Researches on Manchu Origins

Researches on Manchu Origins
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 滿洲源流考
Simplified Chinese 满洲源流考
Manchu name
Manchu script ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠᠰᠠᡳ
ᠰᡝᡴᡳᠶᡝᠨ  ᡳ
Abkai Manjusai da sekiyen-i kimqin bithe
Möllendorff Manjusai da sekiyen-i kimcin bithe

Researches on Manchu Origins, also known as Manzhou Yuanliu Kao, is an important history book published by the Qing Dynasty government in 1777. The Qianlong Emperor sponsored its compilation with the goal of legitimizing Qing rule, as well as identifying the Qing as a successor to the Jinn Dynasty (1115–1234).[1] The Manzhou Yuanliu Kao also bolstered Qianlong's conception of the Manchu people as a wu, or martial race.[2]

It consists of 4 parts: Manchu tribes, territory, topography (mountains and rivers), and culture. Pamela Kyle Crossley analyses it as the apex of the Qing Dynasty's attempt at "documentary institutionalisation" of Manchu heritage and from it, Manchu ethnic identity.[3] Researches on Manchu Origins contained a list of corrections of transcribed Jurchen language words found in the History of Jin in Chapter 135, using the Manchu language to correct them, in Chapter 18.[4]

It claimed that the Samhan were three different groups.[5]


  1. Smith, Richard (2015). The Qing Dynasty and Traditional Chinese Culture. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 80.
  2. Roy, Kaushik; Lorge, Peter (2014). Chinese and Indian Warfare – From the Classical Age to 1870. Routledge. p. 231.
  3. Crossley, Pamela Kyle (November 1987), "Manzhou yuanliu kao and the Formalization of the Manchu Heritage", Journal of Asian Studies, 46 (4), JSTOR 2057101
  4. 金史/卷135 滿洲源流考/卷18
  5. "夫三韓命名苐列辰韓馬韓弁韓而不詳其義意當時三國必有三汗各統其一史家不知汗為君長之稱遂以音同誤譯而庸 鄙者甚至訛韓為族姓尤不足當一"
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