Johns Hopkins Hospital

Johns Hopkins Hospital
Johns Hopkins Medicine
A map of Baltimore with a dot showing location of Johns Hopkins Hospital
Location of hospital on map of Baltimore
Location 1800 Orleans Street[1], Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Coordinates 39°17′51″N 76°35′33″W / 39.29738°N 76.59239°W / 39.29738; -76.59239Coordinates: 39°17′51″N 76°35′33″W / 39.29738°N 76.59239°W / 39.29738; -76.59239
Funding Non-profit hospital
Hospital type Teaching
Affiliated university Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Emergency department Level I adult & pediatric trauma
Helipad FAA LID: 0MD3 and 17MD
Beds 1,059
Founded 1889
Lists Hospitals in Maryland
Other links Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center
Johns Hopkins Hospital Complex

Photograph as of September 2012
Location 601 North Broadway,[2] Baltimore, Maryland
Area 8 acres (3.2 ha)
Built 1889
Architect Cabot & Chandler; Et al.
Architectural style Queen Anne
NRHP Reference # 75002094 [3]
Added to NRHP February 24, 1975

The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, located in Baltimore City, Maryland, U.S. It was founded in 1889 using money from a bequest by philanthropist Johns Hopkins. Johns Hopkins Hospital and the school of medicine are the founding institutions of modern American medicine and the birthplace of numerous medical traditions including rounds, residents and housestaff.[4] Many medical specialties were formed at the hospital including neurosurgery, by Harvey Cushing; cardiac surgery by Alfred Blalock;[5] and pediatrics and child psychiatry, by Leo Kanner.[6][7]

Johns Hopkins Hospital is widely regarded as one of the world's greatest hospitals.[8] It was ranked by U.S. News & World Report as the best overall hospital in America for 21 consecutive years (1991–2011). In 2016-2017, the hospital ranked in 15 adult and 10 children's specialties, coming in 1st in Maryland and 4th nationally behind the Mayo Clinic, the Cleveland Clinic, and Massachusetts General Hospital.[9][10]


Johns Hopkins, a Baltimore merchant and banker, left an estate of $7 million (US$134.07 million in 2016[11]) when he died on Christmas Eve 1873 at the age of 78. In his will, he asked that his fortune be used to found two institutions that would bear his name: "Johns Hopkins University" and "The Johns Hopkins Hospital." At the time that it was made, Hopkins's gift was the largest philanthropic bequest in the history of the United States.[12]

Toward the end of his life, Hopkins selected 12 prominent Baltimoreans to be the trustees for the project and a year before his death, sent a letter telling them that he was giving "thirteen acres of land, situated in the city of Baltimore, and bounded by Wolfe, Monument, Broadway and Jefferson streets upon which I desire you to erect a hospital." He wished for a hospital "which shall, in construction and arrangement, compare favorably with any other institution of like character in this country or in Europe" and directed his trustees to "secure for the service of the Hospital, physicians and surgeons of the highest character and greatest skill."[12]

Most importantly, Hopkins told the trustees to "bear constantly in mind that it is my wish and purpose that the hospital shall ultimately form a part of the Medical School of that university for which I have made ample provision in my will." By calling for this integral relationship between patient care, as embodied in the hospital, and teaching and research, as embodied in the university, Hopkins laid the groundwork for a revolution in American medicine. Johns Hopkins' vision, of two institutions in which the practice of medicine would be wedded to medical research and medical education was nothing short of revolutionary.

Octagon ward - Johns Hopkins Hospital - exterior

Initial plans for the hospital were drafted by surgeon John Shaw Billings, and the architecture designed by John Rudolph Niernsee and completed by Edward Clarke Cabot of the Boston firm of Cabot and Chandler in a Queen Anne style.[13] When completed in 1889 at a cost of $2,050,000 (US$50.8 million in 2016[11]), the hospital included what was then state-of-the art concepts in heating and ventilation to check the spread of disease.

