Tin sources and trade in ancient times
Tin is an essential metal in the creation of tin bronzes, and its acquisition was an important part of ancient cultures from the Bronze Age onward. Its use began in the Middle East and the Balkans around 3000 BC. Tin is a relatively rare element in the Earth's crust, with about 2 parts per million (ppm), compared to iron with 50,000 ppm, copper with 70 ppm, lead with 16 ppm, arsenic with 5 ppm, silver with 0.1 ppm, and gold with 0.005 ppm (Valera & Valera 2003, p. 10). Ancient sources of tin were therefore rare, and the metal usually had to be traded over very long distances to meet demand in areas which lacked tin deposits.
Known sources of tin in ancient times include the southeastern tin belt that runs from Yunnan in China to the Malay Peninsula; Devon and Cornwall in England; Brittany in France; the border between Germany and the Czech Republic; Spain; Portugal; Italy; and central and South Africa (Wertime 1979, p. 1; Muhly 1979). Syria and Egypt have been suggested as minor sources of tin, but the archaeological evidence is inconclusive.
Tin extraction and use can be dated to the beginning of the Bronze Age around 3000 BCE, during which copper objects formed from polymetallic ores had different physical properties (Cierny & Weisgerber 2003, p. 23). The earliest bronze objects had tin or arsenic content of less than 2% and are therefore believed to be the result of unintentional alloying due to trace metal content in copper ores such as tennantite, which contains arsenic (Penhallurick 1986, p. 4). The addition of a second metal to copper increases its hardness, lowers the melting temperature, and improves the casting process by producing a more fluid melt that cools to a denser, less spongy metal (Penhallurick 1986, pp. 4–5). This was an important innovation that allowed for the much more complex shapes cast in closed molds of the Bronze Age. Arsenical bronze objects appear first in the Middle East where arsenic is commonly found in association with copper ore, but the health risks were quickly realized and the quest for sources of the much less hazardous tin ores began early in the Bronze Age (Charles 1979, p. 30). This created the demand for rare tin metal and formed a trade network that linked the distant sources of tin to the markets of Bronze Age cultures.
Cassiterite (SnO2), oxidized tin, most likely was the original source of tin in ancient times. Other forms of tin ores are less abundant sulfides such as stannite that require a more involved smelting process. Cassiterite often accumulates in alluvial channels as placer deposits due to the fact that it is harder, heavier, and more chemically resistant than the granite in which it typically forms (Penhallurick 1986). These deposits can be easily seen in river banks, because cassiterite is usually black or purple or otherwise dark, a feature exploited by early Bronze Age prospectors. It is likely that the earliest deposits were alluvial and perhaps exploited by the same methods used for panning gold in placer deposits.
The importance of tin to the success of Bronze Age cultures and the scarcity of the resource offers a glimpse into that time period's trade and cultural interactions, and has therefore been the focus of intense archaeological studies. However, a number of problems have plagued the study of ancient tin such as the limited archaeological remains of placer mining, the destruction of ancient mines by modern mining operations, and the poor preservation of pure tin objects due to tin disease or tin pest. These problems are compounded by the difficulty in provenancing tin objects and ores to their geological deposits using isotopic or trace element analyses. Current archaeological debate is concerned with the origins of tin in the earliest Bronze Age cultures of the Near East (Penhallurick 1986; Cierny & Weisgerber 2003; Dayton 1971; Giumlia-Mair 2003; Muhly 1979; Muhly 1985).
Europe has very few sources of tin. It was therefore of extreme importance throughout ancient times to import it long distances from known tin mining districts of antiquity, namely Erzgebirge along the modern border between Germany and Czech Republic, the Iberian Peninsula, Brittany in modern France, and Devon and Cornwall in southwestern Britain (Benvenuti et al. 2003, p. 56; Valera & Valera 2003, p. 11). There are several smaller sources of tin in the Balkans (Mason et al. 2016, p. 110) and another minor source of tin is known to exist at Monte Valerio in Tuscany, Italy. The Tuscan source was exploited by Etruscan miners around 800 BCE, but it was not a significant source of tin for the rest of the Mediterranean (Benvenuti et al. 2003). The Etruscans themselves found the need to import tin from the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula at that time and later from Cornwall (Penhallurick 1986, p. 80).
