Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore

Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore

Seal of Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
Latin: Universitas Catholica Sacri Cordis Jesu
Motto Nel cuore della realtà (Italian)
Motto in English
In the heart of reality
Type Private
Established 7 December 1921 (1921-12-07)
Affiliation Catholic Church
Rector Prof. Franco Anelli
Administrative staff
Students 39,059
Location Milan (main campus),
Campus Urban
Newspaper Vita e pensiero
Colors Blue and gold         
Athletics CUS Milano
Affiliations IFCU[1]
Website www.ucsc.it

Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (English: Catholic University of the Sacred Heart or Catholic University of Milan), known as UCSC or UNICATT or simply Cattolica, is an Italian private research university founded in 1921. Cattolica is the largest private university in Europe[2] and the largest Catholic University in the world.[3] Its main campus is located in Milan, Italy with satellite campuses in Brescia, Piacenza, Cremona, Rome, and Campobasso.[4]

The University is organized into 12 faculties and 7 postgraduate schools. Cattolica provides undergraduate courses (Bachelor's degree, which corresponds to Italian Laurea Triennale), graduate courses (Master's degree, which corresponds to Laurea Magistrale, and specializing master) and PhD programs (Dottorati di ricerca). In addition to these, the University runs several double degree programs with other institutions throughout the world. Degrees are offered both in Italian and in English.[5]

UCSC has been granted five stars by QS Stars, a global university rating system, in the following fields: employability, teaching, facilities and engagement.[6]

Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic serves as the teaching hospital for the medical school of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore and owes its name to the university founder, the Franciscan friar, physician and psychologist Agostino Gemelli.[7]


The project

The embryonic project of a Catholic university was founded towards the 1870, supported by representatives of all the Catholic cultural current which acts as a guide. In September 1918, when the First World War was ending, Giuseppe Toniolo, before dying, recommended to Father Agostino Gemelli and his staff to provide the University with the following words: "I do not see the end of the war, but you, when it is finished, do it, do the Università Cattolica".[8]

The foundation and the establishment of faculties

Inauguration of the headquarters of largo Gemelli in 1930

In 1919 Father Agostino Gemelli, Ludovico Necchi, Francesco Olgiati, Armida Barelli, and Ernesto Lombardo founded the Istituto Giuseppe Toniolo di Studi Superiori. On June 24, 1920 the Institute was legally recognized with a decree signed by the Minister of Education, Benedetto Croce; at the same time, the Pope Benedict XV officially recognized the University's ecclesiastical status.

UCSC in 1950s

On December 7, 1921, the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore was officially inaugurated with a special mass celebrated by Father Gemelli, in the presence of Achille Ratti, the Cardinal and Archbishop of Milan, who three months later was elected as Pope Pius XI. The first campus was located in the Palazzo del Canonica, in via Sant'Agnese 2. In October 1930 it was moved to the ancient St. Ambrose Monastery, where the main campus remains today. 68 students enrolled in the university's two available programs, philosophy and social sciences, in 1921. As of 2011, 14 programs were offered to over 40,000 students distributed over the Milan, Rome, Brescia, Piacenza and Campobasso campuses.

In 1924, following legal recognition from the Italian state allowing the awarding of legally-recognized degrees (the charter of the Università Cattolica was approved by Royal Decree on October 2, 1924, and published on October 31 on the Gazzetta Ufficiale), the Humanities and Law Programs were inaugurated. In 1923 the Istituto Superiore di Magistero was opened, and in 1936 became an independent program, later evolving to become, in 1996, the School of Education Sciences.

Milan campus

In 1926 the Political and Economical Sciences Department became independent from the School of Law and, in 1931, became the School of Political, Economical, and Business Sciences which awarded, until 1947, the university's business degrees as well. In 1936 the School of Political Science became independent. The work and efforts of the Università Cattolica continued throughout the post-war period with new campuses and programs opening. The School of Economics, officially opened in 1947, offered night classes. On October 30, in the presence of Italian President Luigi Einaudi, the first stone of the Piacenza campus was laid, with the official opening of the School of Agriculture Sciences taking place in November 1952.

On August 4, 1958, the official decree for the opening of a Medical School in Rome, which had been advocated by Father Gemelli, was approved. Enormous difficulties had made this long and complicated, and it was not until the end of the 1950s that the Biological Institutes and the university Polyclinic, named after Fr Gemelli were built in Rome. Construction began in 1959; in 1961 Pope John XXIII opened the Medical School, with the first medical doctors graduating in 1967. The school now offers both medical and dentistry programs.

