|Southern China, Vietnam|
Central Loloish was proposed by Bradley (1997) and Thurgood (2003). Thurgood removed the Sani–Azha languages. Lama (2012) removed Lahu and Jinuo, and did not address Micha, calling the remaining core Lisoish.
There is no single phonological innovation that defines Lisoish.
Languages and classifications
Close to Lisu within Central Loloish, but not addressed directly by Lama (2012), are the Micha languages:
Another Central Loloish language, possibly Lisoish, is Lang’e (La’u), as apparently is Naluo. Yang (2011) reports Lawu, which is closest to Lavu/Talu. Other languages that are unclassified within Central Loloish are Limi and Mili.
Two of the six Yi languages (fangyan 方言) officially recognized by the Chinese government belong to Lama's Lisoish clade:
The remaining four are Nisoish.
Chen (2010) lists the following dialects for "Lolo" (倮倮) languages, which corresponds to part of Lama's Lisoish clade, but in a narrower scope. The position of Lisu is not addressed. Also listed are the counties where each respective dialect is spoken.
- Lolo 倮倮方言
- Lolo, Luóluó 倮倮次方言 (lo̱˨˩lo̱˧pʰo˨˩): 600,000 speakers in all counties of Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture
- Lalu, Làlǔ 腊鲁次方言
- Lalu, Làlǔ 腊鲁 (la˨˩lu̱˧pa˨˩): 250,000 speakers in Dali, Weishan, Midu, Yongping, Baoshan, etc.
- Lalo, Làluó 腊罗 (la˨˩lo̱˨˩ɣɑ˥ly˥): 250,000 speakers in Dali, Weishan, Yunxian, Changning, Nanjian, Lincang, Shuangjiang, Midu, Jingdong, Jinggu, etc.
- Lipo, Lǐpō 里泼次方言
- Lipo, Lǐpō 里泼 (li˧pʰo˨˩): 200,000 speakers in Luquan, Wuding, Yongsheng, Huaping, etc.
- Lavu, Lāwù 拉务 (la˨˩u˨˩): 50,000 speakers in Yongsheng
- Talu, Tǎlǔ 塔鲁 (tʰa˨˩lu˥): 50,000 speakers in Yongsheng, Huaping, etc.
- Toloza, Tánglángràng 堂郎让 (tʰo˧lo˧za˧): 2,000+ speakers in Tai'an Township, Lijiang County
Cathryn Yang (2010) lists the following 4 languages as peripheral Lalo languages.
Andy Castro, et al. (2010) have reported the discovery of 5 languages in Heqing County, Yunnan that are most closely related to Talu (他留话) of Yongsheng County. Autonyms are from Castro (2010:25). Sonaga is the most divergent, while the other four languages comprise a core subclade.
- Kua-nsi (kʰua˧n˨˩sɨ˥; 跨恩斯话): 5,000+ speakers
- Kuamasi (kʰua˧ma˧sɨ˥; 跨玛斯话)
- Laizisi (lai˨˩dzɨ̱˥sɨ˥; 莱兹斯话)
- Zibusi (zɨ˨˩pu˥sɨ˥; 子逋斯话)
- Sonaga (so˨˩na˧ka̱˧; 锁内嘎话): 2,000+ speakers
Gomotage (ɣɔ˨˩mɔ˧ta˥ɣə˨˩), an undocumented and little-known Loloish language of Eryuan County, is also probably related to Kua-nsi (Yang 2010:7). Yang (2010:7) also suggests that Wotizo (wɔ˨˩ti˧zɔ˨˩) of Midu County may probably be related to Lolo (Lolopo).
Bradley (2007) reports a moribund language Samatu.
Other languages that may be Lisoish include (see also List of lesser-known Loloish languages):
- Enipu 厄尼蒲 of Nanjian County (pop. 11,000) and Weishan County (pop. 5,000)
- Gaiji 改积 of central Yun County
- Gaisu, Western 改苏(西) (Luoren) of northeastern Yongde County
- Gepo, Western 葛泼(西) of Liuhe Township 六合彝族乡, Heqing County
- Liude 六得 of Liude Township 六德乡, Yongsheng County
- Liwu 里乌 of Yongsheng County
- Maci 骂池 of Maci village 骂池, Taipingdi Village Cluster 太平地村, Yongding City 永定镇, northeastern Yongren County
- Naru 纳儒 of southern and central Yongsheng County (pop. 7,000) and southern Huaping County (pop. 4,500)
- Naruo 纳若 (Zhili) of Yongsheng County and Huaping County
- Naza 纳咱 of Nazan Village 纳咱, Liude Village 六德村, Liude Township 六德乡, Yongsheng County.
- Pengzi 棚子 of Wumulong Township 乌木龙彝族乡 (and possibly also Mengban Township 勐板乡), Yongde County
- Suan 蒜 of Wumulong Township 乌木龙彝族乡 and Mengban Township 勐板乡, Yongde County
- Popei 泼胚 of Huaping County (pop. 1,000; several villages), Dayao and Yongren Counties; small pockets in nearby regions.
- Qiangyi 羌夷 of Xiangyun County (pop. 9,000) and Binchuan County (pop. 1,000)
- Tazhi of Puwei Township 普威镇, northern Miyi County 米易县, Sichuan
- Tusu 土族 of Xiangyun County
- Xiangtang 香堂 of southwestern Yunnan
- Xijima 洗期麻 of central Yun County
- Western Samadu 撒马堵(西) of Zhenkang County (pop. 6,000), Yongde County (pop. 1,500)
Lama (2012) lists the following sound changes from Proto-Loloish as Lisoish innovations.
- *m- > zero
- *m- > p-
Pelkey (2011:367) lists the following as Central Ngwi innovations.
- Proto-Ngwi tone categories 1 and 2: tone splitting that is widespread
- Proto-Ngwi tone category 2 splits to *glottal-prefixed initials (higher-pitched reflexes) and *non-glottal-prefixed initials (lower-pitched reflexes; with a subsequent flip-flop in Lahu)
- Proto-Ngwi tone category L prefixed stop initials > high/rising pitch reflexes
- Family group classifiers paradigmatized with disyllabic forms, vowel leveling, and other systemic changes
- Burmic extentive paradigm is moderately grammaticalized; more than Southern Ngwi, but fewer than Northern Ngwi
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Lisoid". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Thurgood & LaPolla, 2003, The Sino-Tibetan languages, p. 8
- Yang, Cathryn. 2010. Lalo regional varieties: Phylogeny, dialectometry, and sociolinguistics. Melbourne: La Trobe University PhD dissertation. http://arrow.latrobe.edu.au:8080/vital/access/HandleResolver/1959.9/153015.
- Andy Castro, Brian Crook, Royce Flaming. 2010. A sociolinguistic survey of Kua-nsi and related Yi varieties in Heqing county, Yunnan province, China. SIL International.
- Chen Kang [陈康]. 2010. A study of Yi dialects [彝语方言研究]. Beijing: China Minzu University Press.
- Lama, Ziwo Qiu-Fuyuan (2012), Subgrouping of Nisoic (Yi) Languages, thesis, University of Texas at Arlington (archived)