It has been claimed that tin was first mined in Europe around 2500 BCE in Erzgebirge, and knowledge of tin bronze and tin extraction techniques spread from there to Brittany and Cornwall around 2000 BCE and from northwestern Europe to northwestern Spain and Portugal around the same time (Penhallurick 1986, p. 93). However, the only Bronze Age object from Central Europe whose tin has been scientifically provenanced is the Nebra sky disk, and its tin (and gold, though not its copper), is shown by tin isotopes to have come from Cornwall (Haustein, Gillis & Pernicka 2010). In addition, a rare find of a pure tin ingot in Scandinavia was provenanced to Cornwall (Ling et al. 2014). Available evidence, though very limited, thus points to Cornwall as the sole early source of tin in Central and Northern Europe.
Brittany – adjacent to Cornwall on the Celtic Sea – has significant sources of tin which show evidence of being extensively exploited after the Roman conquest of Gaul during the first century BCE and onwards (Penhallurick 1986, pp. 86–91). Brittany remained a significant source of tin throughout the medieval period.
A group of 52 bronze artifacts from the late Bronze Age Balkans has been shown to have tin of multiple origins, based on the correlation of tin isotope differences with the different find locations of the artifacts. While the locations of these separate tin sources are uncertain, the larger Serbian group of artifacts is inferred to be derived from tin sources in western Serbia (e.g. Mount Cer), while the smaller group, largely from western Romania, is inferred to have western Romanian origins (Mason et al. 2016, p. 116).
Iberian tin was widely traded across the Mediterranean during the Bronze Age, and extensively exploited during Roman times, but its tin deposits were largely forgotten throughout the medieval period and only rediscovered in the 18th century and only re-gained importance during the mid 19th century (Penhallurick 1986, pp. 100–101).
Cornwall and Devon were important sources of tin for Europe and the Mediterranean throughout ancient times and may have been the earliest sources of tin in Western Europe, but within the historical period, they only dominated the European market from late Roman times in the 3rd century CE with the exhaustion of many Spanish tin mines (Gerrard 2000, p. 21). Cornwall maintained its importance as a source of tin throughout medieval times and into the modern period (Gerrard 2000).
Western Asia has very little tin ore; the few sources that have recently been found are too insignificant to have played a major role during most of ancient history (Cierny & Weisgerber 2003, p. 23). However, it is possible that they were exploited at the onset of the Bronze Age and are responsible for the development of early bronze manufacturing technology (Muhly 1973; Muhly 1979). Kestel, in Southern Turkey, is the site of an ancient Casserite mine that was used from 3250 to 1800 B.C. It contains miles of tunnels, some only large enough for a child. A grave with children which were probably workers has been found. It was abandoned, with crucibiles and other tools left at the site. The next evidence of the production of pure tin in the Middle East is an ingot from the 1300 BCE Uluburun shipwreck off the coast of Turkey (Hauptmann, Maddin & Prange 2002).
While there are a few sources of cassiterite in Central Asia, namely in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan that show signs of having been exploited starting around 2000 BCE (Cierny & Weisgerber 2003, p. 28), archaeologists disagree about whether they were significant sources of tin for the earliest Bronze Age cultures of the Middle East (Dayton 2003; Muhly 1973; Maddin 1998; Stech & Pigott 1986).
In Northern Asia the only tin deposits considered exploitable by ancient peoples occur in the far eastern region of Siberia (Dayton 2003, p. 165). This source of tin appears to have been exploited by the Eurasian Steppe people known as the Turbino culture of the Middle Bronze Age (1000 BCE) as well as northern Chinese cultures around the same time (Penhallurick 1986, p. 35).
Eastern Asia has a number of small cassiterite deposits along the Yellow River which were exploited by the earliest Chinese Bronze Age culture of Erlitou and the Shang Dynasty (2500 to 1800 BCE). However, the richest deposits for the region, and indeed the world, lie in Southeastern Asia, stretching from Yunnan in China to the Malay Peninsula. The deposits in Yunnan were not mined until around 700 BCE, but by the Han Dynasty had become the main source of tin in China according to historical texts of the Han, Jin, Tang, and Song dynasties (Murowchick 1991, pp. 76–77). Other cultures of Southeast Asia exploited the abundant cassiterite resources sometime between second and third millennia BCE, but due to the lack of archaeological work in the region little else is known about tin exploitation during ancient times in that part of the world.
Tin was used in the Indian subcontinent starting in the second half of the second millennium BCE (i.e. between 1500 and 1000 BCE) (Hedge 1979, p. 39; Chakrabarti & Lahiri 1996). While India does have some small scattered deposits of tin, they were not a major source of tin for Indian Bronze Age cultures as shown by their dependence on imported tin.
