2014 United States federal budget
|Submitted||April 10, 2013|
|Submitted by||Barack Obama|
|Submitted to||113th Congress|
$3.03 trillion (requested)|
$3.02 trillion (actual)
17.5% of GDP (actual)
$3.77 trillion (requested)|
$3.506 trillion (actual)
20.3% of GDP (actual)
$744 billion (requested)|
4.4% of GDP (requested)
$484.6 billion (actual)
2.8% of GDP (actual)
$17.79 trillion (at fiscal end)|
103.2% of GDP
|Website||Office of Management and Budget|
The 2014 United States federal budget is the budget to fund government operations for the fiscal year (FY) 2014, which began on October 1, 2013 and ended on September 30, 2014. The original spending request was issued by President Barack Obama on April 10, 2013. The actual appropriations for fiscal year 2014 must be enacted by both houses of Congress before they can take effect, in accordance with the United States budget process.
The fiscal year 2014 United States budget exists only as several competing drafts; no official budget has been approved. President Obama submitted the FY2014 budget proposal on April 10, 2013, two months past the February 4 legal deadline due to negotiations over the United States fiscal cliff and implementation of the sequester cuts mandated by the Budget Control Act of 2011. The House of Representatives passed its proposal, H.Con.Res 25, prior to the submission of the President's budget proposal, as did the Senate (S.Con.Res 8). The House and Senate budget resolutions were not expected to be reconciled as a final budget. However, in early January 2014 the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 (H.R. 3547; 113th Congress) was passed by Congress and signed by the president.
At the time the fiscal year 2014 budget was debated, budgeting issues were controversial. Government spending had recently been limited by an automatic sequestration process that resulted when Congress and President Obama failed to meet spending reduction targets set by the Budget Control Act of 2011. The House and Senate are currently controlled by different parties with different fiscal agendas.
|Full title||Establishing the budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2014 and setting forth appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal years 2015 through 2023.|
|Introduced in||113th United States Congress|
|Introduced on||March 15, 2013|
|Sponsored by||Rep. Paul Ryan (R-WI)|
|Number of Co-Sponsors||0|
|Effects and Codifications|
|Act(s) affected||Congressional Budget Act of 1974, Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, and others|
|U.S.C. section(s) affected||31 U.S.C. § 1105(a)|
|Budgetary caps in the House bill|
|Year||Revenues||Budget Authority||Outlays||Deficits (on-budget)||Debt Subject to Limit||Debt Held by the Public|
|2014||$2,270,932 million||$2,769,406 million||$2,815,079 million||-$544,147 million||$17,776,278 million||$12,849,621 million|
|2015||$2,606,592 million||$2,681,581 million||$2,736,849 million||-$130,257 million||$18,086,450 million||$13,069,788 million|
|2016||$2,778,891 million||$2,857,258 million||$2,850,434 million||-$71,544 million||$18,343,824 million||$13,225,569 million|
|2017||$2,903,673 million||$2,988,083 million||$2,958,619 million||-$54,947 million||$18,635,129 million||$13,362,146 million|
|2018||$3,028,951 million||$3,104,777 million||$3,079,296 million||-$50,345 million||$18,938,669 million||$13,485,102 million|
|2019||$3,149,236 million||$3,281,142 million||$3,231,642 million||-$82,405 million||$19,267,212 million||$13,648,470 million|
|2020||$3,284,610 million||$3,414,838 million||$3,374,336 million||-$89,726 million||$19,608,732 million||$13,836,545 million|
|2021||$3,457,009 million||$3,540,165 million||$3,495,489 million||-$38,480 million||$19,900,718 million||$13,992,649 million|
|2022||$3,650,699 million||$3,681,407 million||$3,667,532 million||-$16,833 million||$20,162,755 million||$14,154,363 million|
|2023||$3,832,145 million||$3,768,151 million||$3,722,071 million||$110,073 million||$20,319,503 million||$14,210,984 million|
The House Budget Committee reported out the House Budget Bill (H
Along with setting forth the congressional budget for the federal government for fiscal year 2014, it proposed budget levels for fiscal 2015 through 2023 with respect to federal revenues, new budget authority, outlays, deficits, public debt, and debt held by the public. The proposed budget would also reform the U.S. tax code to create only two income tax brackets (with 10% and 25% tax rates), end the Alternative Minimum Tax, and reduce the corporate tax rate from 35% to 25%. The bill instructs the House Ways and Means Committee to reform the existing tax code by removing various tax credits and exemptions (which are unspecified in the bill itself). The bill would also repeal Obamacare by "eliminating the subsidized insurance exchanges and the Medicaid expansion that make up the core of the law," and would "convert Medicare into a system of private insurance plans financed by federal vouchers."