In 1956 the Brescia campus of the Università Cattolica was inaugurated with the opening of the School of Teaching and Education. In 1971, thanks to the initiative of important figures in the mathematical field, the School of Mathematics, Physics, and Natural Sciences was opened. During the 1990s other schools were opened in Milan: the School of Banking, Finance, and Insurance Sciences (1990); the School of Foreign Languages and Literature (today the College of Linguistics) and Foreign Literature (1991); and the School of Psychology (1999). In 1997 in Piacenza the School of Economics, once part of the Milan curriculum, opened independently, and the School of Law in 1995.

In 2000 thirteen Cultural Centres were opened across Italy. In these Centers, through advanced satellite technology, distance-learning courses have been activated in collaboration with the major university campuses. During the 2001-2002 academic year the new School of Sociology, the fourteenth college of the Università Cattolica, was opened in Milan.

In 2012 were established two new schools: the school of Political and Social Science in Milan (born from the union of the existing Faculty of Political Science and Sociology) and the school of Economics and Law in Piacenza-Cremona (born from the union of the Faculty of Economics and Law Piacenza-Cremona).

The Cattolica after the bombings

World War II

During World War II, Ezio Franceschini, who supported the Resistance, organized meetings of the Freedom Volunteer Corps (coordination structure of the partisans) in the university. Towards the end of the war, in 1944, the professor of medieval Latin letters hid a box containing documents and books on the Resistance and FRAMA group (a group founded by Ezio Franceschini, who played an important role in the fight against the Nazis) in the basement of Cattolica. The SS rummaged everywhere in UCSC to find those cards, but buried among the bones of fifty skeletons, dead from an epidemic of plague in the sixteenth century, they remained there and emerged only after the war.[9]

Partially destroyed by bombing in World War II on 15–16 August 1943, the Cattolica was rebuilt, starting development that would take it to the present. During the bombing several classrooms, an administration building, the office building, a cloister by Bramante, the class acts of academic Pius XI, the proud and ancient staircase, the hall of honour and some colleges were destroyed. The reconstruction work began immediately, moved by the words of Agostino Gemelli "rise again more beautiful and bigger than before".[10]

Protests of 1968

A speech by Mario Capanna in 1967. In the foreground, the rector at the time, Ezio Franceschini.

The protests of 1968 in Italy began in UCSC of Milan. After the university increased tuition fees, Nov. 15, students decided to occupy the University. The same night the rector Ezio Franceschini expelled the occupants with the help of the police, headed by Commissioner Luigi Calabresi. After three days 30,000 students marched through Milan to the archbishop and the protest spread to every major university in the country. On 21 March, the Cattolica was reoccupied, after being evacuated and closed indefinitely. A few days later, on March 25, there was the so-called "battle of Largo Gemelli": where thousands of students tried to reopen the university, but were strongly repelled by police. The leader of the protest was Mario Capanna, a student of philosophy at the Università Cattolica.[11][12]

The Italian cabinet of 2011

In November 2011 the Prime Minister Mario Monti appointed three professors as ministers. The rector Lorenzo Ornaghi was appointed Minister for Heritage and cultural activities; Renato Balduzzi, professor of constitutional law, was appointed minister of health, and Dino Piero Giarda, professor of public economics at the faculty of Economics, became minister for relations with Parliament.[13]

After the appointment of Professor Lorenzo Ornaghi as minister, all the powers and functions belonging to the office of rector were entrusted to the vicar vice chancellor, prof. Franco Anelli, for the term of Ornaghi's office.[14]


The Magnifico Rettore is the most senior post in this institution, elected every 4 years by the board of directors. The role of the Rector is to represent the University and to convene and chair the board of directors, the management committee, the academic senate and the board of the Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic.[15]



The UCSC offers a wide range of degrees in 12 schools (facoltà).[16]

Postgraduate Schools

Postgraduate Schools (Alte Scuole) are centers of excellence in research and teaching.[17]


Milan campus

An aerial photograph of the UCSC campus

Cattolica is characterized by a campus extending to six Italian cities, with its seat in the historic Cistercian monastery situated near the Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio in the heart of Milan.

Originally a monastery built by Benedictine monks in the 8th century, the UCSC Milan campus expanded under the care of Cistercian friars in the 15th century and military and social developments both during the Napoleonic era and World War II.

A cloister

The restructuring of the Benedictine monastery by Giovanni Muzio in collaboration with the engineer Pier Fausto Barelli began in 1929 and finished twenty years later.