While rich veins of tin are known to exist in Central and South Africa, whether these were exploited during ancient times is still debated (Dayton 2003, p. 165). However, the Bantu culture of Zimbabwe are known to have actively mined, smelted and traded tin between the 11th and 15th centuries CE (Penhallurick 1986, p. 11).
Tin deposits exist in many parts of South America, with minor deposits in southern Peru, Colombia, Brazil, and northwestern Argentina, and major deposits of exploitable cassiterite in northern Bolivia. These deposits were exploited as early as 1000 CE in the manufacture of tin bronze by Andean cultures, including the later Inca culture who considered tin bronze as the "imperial alloy". In North America, the only known exploitable source of tin during ancient times is located in the Zacatecas tin province of north central Mexico which supplied west Mexican cultures with enough tin for bronze production (Lechtman 1996, p. 478).
Due to the scattered nature of tin deposits around the world and its essential nature for the creation of tin bronze, tin trade played an important role in the development of cultures throughout ancient times. Archaeologists have reconstructed parts of the extensive trade networks of ancient cultures from the Bronze Age to modern times using historical texts, archaeological excavations, and trace element and lead isotope analysis to determine the origins of tin objects around the world (Valera & Valera 2003; Rovia & Montero 2003; Maddin 1998).
The earliest sources of tin in the Early Bronze Age in the Near East are still unknown and the subject of much debate in archaeology (Dayton 1971; Dayton 2003; Maddin 1998; Muhly 1973; Penhallurick 1986; Stech & Pigott 1986; Kalyanaraman 2010). Possibilities include minor now-depleted sources in the Near East, trade from Central Asia (Muhly 1979), Sub-Saharan Africa (Dayton 2003), Europe, or elsewhere.
It is possible that as early as 2500 BCE, Erzgebirge had begun exporting tin, using the well established Baltic amber trade route to supply Scandinavia as well as the Mediterranean with tin (Penhallurick 1986, pp. 75–77). By 2000 BCE, the extraction of tin in Britain, France, Spain, and Portugal had begun and tin was traded to the Mediterranean sporadically from all these sources. Evidence of tin trade in the Mediterranean can be seen in a number of Bronze Age shipwrecks containing tin ingots such as the Uluburun off the coast of Turkey dated 1300 BCE which carried over 300 copper bars weighing 10 tons, and approximately 40 tin bars weighing 1 ton (Pulak 2001). While Sardinia does not appear to have much in terms of significant sources of tin, it does have rich copper and other mineral wealth and served as a centre for metals trade during the Bronze Age and likely actively imported tin from the Iberian Peninsula for export to the rest of the Mediterranean (Lo Schiavo 2003).
By classical Greek times, the tin sources were well established. Greece and the Western Mediterranean appear to have traded their tin from European sources, while the Middle East acquired their tin from Central Asian sources through the Silk Road (Muhly 1979, p. 45). For example, Iron Age Greece had access to tin from Iberia by way of the Phoenicians who traded extensively there, from Erzgebirge by way of the Baltic Amber Road overland route, or from Brittany and Cornwall through overland routes from their colony at Massalia (modern day Marseilles) established in the 6th century BCE (Penhallurick 1986). In 450 BCE, Herodotus described tin as coming from Northern European islands named the Cassiterides along the extreme borders of the world, suggesting very long distance trade, likely from Britain, northwestern Iberia, or Brittany, supplying tin to Greece and other Mediterranean cultures (Valera & Valera 2003, p. 11). It should be noted that the idea that the Phoenicians went to Cornwall for its tin and supplied it to the whole of the Mediterranean has no archaeological basis and is largely considered a myth (Penhallurick 1986, p. 123).
The early Roman world was mainly supplied with tin from its Iberian provinces of Gallaecia and Lusitania and to a lesser extent Tuscany. Pliny mentions that in 80 BCE, a senatorial decree halted all mining on the Italian Peninsula, stopping any tin mining activity in Tuscany and increasing Roman dependence on tin from Brittany, Iberia, and Cornwall. After the Roman conquest of Gaul, Brittany’s tin deposits saw intensified exploitation after the first century BCE (Penhallurick 1986, pp. 86–91). With the exhaustion of the Iberian tin mines, Cornwall became a major supplier of tin for the Romans after the 3rd century CE (Gerrard 2000).