The trustees obtained the services of four outstanding physicians, known as the "Big Four," to serve as the founding staff of the hospital when it opened on May 7, 1889. They were pathologist William Henry Welch, surgeon William Stewart Halsted, internist William Osler, and gynecologist Howard Atwood Kelly.[14]

In 1893, Johns Hopkins University was one of the first medical schools to admit women.[15] The decision to begin coeducation was a result of a shortage of funds, as the B&O Railroad stock that was supposed to cover cost was used up in building the hospital in 1889 and the medical school had not yet been built. Four of the original trustees’ daughters offered to raise the money needed to open the school, but only if the school agreed to admit qualified women to the university. After several discussions the trustees agreed to their terms and accepted the financial help of these four women, with only one of doctors, William Henry Welch resisting. Eventually even Welch changed his views on coeducation, "The necessity for coeducation in some form," he wrote later, "becomes more evident the higher the character of the education. In no form of education is this more evident than in that of medicine ... we regard coeducation a success; those of us who were not enthusiastic at the beginning are now sympathetic and friendly."[16]

Osler, the first chief of the Department of Medicine, is credited with originating the idea of a residency, whereby recently graduated doctors receive advanced training in their specialty while treating patients under supervision; then as now, residents comprise most of the medical staff of the hospital. He also introduced the idea of bringing medical students into actual patient care early in their training; at the time medical school consisted almost entirely of lectures. Osler's contribution to practical education extends to the creation of "grand rounds", the practice of leading physicians discussing the most difficult cases in front of assembled medical students, for the benefit of patients and students.[17][18] He once said he hoped his tombstone would say only, "He brought medical students into the wards for bedside teaching."[14]

Halsted, the first chief of the Department of Surgery, established many other medical and surgical achievements at Johns Hopkins including modern surgical principles of control of bleeding, accurate anatomical dissection, complete sterility, and the first radical mastectomy for breast cancer (before this time, such a diagnosis was a virtual death sentence). His other achievements included the introduction of the surgical glove and advances in thyroid, biliary tree, hernia, intestinal and arterial aneurysm surgeries. Halsted also established the first formal surgical residency training program in the United States.

Kelly is credited with establishing gynecology as a true specialty. He created new surgical approaches to women's diseases and invented numerous medical devices, including a urinary cystoscope. He was one of the first to use radium to treat cancer.[14]

Welch was responsible for training many of the outstanding physicians of the day, such as Walter Reed. He also founded at Hopkins the nation's first School of Public Health.[14]

In 1912, Diamond Jim Brady donated $220,000 to the hospital, which created the James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute.[19]

Ophthalmologist William Holland Wilmer opened the Wilmer Eye Institute in 1925, its home was completed four years later. Dr. Wilmer received an M.D. degree from the University of Virginia in 1885 and worked in New York, Washington D.C., in addition to Baltimore, where he established the institute.[20]


Medical achievements at Johns Hopkins include the first male-to-female sex reassignment surgery in the United States that took place in 1966 at the Hopkins Gender Identity Clinic.[21] Two of the most far-reaching advances in medicine during the last 25 years were also made at Hopkins. First, the Nobel Prize-winning discovery of restriction enzymes gave birth to the genetic engineering industry. Second, the discovery of the brain's natural opiates has triggered an explosion of interest in neurotransmitter pathways and functions. Other accomplishments include the development of HeLa, by George Otto Gey, head of tissue culture research in 1951;[22] the first and arguably most important line of human cells grown in culture; identification of the three types of polio virus; and the first "blue baby" operation, which was done by surgeon Alfred Blalock in collaboration with Helen Taussig, a female Hopkins graduate specializing in pediatric cardiology and surgical technician Vivien Thomas which opened the way to modern heart surgery.[16][23]


Johns Hopkins Hospital New Clinical Building

The hospital occupies approximately 20 of the 60 buildings on the Johns Hopkins Medical Campus. The complex has over 80 entrances and receives 80,000 visitors weekly. It houses over 1,000 beds and has a staff of over 1,700 doctors with over 30,000 total employees.[24] In May 2012 the Johns Hopkins Hospital opened two new towers as part of a major campus redevelopment effort. The opening of the new $1.1 billion Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children’s Center tower and the new Sheikh Zayed Tower marked the highpoint of this effort. In addition to the main hospital, the system operates four other hospitals and several outpatient care facilities in the Baltimore and Washington metro areas and a children's hospital in St. Petersburg, Florida.[25]