Atrium of the zodiac in 1932

The campus is characterized by the Facade entrance to the main campus constructed by famed Italian architect Giovanni Muzio, the Chapel of the Sacred Heart, the atrium of the zodiac, as well as the Great Hall (Aula Magna). The campus is nestled within the original city walls of Milan.

The main section of largo Gemelli consists of the following buildings: Monumental building (cloister by Bramante), office building, Gregorianum building, Antonianum building, Via Lanzone 18 building, Ambrosianum building, Franciscanum building and Domenicanum building.

Most of the buildings, colleges and campus facilities are located in St. Ambrose district, within the city centre of Milan. The seat in Via Necchi 5/9 was the historic seat of the Augustinianum College contains, in addition to classrooms and offices, the economic institutes, the department of economics and the department of linguistics, library science economic, mathematical, statistical, catering services for staff and students, and, finally, the Domus our restaurant. The seat in Via Carducci 28/30 is located in the Palazzo Gonzaga and was built by Arpesani in a Lombard style incorporating some reasons for the existing cloister of St. Jerome. Here is the master office and the office of international relations. The historical site of St. Agnese Catholic is to route 2, consisting of the Palazzo del Canonica. ALMED is located in this building..

Satellite campuses

The Cattolica is based in Piacenza at the Palace Ghisalberti. The construction of the headquarters of Piacenza, which would house the Faculty of Agriculture, started in 1953 by the will of Agostino Gemelli. The headquarters of Piacenza has a sports center of 8,000 m² called San Martino. The students of UCSC of Piacenza and Cremona participate, also thanks ASUB student association (Associazione Sportiva University Piacenza), in football, volleyball, basketball, capoeira, table tennis. The headquarters of Cremona was inaugurated November 19, 1984 by the academic activities of the SMEA.

On November 5, 1961 Pope John XXIII solemnized with his presence the birth of the medical school in Rome.

The UCSC's 37 hectare medical campus is situated in Rome. In 1934 Pope Pius XI granted Istituto Giuseppe Toniolo di Studi Superiori the property of Monte Mario to construct the buildings of the future Faculty of Medicine will be followed by a speech by Pope Pius XII to start the execution phase of the project. In 1958, the Higher Council of Education approved the teaching and scientific project and 18 June of the same year with the decree of the President of the Republic, he started building workings of biological institutes, the Faculty. The Faculty was inaugurated on 5 November 1961. In 1961 work began on the construction of the Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic, which ended in 1964. The Rome campus has 2 Faculties, 34 institutes, 18 research centers and over 7,000 students(around 5,000 on undergraduate programs and a further 2,000 on graduate programs).

Brescia campus has four locations across the historic center of the city. The head office is located in the historic Palazzo Martinengo Cesaresco Kite in via Trieste 17. Headquartered was added for the last ten years, the whole century of the Good Shepherd in via dei Musei 41, there are also the headquarters of Contrada Santa Croce Aleardi 17 and the via 12 and via San Martino della Battaglia 11 for a total of about 23,464 square meters. Some projects include the expansion of the university in 2007 with a new office in the north of Italy, for a total of about 20 000 square meters of affected area. The complex has been designed to accommodate some degree, the Library of Sciences "Carlo Viganò" and post-graduate courses.

On 19 March 1995 Pope John Paul II laid the foundation stone of the Center for High Technology Research and Education in Biomedical Sciences in Campobasso, and September 16, 2002 was inaugurated. The foundation later was renamed John Paul II Foundation for Research and Treatment. In 2010, the site has more than 700 students enrolled in the Bachelor programs for the health professions.


The programs of the university are accredited by various departments of the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research.[18]


Lesson at UCSC

The research university has nearly 3,000 research projects underway in 2009 and 4,668 publications have been prepared. The research is divided into 22 departments, 54 institutes, 70 research centers and 4 atheneum centers. The 22 departments (if these are added to 16 which refer to the area medical care) are aimed to promote and coordinate the activities of institutional research and contribute to the organization of doctoral research (PhD). The atheneum centers were established in 2007 and have structures for the conception, development and implementation of research projects and training on social issues. The specific fields on which to focus the atheneum centers are bioethics, the family, the social teaching and international solidarity.[19]

The University holds 12 patents both domestically and internationally with the release of specific hedges occurred in Italy, United States, United Kingdom and other countries.[20]


All schools have a limited number of seats and most of the schools require an admission test to enroll.