The bill received commentary from all sides of the political spectrum. The spending cuts found in the House Bill were supported by many Republicans. Tom McClintock (R-CA) supported the bill, noting that the Democrats' rival bill included too much new spending, putting the United States at risk of an economic crisis like the one found in Greece. Todd Rokita (R-IN) supported the spending cuts and accused the Democrats of stealing from future generations to pay for their deficit spending. Barbara Lee (D-CA) criticized the bill, renaming it from "Path to Prosperity" to "Path to Poverty," a reference to some of the bill's cuts to welfare program spending. The provision to alter the Medicare system by changing it into a voucher system for people under 55 was strongly criticized by Barbara Boxer (D-CA) on March 21, 2013, who claimed that older Americans would end up with higher out-of-pocket expenses for worse care (as a result of legislators giving up on fixing a dying system). The House Bill was also criticized by some Republican lawmakers for not going far enough to cut spending.
Due to the closer balance between the two parties in the House, the Republican leadership worked hard to limit the number of defections from conservative Republicans. It was voted on by the House of Representatives on March 21, 2013, and passed with a simple majority, 221-207. The 221 votes in favor of passage were all from Republicans. Of those voting, every Democrat voted against passage, along with 10 Republicans. The 10 Republican Representatives who voted against the House Bill were, Justin Amash (R-MI), Paul Broun (R-GA), Rick Crawford (R-AR), Randy Forbes (R-VA), Chris Gibson (R-NY), Phil Gingrey (R-GA), Joe Heck (R-NV), Walter Jones (R-NC), Tom Massie (R-KY), and David McKinley (R-WV) Some of these Representatives voted against the passage of the House Bill because they preferred the Republican Study Committee's budget instead. Representative McKinley voted against the budget because he objected to the cuts to Medicare, wanted to make changes to the foreign aid budget, and failed to exempt some bureaucracies (such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation) from budget cuts. Four members did not vote.
The Senate rejected the House budget on March 21, 2013 with a vote of 40-59 and continued to work on its own budget bill, (See Senate bill, below). Republicans such as Paul Ryan have argued that the two different bills clarify the differences between the two parties on issues of spending and balanced budgets.
Alternative House budget proposals
The Republican Study Committee budget would balance the Federal budget in four years, in part by freezing Federal spending after reducing discretionary spending to 2008 levels. The plan would also open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to drilling by oil companies and increase the age at which seniors became eligible for Social Security and Medicare. The budget failed in a vote of 104-132, with most Democrats not voting.
The Congressional Progressive Caucus budget contained several key features, most of them dramatically opposed to the main features of both the Republican Study Committee budget, and the budget proposed by Paul Ryan. The Congressional Progressive Caucus called for cutting Pentagon spending (back to 2006 levels), increased taxes on millionaires, the elimination of some subsidies (to oil and gas companies), and would increase unemployment insurance.
