Roman Catholic Diocese of Tarazona
|Diocese of Tarazona|
Diócesis de Tarazona
|Area||4,514 km2 (1,743 sq mi)|
(as of 2010)|
|Sui iuris church||Latin Church|
|Cathedral||Cathedral of St Anne in Tarazona|
|Bishop||Eusebio Hernández Sola|
|Metropolitan Archbishop||Manuel Ureña Pastor|
Diocese of Tarazona, administrative divisions
|Website of the Diocese|
The Diocese of Tarazona (Latin, Turiasonensis) is a Roman Catholic bishopric located in north-eastern Spain, in the provinces of Zaragoza, Soria, Navarre and La Rioja, forming part of the autonomous communities of Aragón, Castile-Leon, Navarre and La Rioja. The diocese forms part of the ecclesiastical province of Zaragoza, and is thus suffragan to the Archdiocese of Zaragoza.
The Church of the Magdalene was the ancient cathedral, but the Moors, objecting to its prominent position, compelled them to use a church on the outskirts of the town. In the records left by Miguel this was variously called Santa Maria de la Hidria, de la Vega, or de la Huerta, on account of its position. It was endowed by Teresa Cajal, mother of Pedro de Atarés and wife of García Sánchez, and was begun in 1152. Architecturally it is a combination of Byzantine and Gothic, with a high portico entrance and a high brick-trimmed tower. The centre nave with its pointed arches rises above the side aisles and merges into a spacious transept. In the windows Gothic gives place to Plateresque, but in the side chapels dedicated to St. Lawrence, St. Andrew, the Rosary, St. Peter, the Beheading of St. John the Baptist, the Annunciation, St. Elizabeth of Portugal, the Purification and St. James the Great, Gothic prevails in the reredos and tombs. Bishop Moncada attempted to rebuild the beautiful cloister which had been destroyed in the War of the Two Peters, but as late as 1529 this had not been completed.
Besides the Church of the Magdalene, the Church of St. Michael, with its simple Gothic nave, and that of the Conception nuns, are also notable.
The Church of St. Francis is said to have been founded by Saint Francis of Assisi himself in 1214, and Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros was consecrated archbishop of Toledo in the Chapel of La Piedad in 1495.
The episcopal palace, the ancient Azuda, is built upon a commanding eminence and has a beautiful view. Bishop Pedro Pérez Calvillo purchased this from the Aragonese governor, Jordán Pérez de Urries, in 1386, and entailed it to the bishopric.
The diocesan seminary, dedicated to St. Gaudiosus, was founded in 1593 by Bishop Pedro Cerbuna. It has recently been extensively renovated.
Mention should be made of the monastery of Nuestra Señora de Veruela, a Cistercian abbey founded by Pedro de Atarés, and now a Jesuit novitiate; also of the Church of Borja, ranking as a collegiate church since the time of Pope Nicholas V (1449), favoured and protected by Pope Alexander VI; and of the ancient collegiate church of Calatayud, Santa Maria de Mediavilla, whose priors ranked as mitred deans.
Turiaso was one of the principal towns of the ancient Celtiberian province, and within the confines of the diocese are found many very ancient cities: Bilbilis (Calatayud); Aquae Bilbilitanorum (Alhama); Atacum (Ateca); Augustobriga (Muro); Boverca (Buvierca); Bursao (Borja); Cascantum (Cascante); Gracuris (Corella); Monóbriga (Munébrega); and Vergegium (Verdejo). Pliny the Elder numbers Tarazona among the principal cities of the Celtiberians, and its inhabitants had the privileges of citizenship. Its coat of arms bore the motto "Tubal-Cain built me and Hercules rebuilt me".
Nothing definite is known of the origin of Christianity in Tarazona. Owing to its proximity to Saragossa it is supposed that it was visited at an early date by the disciples of Saint James the Great, but until the 5th century there is no reliable mention of a bishop of Tarazona.