The admission test of the School of Medicine "Agostino Gemelli" is one of the most selective of the university. This test consists of a written test and followed by an oral exam. In the admission test in 2012, which took place, not only in Rome, but also in Milan, there were 8244 candidates for 300 seats.[21]


The UCSC Library System works with numerous national and international bodies: IFLA - International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, AIB - Associazione Italiana Biblioteche, AIDA - Associazione Italiana per la Documentazione Avanzata, NDLTD - Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations, LIBER - Ligue des Bibliothèques Européennes de Recherche, LOCKSS - Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe, CLOCKSS - Controlled Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe, NEREUS e INNOVATIVE.[22]

Rankings & Internationalization

Great Hall

The Cattolica, according to a study of International Student Barometer, survey of a sample of 65 universities in Europe, is the second in Europe and fourth position at the international level among the most recommended universities by foreign students.[23] According to the QS World University Rankings, Cattolica is within the world's 100 best universities and the only Italian private university ranked.[24]

In 2016, according to the ranking QS World University Rankings, Cattolica is between 81st and 90th best universities in the world. In an evaluation conducted by faculty from the QS the UCSC is between 51st and 100th place for philosophy, between 151st and 200th in the world for agriculture and technologies and between 100th and 151st for psychology. UCSC is a part of a series of international networks including: LLP - Erasmus Network, UCSC International Bilateral Agreements, ISEP Network, International Network of Universities (INU), Fédération des Universités Catholiques Européenes (FUCE), Fédération Internationale des Universités Catholiques (FIUC) and International Partnership of Business Schools (IPBS).[25]

Some of the programs of international mobility UCSC and universities with which the Catholic strict agreements are: UCSC Exchange Programs (University of Geneva, Waseda University, Maastricht University, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile), Premier Scholars Program (UCLA, University of Chicago), LaTE (University College London, Columbia University), Focused Programs Abroad (Stanford University, Boston University), UCSC International Thesis Scholarship.[26] The university offers internships abroad in cooperation with such institutions as The Intern Group and the Emerald Cultural Institute.[27]


The grand staircase

EDUCatt is the foundation for the right to study at Cattolica University. The foundation focuses on students receiving financial aid and counseling, accommodation, catering, health care, psychological counseling, study trips and cultural activities.[28] EDUCatt deals with the creation of books useful for the study, commissioned by the teachers, taking care of the editing, layout and graphics, to quality control and implementation, also depending on the demands and the type of publication.


The publishing house of UCSC is Vita e pensiero (publishing), which was founded in 1918. The owner is the Istituto Giuseppe Toniolo di Studi Superiori.

There are various publications and magazines published in the UCSC. Vita e pensiero, founded in 1914 by Agostino Gemelli, becomes the official magazine of the Cattolica since its inception. Presenza is the UCSC's house organ and it aims to examine topical issues and latest news of the University. The magazine is divided into two main blocks. In the first part, there are services and insights into current affairs, in the second part, the space is devoted to news from the headquarters of Cattolica (Milan, Brescia, Piacenza-Cremona, Roma and Campobasso). The magazine is distributed free to faculty, students, graduates and opinion makers at the national level. Comunicare is a bimonthly magazine, founded in 1990, on the School of Medicine and Surgery of Rome and the Policlinico Agostino Gemelli.

Youcatt, the web TV of the UCSC[29](Brescia), debuted in September 2009 and is in charge of the university hosted events, experiences abroad carried out by students and topical issues. Within the schedule plays an important role also heading "Books in brief", which presents the latest releases editorials. In 2011 Youcatt won the award Teletopi for the best Italian web TV.[30]

In UCSC there are some student media like Radio Catt and TV Catt, which were founded in 2012.

Student life

Residential colleges

Inside the UCSC campus there are some colleges: Augustinianum College (Milan), Marianum College (Milan), Ludovicianum College (Milan), Paolo VI College (Milan), Sant'Isidoro College (Piacenza), Ker Maria College (Rome), San Damiano College (Rome), Nuovo Joanneum College (Rome), San Luca - Armida Barelli College (Rome).[31]

A short distance from the university there are other colleges located in urban: Orsoline (Milan), San Francesco (Milan), Stimmatine (Milan), Sacro Cuore Buonarroti (Milan), Franciscanum (Brescia), Sacro Cuore (Brescia), San Giorgio (Brescia), Villa Pace (Brescia), Morigi De Cesaris College(Piacenza), Orsoline (Piacenza), Capitanio (Rome), Renzi (Rome), Romitello (Rome), Sacra Famiglia (Rome).[32]

There are some associations between the ex-alumni of the college of the Cattolica: Agostini Semper (Augustinianum College) and Associazione Mea (Marianum College).