Throughout the medieval period, demand for tin increased as pewter gained popularity. Brittany and Cornwall remained the major producers and exporters of tin throughout the Mediterranean through to modern times (Gerrard 2000).
Near Eastern development of bronze technology spread across Central Asia by way of the Eurasian Steppes, and with it came the knowledge and technology for tin prospection and extraction. By 2000 to 1500 BCE Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan appear to have exploited their sources of tin, carrying the resources east and west along the Silk Road crossing Central Asia (Cierny & Weisgerber 2003, p. 28). This trade link likely followed an existing trade route of lapis lazuli, a highly prized semi-precious blue gemstone, and chlorite vessels decorated with turquoise from Central Asia that have been found as far west as Egypt and that date to the same period (Giumlia-Mair 2003, p. 93).
In China, early tin was extracted along the Yellow River in Erlitou and Shang times between 2500 and 1800 BCE. By Han and later times, China imported its tin from what is today Yunnan province. This has remained China’s main source of tin throughout history and into modern times (Murowchick 1991).
It is unlikely that Southeast Asian tin from Indochina was widely traded around the world in ancient times as the area was only opened up to Indian, Muslim, and European traders around 800 CE (Penhallurick 1986, p. 51).
Roman trade to India is well known from historical texts such as Pliny’s Natural History (book VI, 26), and tin is mentioned as one of the resources being exported from Rome to Southern Arabia, Somaliland, and India (Penhallurick 1986, p. 53; Dayton 2003, p. 165).
- Tin pest
- Tin mining in Britain
- Mining in Cornwall and Devon
- Dartmoor tin mining
- Benvenuti, M.; Chiarantini, L.; Norfini, A.; Casini, A.; Guideri, S.; Tanelli, G. (2003), "The "Etruscan tin": a preliminary contribution from researches at Monte Valerio and Baratti-Populonia (Southern Tuscany, Italy)", in Giumlia-Mair, A.; Lo Schiavo, F., The Problem of Early Tin, Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 55–66, ISBN 1-84171-564-6
- Chakrabarti, D.K.; Lahiri, N. (1996), Copper and its alloys in ancient India, New Dehli: Munshiram Manoharlal, ISBN 81-215-0707-3
- Charles, J.A. (1979), "The development of the usage of tin and tin-bronze: some problems", in Franklin, A.D.; Olin, J.S.; Wertime, T.A., The Search for Ancient Tin, Washington, D.C.: A seminar organized by Theodore A. Wertime and held at the Smithsonian Institution and the National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. March 14–15, 1977, pp. 25–32
- Cierny, J.; Weisgerber, G. (2003), "The "Bronze Age tin mines in Central Asia", in Giumlia-Mair, A.; Lo Schiavo, F., The Problem of Early Tin, Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 23–31, ISBN 1-84171-564-6
- Dayton, J.E. (1971), "The problem of tin in the ancient world", World Archaeology, 3 (1), pp. 49–70
- Dayton, J.E. (2003), "The problem of tin in the ancient world (part 2)", in Giumlia-Mair, A.; Lo Schiavo, F., The Problem of Early Tin, Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 165–170, ISBN 1-84171-564-6
- Gerrard, S. (2000), The Early British Tin Industry, Stroud: Tempus Publishing, ISBN 0-7524-1452-6
- Giumlia-Mair, A. (2003), "Iron Age tin in the Oriental Alps", in Giumlia-Mair, A.; Lo Schiavo, F., The Problem of Early Tin, Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 93–108, ISBN 1-84171-564-6
- Hauptmann, A.; Maddin, R.; Prange, M. (2002), "On the structure and composition of copper and tin ingots excavated from the shipwreck of Uluburun", Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research, 328, pp. 1-30, JSTOR 1357777
- Haustein, M.; Gillis, C.; Pernicka, E. (2010), "Tin isotopy: a new method for solving old questions", Archeometry, 52 (5), pp. 816-832, doi:10.1111/j.1475-4754.2010.00515.x
- Hedge, K.T.M. (1979), "Sources of ancient tin in India", in Franklin, A.D.; Olin, J.S.; Wertime, T.A., The Search for Ancient Tin, Washington, D.C.: A seminar organized by Theodore A. Wertime and held at the Smithsonian Institution and the National Bureau of Standards, Washington D.C. March 14–15, 1977, pp. 14–15