Visigoth period (5th to 7th centuries)
The chronicler Idatius names Leo as bishop in 449; the chronological list of bishops gives St. Prudentius, but the history of this saint is uncertain. The Tarazona Breviary gives 390 as his date, but other sources place him as late as the 9th century. Idatius says that Leo was killed in an uprising led by a certain Basilius where the Bagandae took refuge in the cathedral, and in which a great number were killed.
St. Gaudiosus, a former monk of the Monastery of Asanense and a disciple of St. Victorian(us), was bishop in 530. He worked against the Arians, and died in his native city, Escoron. His remains were translated to the Monastery of Asanense, and King Sancho Ramirez had them removed to Montearagón.
St. Braulius, in his life of St. Emilianus, speaks of a Didymus, Bishop of Tarazona. A Bishop Stephen assisted at the Third Council of Toledo (589) and at the Second Council of Zaragoza (592); Floridius assisted at the Council of Gundemar (611); Elpidius, at the Fourth and Fifth Council of Toledo (633 and 636); Antherius (683) sent a deacon to represent him at the Thirteenth Council of Toledo (683); and Nepotianus assisted at the Fifteenth and Seventeenth Council of Toledo (688 and 694). He seems to have been the last bishop of the Visigothic epoch.
Moorish period (early 8th century - 1119)
When the Moors took Tarazona they were able to hold it for a long time on account of its fortified position near the Sierra del Moncayo, between the Douro and the Ebro rivers. The names of its Mozarabic bishops have not come down to us, although it is very probable there were such; on the other hand we know of the Mozarabic saints, St. Attilanus, Bishop of Zamora and St. Iñigo of Calatayud.
After the Reconquest (1119 - today)
King Alfonso I the Battler of Aragon took possession of Tarazona in 1119, and named Miguel Cornel as bishop. King Alfonso VII of Castile, in an effort to get possession of Tarazona, intruded a certain de Bujedo into the see; but de Bujedo repented shortly afterwards, restored the see to its rightful owner, Miguel, and retired to the Monastery of Valpuesta.
The Council of Burgos, which was convened in 1139, and was presided over by the legate Guido, took from the jurisdiction of Tarazona most of the towns of Soria, but bestowed in its place the Archdeaconry of Calatayud.
Miguel Cornel was the real restorer of the see. He governed for thirty-three years (1118-1151), and established the chapters of Tarazona, Calatayud, and Tudela, under the Rule of St. Augustine. In his time also were founded the Monasteries of Fitero and Veruela.
Three bishops of the name of Frontin succeeded him: Juan (1173–94); Garcia, who was present at the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212), and Garcia II, the counsellor of James the Conqueror (el Conquistador). In a species of national council held at Tarazona, the marriage of James to Leonor of Castile was declared null on account of the relationship existing between them. The Franciscans, Mercedarians, Dominicans, and Trinitarians, and the Cistercian and Poor Clare nuns were established in the diocese at this time.
Miguel Jiménez de Urrea, bishop from 1309 to 1316, was protected by king James II of Aragon, and during the time of Pedro Pérez Calvillo the war between Pedro IV the Ceremonious (el Ceremonioso) of Aragon and Pedro the Cruel of Castile took place. Tarazona was laid waste and its cathedral desecrated by the Castilians. The episcopal palace was burned, and la Zuda, sometimes also called Alcázar de Hércules, the palace of the Arab governors, was taken to replace it.
Bishops of Tarazona
- ca. 449 : : Leo — (Mentioned in 449)
- ca. 516 : : Paul — (Mentioned in 516)
- 527-541 : St. Gaudiosus
- ca. 560 : : Didymus — (Mentioned in 560)
- 572-580 : St. Prudentius
- 589-592 : Stephen
- ca. 610 : : Floridius — (Mentioned in 610)
- ca. 635 : : Elpidius — (Mentioned between 633 and 638)
- ca. 683 : : Antherius — (Mentioned in 683)
- ca. 690 : : Nepotianus — (Mentioned between 688 and 693)
8th to 11th centuries: Under Moorish rule.