Code of ethics

The university's founder, Agostino Gemelli, surrounded by some students.

On November 1, 2011 was introduced the code of ethics. This document contains the values that characterize the Cattolica and the rules of conduct. Each student must sign the code before enrolling.[33] The code is based on principles such as integrity, honesty, legality, solidarity, subsidiarity, hospitality, dialogue, excellence, dignity, the promotion of merit, skills and individual skills of 'equality, as well as the prevention and rejection of any unjust discrimination, violence, abuse and improper care. The code is formulated to meet the Treaty of Lisbon.

Student associations

In the 5 campuses there are a lot of student associations. They organizes cultural activities and publish several magazines that are distributed free of charge within the university. Associations are also active both in matters of UCSC both in social issues.[34]

IT services

I-Catt is the student home page which contains information about suspended classes, exam schedules, and teachers' notices. Cattolica uses Blackboard Inc., as the e-learning platform on which professors post teaching materials. The telecommunication stations UCPoint & InfoPoint, located in all campuses, perform clerical duties and provide information related to teaching and services. In each location computer labs and wireless connections are available.[35]


The university's sports activities and practices of the degree course in "Physical Education and Sports" were held in the sports center UCSC "Rino Fenaroli" of Milan. The teams have won editions 2006/2007, 2008/2009, 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 Collegiate Championships in Milan.[36]

The University hosted the IFIUS 2009 World Interuniversity Games in October.[37]


Inner yard
Virgins garden

It is said that those who pass through one of two inner yard of Milan campus not graduate in UCSC. But after earning his degree, the graduate of the Cattolica is usually to make a round of racing in one of the cloisters.

In the Milan campus there is a garden (the garden of St. Catherine of Alexandria) which is accessible only by female students. For this reason it is nicknamed "The Virgin's Garden".[38]

During May, the so-called party of the Cattolica Collegiate are wont to throw buckets of water at the freshmen. This rite of passage that has been repeated for several decades is called "nicchiato". Another common tradition of UCSC colleges are the "processes" evening. These are the shows on the road where the collegiates, undress their clothes and social participants, ask each other personal questions and then finish with questions concerning the general culture.[39]

Alumni Cattolica Ludovico Necchi Association

The Alumni Cattolica Ludovico Necchi Association was founded in Milan in 1930 and it encompasses all the graduates in the various professional fields of the UCSC.[40] Every year the Association awards the Agostino Gemelli award, which consists of a medal and a diploma, to the best student of each school.[41]

Faculty and alumni

Cattolica has produced alumni distinguished in their respective fields. Among the best-known people who have attended Università Cattolica are Italian political leaders Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, Ciriaco de Mita, Amintore Fanfani, Giovanni Maria Flick, Romano Prodi, Lorenzo Ornaghi; Italy's first woman cabinet minister, Tina Anselmi; banker Angelo Caloia; ENI founder Enrico Mattei; fashion designer Nicola Trussardi; post-Keynesian economist Luigi Pasinetti; religious leaders Paolo Sardi and Angelo Scola; singer Roberto Vecchioni; gymnast Igor Cassina and among its young alumni the internet entrepreneur Augusto Marietti.

Among its most famous faculty members are banker Giovanni Bazoli, archaeologist Valerio Massimo Manfredi, Communion and Liberation founder Luigi Giussani, international relations scholar Michael Cox, economist Massimo Beber, and theorist of international relations and United States foreign policy John Ikenberry.

In the classroom Manzoni was filmed a spot on Pocket Coffee which was broadcast on national networks for several years.

The mystery of Cattolica is the name under which it is historically known of the murder Simonetta Ferrero took place July 24, 1971 at the Cattolica University of Milan, yet unresolved. On April 28, 1999 was devoted the third episode of the second series of the television program Blue nightled by Carlo Lucarelli to the mystery of Cattolica.