The Johns Hopkins Hospital was ranked as the top overall hospital in the United States for 21 consecutive years by U.S. News & World Report until 2012, when it moved to 2nd place behind the rise of the Massachusetts General Hospital. In 2013, it was reinstated as the top hospital in the United States.[26] In the 2016-2017 Best Hospitals edition, Johns Hopkins ranks 4th nationally. [27]

U.S. News & World Report – 2016-2017 rankings by medical specialty[28]
US ranking MD ranking Specialty
3 1 Ear, nose & throat
4 1 Geriatrics
2 1 Neurology and neurosurgery
4 1 Urology
1 1 Rheumatology
4 1 Psychiatry
3 1 Ophthalmology
5 1 Gastroenterology
4 1 Diabetes and endocrinology
9 1 Heart & heart surgery
9 1 Cancer
7 1 Gynecology
13 1 Pulmonology
9 1 Orthopedics
5 1 Nephrology


Dr. Paul B. Rothman is the Frances Watt Baker, M.D., and Lenox D. Baker Jr., M.D. Dean of the Medical Faculty, vice president for medicine of The Johns Hopkins University, and CEO of Johns Hopkins Medicine. He is the 14th dean of the School of Medicine and the second CEO of Johns Hopkins Medicine.

As dean and CEO, Rothman oversees both the Johns Hopkins Health System and the School of Medicine. He came to Hopkins in July 2012 after having served as dean of the Carver College of Medicine at the University of Iowa.

See also


  1. "Getting to The Johns Hopkins Hospital". Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  2. "Johns Hopkins Hospital Complex". National Park Service. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  3. National Park Service (2009-03-13). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  4. "General Psychiatry Residency Program at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine". Johns Hopkins Medicine. Archived from the original on September 23, 2009. Retrieved January 8, 2011.
  5. "Something the Lord Made - an HBO Film". Johns Hopkins Medicine. 2004. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
  6. "The History of Johns Hopkins Medicine". Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
  7. "Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry". Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
  8. Randi Henderson; Richard Marek (20 March 2001). Here is My Hope: A Book of Healing and Prayer: Inspirational Stories of Johns Hopkins Hospital. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-50032-6. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
  9. "Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, MD - Rankings, Ratings & Photos". US News Best Hospitals. Retrieved 2016-08-02.
  10. "2016-17 Best Hospitals Honor Roll and Overview". Retrieved 2016-08-02.
  11. 1 2 Inflation Calculator
  12. 1 2 A. McGehee Harvey; Victor A. McKusick (1 May 1989). A Model of Its Kind: Volume 1 - A Centennial History of Medicine at Johns Hopkins. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-3794-4.
  13. Dorsey, John & Dilts, James D., Guide to Baltimore Architecture (1997) p. 203-4. Tidewater Publishers, Centreville, Maryland ISBN 0-87033-477-8
  14. 1 2 3 4 "The Four Founding Physicians". Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
  15. Gerard N. Burrow, MD; Nora L. Burgess, MD (February 2001), "The evolution of women as physicians and surgeons", The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, retrieved 2013-04-10
  16. 1 2 "Women -- Or the Female Factor". Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved 2013-04-10.
  17. Johns Hopkins Medical Grand Rounds
  18. History of Grand Rounds
  19. "'Diamond Jim' gives $220,000 to Hospital". The New York Times. 13 August 1912. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
  20. Walter R. Parker, MD (1936). Dr. William Holland Wilmer. Transactions of the American Opththalmological Society. American Ophthalmological Society. pp. 20–23. PMC 1315552Freely accessible. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
  21. Laura Wexler (January–February 2007). "Identity Crisis". Style Magazine. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
  22. Rebecca Skloot (2 February 2010). The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. Random House Digital, Inc. ISBN 978-0-307-58938-5. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
  23. "Johns Hopkins Medical Milestones". Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
  24. Alex Dominguez (16 September 2010). "Gunman kills self, mother at Johns Hopkins Hospital". WPVI-TV. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
  25. "Patient Care Locations". Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
  26. "Honor Roll of Best Hospitals 2013-2013". U.S.News and World Report. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  27. "2016-17 Best Hospitals Honor Roll and Overview". Retrieved 2016-08-02.
  28. "Best Hospitals Honor Roll 2016-2017". U.S. News & World Report. 1 August 2016. Retrieved 2016-02-08.

Further reading

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/9/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.