|Full title||Setting forth the congressional budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2014, revising the appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal year 2013, and setting forth the appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal years 2015 through 2023.|
|Introduced in||113th United States Congress|
|Introduced on||March 15, 2013|
|Sponsored by||Senator Patty Murray (D-WA)|
|Number of Co-Sponsors||0|
|Effects and Codifications|
|Act(s) affected||Congressional Budget Act of 1974, Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, and others|
|U.S.C. section(s) affected||2 U.S.C. § 901(c), 31 U.S.C. § 1105, 2 U.S.C. § 633(a), 39 U.S.C. § 2009a, and others|
|Budgetary caps in the Senate bill|
|Year||Revenues||Budget Authority||Outlays||Deficits||Public Debt||Debt Held by the Public|
|2013||$2,038,311 million||$3,054,195 million||$2,956,295 million||$917,984 million||$17,113,638 million||$12,274,763 million|
|2014||$2,290,932 million||$2,963,749 million||$2,997,884 million||$706,952 million||$18,008,333 million||$13,059,985 million|
|2015||$2,646,592 million||$3,046,506 million||$3,082,375 million||$435,783 million||$18,626,857 million||$13,588,003 million|
|2016||$2,833,891 million||$3,211,506 million||$3,240,376 million||$406,486 million||$19,222,298 million||$14,081,252 million|
|2017||$2,973,673 million||$3,386,445 million||$3,382,809 million||$409,137 million||$19,871,057 million||$14,574,683 million|
|2018||$3,111,061 million||$3,568,528 million||$3,542,197 million||$431,136 million||$20,558,744 million||$15,081,187 million|
|2019||$3,245,117 million||$3,779,446 million||$3,749,797 million||$504,680 million||$21,312,959 million||$15,669,625 million|
|2020||$3,400,144 million||$3,973,331 million||$3,926,818 million||$526,674 million||$22,094,877 million||$16,297,499 million|
|2021||$3,592,212 million||$4,136,110 million||$4,103,496 million||$511,283 million||$22,863,179 million||$16,929,319 million|
|2022||$3,800,500 million||$4,350,282 million||$4,323,224 million||$522,724 million||$23,634,787 million||$17,600,005 million|
|2023||$3,991,775 million||$4,492,138 million||$4,451,446 million||$459,672 million||$24,364,925 million||$18,229,414 million|
The Senate budget resolution (S
The Senate resolution also required Senate committees to: (1) review programs and tax expenditures in their jurisdictions to identify waste, fraud, and abuse or duplication, and to increase the use of performance data to inform committee work; (2) review the matters for congressional consideration identified on the Government Accountability Office (GAO) High Risk list report and the annual report to reduce program duplication; and (3) make recommendations to the Senate Budget Committee to improve governmental performance in their annual views and estimates reports. It called on the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), in its annual Update to the Budget and Economic Outlook, to: (1) report changes in direct spending and revenue associated with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, including the net impact on deficit, both with on-budget and off-budget effects; and (2) provide an analysis of the budgetary effects of 30%, 50%, and 100% of Americans losing employer sponsored health insurance and accessing coverage through federal or state exchanges. The resolution listed new budget authority, outlays, and administrative expenses for the Social Security Administration (SSA), including the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, U.S. Postal Service discretionary administrative expenses, and specified major functional categories for FY2013-FY2023. It also authorized a variety of deficit-neutral reserve funds, and a reserve fund for tax reform, as well as deficit-reduction reserve funds for government reform and efficiency, and to promote corporate tax fairness.
The Senate resolution was an "original bill" which means that it was a bill drafted by a committee (rather than by an individual member). In this case, it was drafted by the Senate Budget Committee. After passing a vote by the committee on March 15, 2013, Committee Chairwoman Patty Murray reported the Senate Bill to the Senate floor and it was placed on the Senate Legislative Calendar. On March 20, 2013, Senator Murray asked for unanimous consent that the Senate move on to the consideration of Calendar No. 28. Unanimous consent was ordered. Under the rules established, each side had 25 hours of time during the debate, and unlimited amendments could be offered. The Senate continued to debate and amend the Senate Bill on March 21, 22, and 23. A total of 573 Amendments were offered to the bill, although only 63 were actually adopted.
The resolution was debated on the Senate floor beginning on March 21, 2013. Two days later, on March 23, 2013 the Senate passed the resolution, 50-49, with 48 Democrats, 0 Republicans, and 2 Independents voting in favor of passage. 4 Democrats and 45 Republicans voting against, with one Democrat not voting. The four Senate Democrats who voted against their party's bill were Mark Begich (D-AK), Mark Pryor (D-AR), Max Baucus (D-MT), and Kay Hagan (D-NC). All four of these Senators are from states generally considered to vote Republican; all four are also up for re-election in 2014.
The Senate passed the FY2014 budget resolution on March 23, 2013 – 23 days before the deadline set by the No Budget, No Pay Act of 2013. This was the first budget resolution passed by the Senate since a FY2010 budget passed on April 29, 2009.
Obama administration proposal
Lack of budget conference committee
On March 22, 2013, the Senate began debating its proposal for the Federal budget. The ranking member of the Senate Budget Committee, Senator Jeff Sessions (R-AL), expressed doubts on March 22, 2013 that the two chambers of Congress would be able to reconcile the two bills. Speaking on the Senate floor, Sessions argued that the Senate bill failed to balance the budget, raised taxes, and increased government spending.