See also


  1. Members of IFCU in Italy
  2. "La Cattolica: I numeri" (in Italian). Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. Retrieved 2012-07-23.
  3. "Relazione letta dal Rettore Magnifico Prof. Lorenzo Ornaghi per l'inaugurazione dell'A.A. 2003-2004" [Report Read by the Rector Prof. Lorenzo Ornaghi for the Inauguration of the 2003-2004 Academic Year] (PDF) (in Italian). Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. 2003-11-05. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-09.
  4. "Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore - Italy". StudyPortals. Retrieved 2012-07-23.
  5. "Catholic universities in Europe,Italy study abroad,Milan semester programs". Learn4Good. 2012-01-07. Retrieved 2012-07-23.
  6. "Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore". QS World University Rankings. 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-17.
  7. "Storia" [History] (in Italian). Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic. Retrieved 2013-05-17.
  8. "Istituto Toniolo — I fondatori" [Toniolo Institute — The Founders] (in Italian). Istituto Giuseppe Toniolo di Studi Superiori. Retrieved 2012-07-23.
  9. "Ezio Franceschini biografia" (in Italian). Zam.
  10. Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (April 8, 2010). "Università Cattolica distrutta dai bombardamenti" [Università Cattolica destroyed by bombing] (in Italian). YouTube.
  11. Lumley, Robert (1990). "Chapter 5: The end of respectability: the student movement in the universities". States of Emergency: Cultures of Revolt in Italy from 1968 to 1978. Verso Books. Archived from the original on 2012-12-27.
  12. "Chronology: 15 January". Media '68. Retrieved 2012-07-23.
  13. "Italy: The cabinet of Mario Monti—a government of the banks". World Socialist Web Site. 2011-11-18. Retrieved 2012-07-23.
  14. "Cattolica, Franco Anelli sostituisce Ornaghi" [Franco Anelli replaces Ornaghi] (in Italian). quiBrescia.it. 2011-11-24.
  15. "Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore - UCSC: The Rector". Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. Retrieved 2012-07-23.
  16. "Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (UCSC)". Masterstudies Marketing Group.
  17. "Postgraduate Schools: The Graduate Schools System". Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
  18. http://www.4icu.org/reviews/2351.htm. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  19. "About the University Centres". Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
  20. "Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore - La ricerca in Cattolica: Le strutture della ricerca". Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. Retrieved 2012-07-23.
  21. "Concorso per aspiranti medici, code record sull'Aurelia: 22 chilometri" [Competition for aspiring doctors, record queues on Aurelia: 22 kilometers]. Corriere della Sera. 2012-04-11.
  22. "Library: Partnership and Membership". Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
  23. Ornaghi, Lorenzo (2011-11-09). Discorso Magnifico Rettore [Rector's Speech] (PDF) (Speech). Inauguration of the 2011-2012 Academic Year (in Italian). Milan: Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
  24. "Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore".
  25. "Area Internazionale: UCSC Partnerships". Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. Retrieved 2012-07-23.
  26. "UCSC International". Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
  27. http://ucscinternational.unicatt.it/ucsc-international-lavorare-all-estero-customized-internships#content. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  28. "EDUCatt: Ente per il diritto allo studio dell'Università Cattolica" [EDUCatt: Agency for the right to study at the Catholic University] (in Italian). Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. Retrieved 2012-07-23.
  29. Molinari, Maurizio (2009-10-09). "YouCATT: la webtv degli studenti « Blog di Maurizio Molinari" (in Italian). Garda2o.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2012-07-23.
  30. "Staff di Youcatt esulta per l'Oscar delle web tv" [Youcatt staff cheers for the Web TV Oscars] (in Italian). Giornale di Brescia. 2011-12-07.
  31. "Collegi dell'Università Cattolica: Collegi in Campus". Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. Archived from the original on 2012-11-18.
  32. "Collegi dell'Università Cattolica: Collegi in città" (in Italian). Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. Archived from the original on 2012-08-28.
  33. "Codice etico dell'Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore" (PDF) (in Italian). Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
  34. "Associazioni" (in Italian). Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
  35. "Web Campus" (in Italian). Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
  36. "albo d'oro coppa università" (in Italian). CUS Milano. 2011-06-13. Archived from the original on 2011-10-03.
  37. "L'Università Cattolica ospita i Giochi mondiali universitari" [The Catholic University is home to the world university games] (in Italian). Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. 2009-10-09. Retrieved 2012-07-23.
  38. Beltramini, Micol Arianna. 101 cose da fare a Milano almeno una volta nella vita [101 Things to Do in Milan at Least Once in Your Life]. Newton Compton. p. 105. ISBN 9788854125421.
  39. "Sul Numero di "Presenza" di Prossima Uscita". Cattolica News (in Italian). Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. 2010-05-10.
  40. "La storia dell'Associazione". Associazione Ludovico Necchi. 2012. Retrieved 2013-05-17.
  41. "Premio "Agostino Gemelli" - Regolamento" [Agostino Gemelli Prize - Regulations] (PDF) (in Italian). Associazione Ludovico Necchi.

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