationale supérieure de physique et chimie de Bordeaux (ENSCPB);
- the École nationale supérieure des ingénieurs en arts chimiques et technologiques (ENSIACET, nicknamed A7), also part of the INP Toulouse;
- the École supérieure de chimie physique électronique de Lyon (ESCPE, or CPE-Lyon);
- the École nationale supérieure de l'électronique et de ses Applications (ENSEA).
- the Institut des sciences de l'ingénieur de Toulon et du Var (ISITV).
Grandes écoles of information technology and telecommunications:
- the École nationale des sciences géographiques (ENSG - géomatique).
- the École supérieure d'informatique, électronique et automatique (ESIEA).
- the École pour l'informatique et les techniques avancées (EPITA).
- the École supérieure d'ingénieurs en électronique et électrotechnique (ESIEE Paris).
- the École supérieure d'ingénieurs en électronique et électrotechnique d'Amiens (ESIEE Amiens).
- the École nationale supérieure d'électronique, informatique et radiocommunications de Bordeaux (ENSEIRB).
- the École Supérieure d'Électronique de l'Ouest (Groupe ESEO).
- the École supérieure d'ingénieurs en génie électrique (ESIGELEC).
- the École supérieure d'ingénieurs en informatique et génie des télécommunications (ESIGETEL).
- the École catholique des arts et métiers (ECAM Lyon - Groupe ECAM).
- the École d'électricité, de production et des méthodes industrielles (EPMI - Groupe ECAM).
- the École d'ingénieurs des technologies de l'information et du management (EFREI).
- the École Internationale des Sciences du Traitement de l'Information (EISTI).
- the École nationale supérieure d'informatique pour l'industrie et l'enterprise (ENSIIE, previously IIE);
- the Institut supérieur d'électronique de Paris (ISEP).
- the Institut Superieur de l'electronique et du numerique (ISEN).
- the Institut Supérieur d'Informatique, de Modélisation et de leurs Applications (ISIMA).
- the Institut des Sciences et Techniques des Yvelines (ISTY).
- Telecom Nancy (ex - ESIAL).
Grandes écoles of applied physics and technology or civil and industrial engineering:
- the École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État (ENTPE, nicknamed TPE, civil engineering);
- the École nationale supérieure de mécanique et d'aérotechnique (ENSMA, or ISAE-ENSMA, mechanical engineering), member of the ISAE group with the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace; ESTACA and Ecole de l'Air
- the École Supérieure des Techniques Aéronautiques et de Construction Automobile (ESTACA or ISAE-ESTACA, mechanical engineering); member of the ISAE group with the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace, ENSMA and Ecole de l'Air
- the École spéciale des travaux publics, du Bâtiment et de l'Industrie (ESTP, civil engineering);
- the Ecole des ingenieurs de la Ville de Paris (EIVP) ;
- the Institut Supérieur de Mécanique (SUPMECA) ;
- the École Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et des Microtechniques (ENSMM);
- the Institut Français de Mécanique avancée (IFMA, mechanics, logistics, and structures ; member of the Institut Mines-Telecom);
- the Institut supérieur des matériaux et mécaniques avancées (ISMANS);
- the École nationale supérieure de techniques avancées de Bretagne (ENSTA Bretagne, formerly ENSIETA), training French military engineers (25%) and civilian engineers (75%);
- the École nationale de l'aviation civile (ENAC), civilian air academy, also recruits Taupins.
Grandes écoles of biology and natural sciences:
- the other Écoles nationales supérieures d'agronomie (ENSA : Paris (AgroParisTech), Montpellier (SupAgro), Rennes (Agrocampus Ouest), Toulouse (ENSAT), Nancy (ENSAIA), Bordeaux (Sciences Agro));
- the École supérieure de biotechnologie Strasbourg (ESBS);
- the École nationale supérieure de géologie (ENSG), whose graduates are Géoliens;
- the Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre (EOST), whose graduates are Eostiens;
- the Ecole nationale du génie de l'eau et de l'environnement de Strasbourg (ENGEES);
- the École de Biologie Industrielle (EBI), whose graduates are Ebistes;
- the École d'Ingénieur de Purpan (EIPurpan), formerly École Supérieure d'Agriculture de Purpan (ESAP);
- the École nationale supérieure d'horticulture (ENSH)
Business schools (grandes écoles de commerce)
Most French business schools are partly privately run, often by the regional chambers of commerce. Like Engineering schools, Business schools will recruit most of their students through preparatory classes.
- Audencia Business School
- EDHEC Business School
- EM LYON Business School
- École de management de Normandie (Normandy Business School)
- EM Strasbourg Business School (École de Management de Strasbourg)
- ESC Clermont
- Burgundy School of Business (école supérieure de commerce de Dijon)
- ESC La Rochelle
- ESC Rennes School of Business
- ESCP Europe
- ESSEC Business School
- Grenoble École de Management
- Groupe ESC Pau
- ESC Troyes
- Montpellier Business School
- HEC Paris
- ICN Business School
- INSEEC Business School
- Institut supérieur du commerce de Paris (ISC Paris)
- ISG Business School
- KEDGE Business School
- NEOMA Business School
- Skema Business School
- Telecom Business School
- ESC Toulouse School of Business
- EDC Paris Business School
- ESCE (École Supérieure du Commerce Extérieur)
- ESIEE Management
- ESSCA School of Management
- IESEG School of Management
- IPAG Business School
- IPE Management School Paris
- PSB Paris School of Business
Grandes écoles without preparatory classes
Some schools are accessible after a competitive entrance exam directly after the baccalauréat. Often, students of these schools will progress to an administrative school.