This was the first time in four years that the Senate had approved its own budget resolution, allowing the possibility of 'regular order' procedures in which the Senate and House appoint representatives to a joint budget conference committee to negotiate a compromise. Democratic Party members of the House Appropriations Committee wrote a letter on 17 April 2013 urging Speaker Boehner to appoint House members to the budget conference committee. Slate political correspondent John Dickerson argued that Democrats were eager to begin conference discussions because they believed that Republicans would not be able to defend their 'no taxes' position when working with actual budget numbers. Under conference committee rules, the Senate Democrats would gain the power to force the committee to vote, which in Dickerson's view caused Republicans to worry about being embarrassed.
Related fiscal legislation
Initial continuing resolution and government shutdown
Though there was no unified congressional budget, the House and Senate each moved forward with appropriations bills, but none passed. As the beginning of the 2014 fiscal year approached, Congress debated the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2014 to fund the government temporarily. It did not pass before the beginning of the new fiscal year, leading to a government shutdown. Republicans proposed a number of bills to continue to fund parts of the government, including the Pay Our Military Act and a series of 14 mini-continuing resolutions; of these bills, only the Pay Our Military Act and one of the mini-continuing resolutions, the Department of Defense Survivor Benefits Continuing Resolution, 2014, passed. On October the 17th, with the passage of Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014, the shutdown ended and the government reopened.
Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013
On December 10, 2013, pursuant to the provisions of the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014 calling for a joint budget conference to work on possible compromises, Representative Paul Ryan and Senator Patty Murray announced a compromise spending/budget proposal that they had agreed to. They chose to introduce the text as an amendment to H.J.Res. 59. The amendment was to completely replace the existing text of H.J.Res. 59 with the text of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013.
This deal would eliminate some of the spending cuts required by the sequester by $45 billion of the cuts scheduled to happen in January 2014 and $18 billion of the cuts scheduled to happen in 2015. Federal spending would thus be larger in these two years, but would be less in subsequent years until 2023. The deal makes up for this increase in spending by imposing sequester cuts in 2022 and 2023, raising airline fees and changing the pension contribution requirements of new federal workers, among other measures. Paul Ryan said that the bill would lower the deficit by $23 billion overall. The eliminated sequester cuts were spread evenly between defense spending and non-defense discretionary spending. The bill did not make any changes to entitlement programs.
Some Republicans wanted Speaker Boehner to pursue a temporary measure that would cover the rest of Fiscal Year 2014 at the level set by the sequester — $967 billion, rather than pass this budget deal, which would have $45 billion in additional spending.
Final appropriations legislation passed
Total revenues and spending
(In billions of dollars):
|Individual income tax||1,383||1,386||1,395|
|Corporate income tax||333||333||321|
|Social Security and other payroll tax||1,031||1,020||1,023|
|Estate and gift taxes||13||16||19|
|Deposits of earnings and Federal Reserve System||92||90||99|
|Other miscellaneous receipts||38||27||37|
Outlays by agency
In billions of dollars:
- United States budget process
- United States House Committee on the Budget
- United States Senate Committee on the Budget
- Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013
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- "Fiscal Year 2016 Budget of the U.S. Government (Table S-5)" (PDF). United States Office of Management and Budget. Retrieved March 14, 2015.
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- Calmes, Jackie (11 April 2013). "Obama Budget Opens Rift for Democrats on Social Benefits". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- Pear, Robert; Shanker, Thom (11 April 2013). "Health Care and Military Spending Bear the Brunt of Proposed Cuts". The New York Times. p. A15. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
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- "House Budget Committee Democrats Urge Boehner to Immediately Appoint Budget Conferees". vanhollen.house.gov. 17 April 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Dickerson, John (24 April 2013). "Disorderly Conduct: Why Republicans and Democrats can't even agree on their own rules for disagreeing about the budget.". Slate. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Desjardins, Lisa (10 December 2013). "The budget deal in plain English". CNN. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
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.Con .Res . 25
- Thomas (thomas.loc.gov)
- opencongress.org vote results
.Con .Res . 8
- GovTrack.us S.Con.Res 8 main page
- GovTrack.us Vote Results for S.Con.Res 8