Hanoish languages

Southern Loloish
Southern China and Indochina
Linguistic classification:


Glottolog: hani1249[1]

The Hanoish (Hanish) languages, also known in a broader scope as the Southern Loloish or Southern Ngwi languages, are a branch of the Loloish languages that includes Akha and Hani.


The branches included in Lama (2012), with languages from Bradley (2007), are:






Bisu (Laomian), Phunoi (Singsali, Singsili), Pyen


Sila (Sida), Phana’

Akeu (Chepya)

Hani (AkhaHani, Honi)


Piyo, Enu, Mpi


Other Hanoish languages are:

Kato (2008) also documents:

Other Hanoish language varieties in south-central Yunnan include Bukong 布孔, Budu 布都,[4] Asuo 阿梭, Duota 堕塔,[5] Amu 阿木, Lami 腊米, Qiedi 切弟, Kabie 卡别,[6] and Woni 窝尼.


David Bradley (2007)[3] considers the following Bisoid dialects to be closely related.

Bradley (2007) lists the following Sinsali (formerly Phunoi) languages, which differ from each other.

Other Bisoid languages include:

Kitjapol Udomkool (2006:34),[7] citing data from Wright,[8] also lists the following Bisoid (Phunoi) languages.

Kitjapol Udomkool (2006) gives the following computational classification for the Bisoid (Phunoi) group, using the UPGMA method.





Tsukong, Cốông




Laoseng, Phongset


Bisu, Pyen

Laopin, Laomian

Wright (n.d.)[8] tentatively classifies the Singsali (Phunoi) languages of Phongsaly Province, Laos as follows. Phongku may or may not belong as the same group as Laoseng, Phongset, Cantan, and Singsali.


Many languages formerly classified as Southern Loloish were known to be divergent, but little data was available; these were split off as Southeastern Loloish by Bradley (2002). The position of Pholo is unclear: although initially kept with the Phula languages in Southeastern Loloish, Pelkey notes that it is only culturally similar, and does not share the defining features of that branch. However, Lama (2012) uses it as one of his sources for classifying Loloish, and finds that it falls in with Zuoke, which Pelkey classifies as Phula. ’Ugong is even more aberrant; Bradley (1997) places it with the Burmish languages.

Jinuo was added to Hanish by Lama (2012).


Lama (2012) lists the following changes from Proto-Loloish as Hanoish innovations.


  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Hani–Jino". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/numeral/Paza.htm
  3. 1 2 Bradley, David (2007). "Language Endangerment in China and Mainland Southeast Asia". In Matthias Brenzinger, ed. Language diversity endangered. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  4. 中国少数民族社会历史调查资料丛刊》修订编辑委员会. 2009. 哈尼族社会历史调查, p.94, 99. Beijing: Minzu Chubanshe.
  5. Jiangcheng County Almanac (1989:351)
  6. Jiang Ying [蒋颖], Cui Xia [崔霞], Qiao Xiang [乔翔]. 2009. A study of Ximoluo [西摩洛语研究]. Beijing: Ethnic Publishing House [民族出版社].
  7. Udomkool, Kitjapol. 2006. A phonological comparison of selected Bisoid varieties. M.A. dissertation. Chiang Mai: Payap University.
  8. 1 2 Wright, Pamela Sue. n.d. Singsali (Phunoi) Speech Varieties Of Phongsali Province. m.s.
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