- Kalyanaraman, S. (2010), "The Bronze Age Writing System of Sarasvati Hieroglyphics as Evidenced by Two "Rosetta Stones" - Decoding Indus script as repertoire of the mints/smithy/mine-workers of Meluhha", Journal of Indo-Judaic Studies, 11, pp. 47–74
- Lechtman, H. (1996), "Arsenic bronze: dirty copper or chosen alloy? A view from the Americas", Journal of Field Archaeology, 23 (3), pp. 477–514
- Ling, Johan; Stos-Gale, Zofia; Grandin, Lena; Hjärthner-Holdar, Eva; Persson, Per-Olof (2014), "Moving metals II provenancing Scandinavian Bronze Age artefacts", Journal of Archeological Science, 41: 106–132, doi:10.1016/j.jas.2013.07.018
- Lo Schiavo, F. (2003), "The problem of early tin from the point of view of Nuragic Sardinia", in Giumlia-Mair, A.; Lo Schiavo, F., The Problem of Early Tin, Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 121–132, ISBN 1-84171-564-6
- Maddin, R. (1998), Early Metallurgy: The Tin Mystery, Matsue: Proceedings of BUMA IV, pp. 1–4
- Mason, A.H; Powell, W.G.; Bankoff, H.A.; Mathur, R; Bulatović, A.; Filipović, V.; Ruiz, J., "Tin isotope characterization of bronze artifacts of the central Balkans", Journal of Archaeological Science, 69, pp. 110-117, doi:10.1016/j.jas.2016.04.012
- Muhly, J.D. (1973), Copper and Tin: the Distribution of Mineral Resources and the Nature of the Metals Trade in the Bronze Age, Hamden: Archon Books, ISBN 0-208-01217-6
- Muhly, J.D. (1979), "The evidence for sources of and trade in Bronze Age tin", in Franklin, A.D.; Olin, J.S.; Wertime, T.A., The Search for Ancient Tin, Washington, D.C.: A seminar organized by Theodore A. Wertime and held at the Smithsonian Institution and the National Bureau of Standards, Washington D.C. March 14–15, 1977, pp. 43–48
- Muhly, J.D. (1985), "Sources of tin and the beginnings of bronze metallurgy", Journal of American Archaeology, 89 (2), pp. 275–291
- Murowchick, R.E. (1991), The Ancient Bronze Metallurgy of Yunnan and its Environs: Development and Implications, Michigan: Ann Arbour
- Penhallurick, R.D. (1986), Tin in Antiquity: its Mining and Trade Throughout the Ancient World with Particular Reference to Cornwall, London: The Institute of Metals, ISBN 0-904357-81-3
- Primas, M. (2003), "The use of tin and lead in Bronze Age metallurgy", in Giumlia-Mair, A.; Lo Schiavo, F., The Problem of Early Tin, Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 87–92, ISBN 1-84171-564-6
- Pulak, C. (2001), "The cargo of the Uluburun ship and evidence for trade with the Aegean and beyond", in Bonfante, L.; Karageogrhis, V., Italy and Cyprus in Antiquity: 1500–450 BC, Nicosia: The Costakis and Leto Severis Foundation, pp. 12–61, ISBN 9963-8102-3-3
- Roden, Christoph (1985). "Die montanarchäologischen Quellen des ur- und frühgeschichtlichen Zinnbergbaus in Europa - Ein Überblick". Der Anschnitt. 37 (2/3): 50–80.
- Rovia, S.; Montero, I. (2003), "Natural tin-bronze alloy in Iberian Peninsula metallurgy: potentiality and reality", in Giumlia-Mair, A.; Lo Schiavo, F., The Problem of Early Tin, Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 15–22, ISBN 1-84171-564-6
- Stech, T.; Pigott, V.C. (1986), "Metals trade in Southwest Asia in the third millennium BC", Iraq, 48, pp. 39–64
- Valera, R.G.; Valera, P.G. (2003), "Tin in the Mediterranean area: history and geology", in Giumlia-Mair, A.; Lo Schiavo, F., The Problem of Early Tin, Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 3–14, ISBN 1-84171-564-6
- Weeks, L.R. (2004), Early Metallurgy of the Persian Gulf: Technology, Trade, and the Bronze Age World, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 0-391-04213-0
- Wertime, T.A. (1979), "The search for ancient tin: the geographic and historic boundaries", in Franklin, A.D.; Olin, J.S.; Wertime, T.A., The Search for Ancient Tin, Washington, D.C.: A seminar organized by Theodore A. Wertime and held at the Smithsonian Institution and the National Bureau of Standards, Washington D.C. March 14–15, 1977, pp. 14–15