These schools include:
- École du Louvre, for archaeology, history of art and anthropology;
- École des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, trains researchers in Social and Human Sciences Anthropology, History, Mathematics;
- École Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs,
- École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts, best known as "les Beaux-Arts" (for fine arts);
- École Nationale Supérieure de Création Industrielle,
- École Nationale Supérieure d'Architecture de Versailles (ENSAV), for architecture;
- Instituts Nationaux des Sciences Appliquées (INSA) in Lyon, Rennes, Rouen, Strasbourg, Toulouse, Centre-Val de loire (located in Blois and Bourges) delivering diplôme d'ingénieur degrees in five years including two preparatory years. The three remaining years are also accessible after selection for the best students graduating a first cycle university diploma, or from institutes of technology;
- Universités de Technologies (UTC, UTT, UTBM) in Compiègne, Troyes, Belfort, are also independent national schools delivering diplôme d'ingénieur and selecting students that graduated baccalaureat with top honours.
Universities that have joined the Grandes écoles Conference
These schools train students for civil service and other public-sector positions. Some students in these schools do end up working in the private sector. Most of these schools are reserved for French or EEA citizens only:
- Institut d'études politiques (IEP).
- École Nationale d'Administration (Strasbourg) (ENA), whose alumni are known as énarques and generally take up high-level management positions in government, ministries, political parties and institutions;
- École Nationale de la Magistrature (Bordeaux) (ENM), which trains judicial magistrates;
- École nationale supérieure des sciences de l'information et des bibliothèques (Lyon) (ENSSIB), which trains library and information managers;
- École des Hautes Études en Santé Publique (Rennes) (), trains managers of hospitals and other leaders and technical experts in public health and health care;
Military officer academies
While École Polytechnique, also known as X, is run by the French Ministry of Defence and its French students are reserve officers in training, it is no longer formally denominated as a military academy. A small number of its students progress to military careers, while between a fifth and a quarter progress to working for the State's technical administrations.
- The École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr, formerly located in Saint-Cyr-l'École but now in Coëtquidan in Brittany, is the Army Academy. Nicknamed Saint-Cyr, its graduates and students are cyrards but are generally referred to as saint-cyriens;
- The École de l'Air (EA) is the Air Force Academy, located in Salon-de-Provence;
- The École Navale (EN) is nicknamed Navale and its graduates and students are Bordaches. It is located in Brest.
Communication, Journalism & Media schools
Facts and influence in French culture
Altogether, the Grandes Écoles awarded approximately 60,000 master's degrees in 2013 compared with 150,000 master's degrees awarded by all French higher institutions in the same year, including universities.
But a distinction must be made within the Grandes Écoles. Some elite schools (Ecole Polytechnique, HEC, ESCP, ESSEC, CentraleSupélec, ParisTech schools, ENA, ENS, Sciences Po and others depending on the rankings) are renowned in France for their selectivity and the complexity of their curriculum. They are usually called the "A+" schools, referring to the grade given by some rankings. These elite schools represent roughly 1% of the higher education students in France.
Admission to a certain number of these institutions,(e.g. l'Ecole Nationale de la Magistrature in Bordeaux) but not all of these establishments is reserved only to French citizens, raising questions relating to European mobility and institutional reciprocity.
These top-rated schools, which the French praise for being généralistes, i.e. interdisciplinary, have traditionally produced most of France's high-ranking civil servants, politicians and executives, and many scientists and philosophers.
Since 1975, the Comité d'études sur les formations d'ingénieurs has studied the questions of training and job placement for engineers graduating from the Grandes Écoles.
- Commission des titres d'ingénieur
- Conférence des directeurs des écoles françaises d'ingénieurs (CDEFI)
- Conférence des grandes écoles (CGE)
- Education in France
- List of universities in France
- List of public universities in France
- Grands établissements
- Michel Nusimovici, Les écoles de l'an III, 2010.
- HEC - History
- - L'Usine nouvelle - 2014 Ranking of top French Engineering Schools (Grandes Ecoles) recruiting at baccalauréat level
- http://www.ens.fr/spip.php?article6 11-12 Nobel laureates and 10 Fields medalists were educated at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris (French)
- The École Normale Supérieure Lettres et Sciences Humaines in Lyon (humanities), was merged in 2010 with the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon (Sciences) to create the current ENS Lyon.
- European Business School Rankings 2014
- L'étudiant, Journal. "L'université Paris Dauphine rejoint le cercle des grandes écoles". L'étudiant (in French). Retrieved 6 November 2016.
- des grandes écoles, Monde (20 May 2015). "Paris-Dauphine, la métisse : Université et Grande Ecole - Monde des grandes écoles et des universités". Monde des grandes écoles et des universités (in French). Retrieved 6 November 2016.