- 1118-1151 : Miguel Cornel
- 1151-1169 : Martín Vergua
- 1170-1172 : Berenguer
- 1172-1194 : Juan Frontin
- 1195-1218 : García Frontin I
- 1219-1254 : García Frontin II
- --------- 1257 : Pedro I
- 1258-1263 : García III
- --------- 1263 : Alfonso
- 1270-1277 : Fortuño
- 1280-1289 : García IV
- 1289-1304 : Pedro II
- 1305-1308 : Pedro III
- 1309-1317 : Miguel Jiménez de Urrea
- 1317-1321 : Pedro Arnau de Torres
- 1324-1342 : Beltrán de Cornidela
- 1343-1346 : Sancho López de Ayerbe
- 1346-1352 : Gaufrido
- 1354-1391 : Pedro Pérez Calvillo
- 1391-1404 : Fernando Pérez Calvillo
- 1404-1405 : Berenguer de Ribalta
- 1405-1407 : Francisco Clemente Pérez Capera
- 1407-1433 : Juan de Valtierra
- 1435-1443 : Martín Cerdán
- 1443-1463 : Jorge Bardají, or 1443-1464, son of an Aragonese magistrate.
- 1464-1478 : Cardinal Pedro Ferriz, favourite of Popes Paul II and Sixtus IV.
- 1478-1495 : Andrés Martínez Ferriz
- 1496-1521 : Guillermo Ramón de Moncada — (or Guillén Ramón de Moncada)
- 1523-1535 : Gabriel de Ortí
- 1537-1546 : Hércules Gonzaga — (son of Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua).
- 1546-1567 : Juan González de Munébrega
- 1567-1572 : See vacant
- 1572-1574 : Pedro Martínez de Luna
- 1577-1584 : Juan de Redín y Cruzat
- 1585-1597 : Pedro Cerbuna, founder of the seminary and of the University of Zaragoza.
- 1599-1613 : Diego de Yepes
- 1614-1630 : Martín Terrer de Valenzuela
- 1630-1631 : Pedro de Herrera
- 1631-1642 : Baltasar de Navarra y Arroytia
- 1644-1655 : Diego Castejón Fonseca
- 1656-1659 : Pedro Manero
- 1660-1664 : Diego Escolano y Ledesma
- 1664-1673 : Miguel Escartín
- 1673-1682 : Diego Francés de Urritigoyti y Lerma
- 1683-1700 : Bernardo Mateo Sánchez de Castellar
- 1701-1718 : Blas Serrate
- 1720-1741 : García Pardiñas Villar de Francos
- 1741-1755 : José Alcaraz y Belluga
- 1755-1766 : Esteban Vilanova Colomer
- 1766-1795 : José Laplana y Castellón
- 1795-1802 : Damián Martínez de Galinsoga
- 1803-1814 : Francisco Porró y Reinado
- 1815-1835 : Jerónimo Castellón y Salas, last Inquisitor General of Spain.
- 1848-1852 : Vicente Ortíz y Labastida
- 1855-1857 : Gil Esteve y Tomás
- 1857-1888 : Cosme Marrodán y Rubio
- 1889-1901 : Juan Soldevilla y Romero
- 1902-1905 : José María Salvador y Barrera
- 1905-1916 : Santiago Ozcoide y Udave
- 1917-1926 : Isidoro Badía y Sarradell
- 1927-1933 : Isidro Gomá y Tomás
- 1935-1946 : Nicanor Mutiloa e Irurita
- 1947-1966 : Manuel Hurtado y García
- 1968-1971 : José Méndez Asensio
- 1971-1973 : See vacant
- 1973-1976 : Francisco Álvarez Martínez
- 1976-1981 : Victorio Oliver Domingo
- 1982-1989 : Ramón Búa Otero
- 1990-1995 : Miguel José Asurmendi Aramendía
- 1996-2004 : Joaquín Carmelo Borobia Isasa
- 2004-2010 : Demetrio Fernandez Gonzalez; appointed Bishop of Cordoba, Spain
Sources and references
- (English) This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. 1912: Tarazona ?fully
- (Spanish) IBERCRONOX: Obispado de Tarazona (Turiaso)