Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||P. Bharathiraja|
|Produced by||S. A. Rajkannu|
P. Kalaimani (dialogue)
|Cinematography||P. S. Nivas|
|Edited by||R. Bhaskaran|
Sri Amman Creations
|Distributed by||Sri Amman Creations|
|Budget||₹425,000 – ₹500,000|
16 Vayathinile (English: At Age 16; read as Pathinaaru Vayathinile) is a 1977 Indian Tamil language drama film written and directed by P. Bharathiraja in his directorial debut. The film features Kamal Haasan, Sridevi, and Rajinikanth in the lead roles, with Ganthimathi, Sathyajith and Goundamani in supporting roles. 16 Vayathinile's soundtrack album and background score were composed by Ilaiyaraaja, with cinematography by P. S. Nivas. P. Kalaimani wrote the film's dialogue.
The film focuses on the strengths and vulnerabilities of Mayil (Sridevi), a 16-year-old schoolgirl, and the challenges she faces and overcomes. The film, originally titled Mayil, is set in rural Tamil Nadu and is Rajinikanth's first colour film. 16 Vayathinile is the first Tamil film to be shot completely outdoors; Tamil films were primarily filmed in Chennai studios.
The first Tamil film distributed by a producer across Tamil Nadu, 16 Vayathinile was released on 15 September 1977 to critical praise for Bharathiraja's script, Ilaiyaraaja's music and the performances of Kamal, Sridevi and Rajinikanth. It was commercially successful, with a 175-day theatrical run.
16 Vayathinile, considered a Tamil cult film, is the bellwether of films featuring realistic portrayals of rural life. Making stars of its director and lead actors, the film won the National Film Award for Best Female Playback Singer for S. Janaki, the Filmfare Award for Best Actor (Tamil) for Kamal and five State Awards, including Best Film (First prize), Best Director and Best Actor for Kamal. It was remade in Telugu by K. Raghavendra Rao as Padaharella Vayasu (1978) and in Hindi by Bharathiraja as Solva Sawan (1979), with Sridevi reprising her role in both versions.
Mayil (Sridevi) is a 16-year-old schoolgirl who lives in a village with her mother, Guruvammal (Ganthimathi). Guruvammal also takes care of the limping orphan Gopalakrishnan (Kamal Haasan), who is called "Chappani" ("Lame") by the villagers and does whatever he can to earn a living. Mayil's ambition is to become a teacher, and she hopes to marry a sophisticated, educated man; although Chappani is in love with her, she ignores him.
An urban veterinarian named Sathyajith arrives in the village to work and falls in love with Mayil. Mayil, believing that Sathyajith is the man for her, falls in love with him, to the point of refusing an opportunity to attend a teacher-training course in Madras to remain with him. Despite loving Sathyajith, she does not allow him to exploit her sexually, which disappoints him. Never intending a serious relationship with Mayil, he proceeds to his native place to get married to another woman. When Mayil begs Sathyajith not to leave her, he says he befriended her for pleasure—not marriage.
A dejected Mayil confesses this to Guruvammal, who quickly plans to betroth her to someone else. The village ruffian Parattaiyan, alias Parattai (Rajinikanth)—who lusts for Mayil—spreads rumours about her relationship with Sathyajith. Because of this, Mayil's engagement plans are halted and the village becomes hostile to her. Unable to bear the shame, Guruvammal commits suicide and leaves Chappani to take care of Mayil.
Chappani takes good care of Mayil, cheering her up when she needs it. She warms to Chappani, making him more confident and assertive and grooming him and his manners, to the surprise of many in the village. Mayil tells him to slap anyone who calls him "Chappani" and to respond only to those who address him by his name, Gopalakrishnan. When Sathyajith and Parattai call him "Chappani" despite his request to use his real name, Gopalakrishnan slaps them. Mayil and Gopalakrishnan celebrate his newfound courage. An insulted Parattai later beats Gopalakrishnan badly. Mayil saves him, spitting on Parattai for the brutal attack.
Mayil decides to marry Gopalakrishnan, and sends him to the nearby town for buying wedding supplies. Learning of Gopalakrishnan's absence, Parattai goes to Mayil's house and tries to rape her. Gopalakrishnan returns to Mayil's house and pleads with Parattai to leave her. When Parattai refuses, Gopalakrishnan kills him with a rock and is arrested. He promises Mayil that he will return, and she waits everyday for him.
- Kamal Haasan as Gopalakrishnan (Chappani)
- Sridevi as Mayil
- Rajinikanth as Parattaiyan (Parattai)
- Ganthimathi as Guruvammal
- Sathyajith as Sathyajith
- Goundamani as Koothu, a friend of Parattaiyan
16 Vayathinile was P. Bharathiraja's directorial debut and his first screenplay. He originally planned to make a film funded by the National Film Development Corporation of India under the title Mayil, with Nagesh and Roja Ramani in mind for the lead roles, but the NFDC rejected his script. In an October 2013 interview, Bharathiraja said that the script was rejected at the last minute without a reason.
When singer S. P. Balasubrahmanyam heard about the rejection he introduced Bharathiraja to S. A. Rajkannu, and Bharathiraja told Rajkannu about his ideas for Sigappu Rojakkal (1978) and Mayil. Although Rajkannu was uninterested in the first, he agreed to produce Mayil. Feeling that 16 Vayathinile sounded more artistic than Mayil, Rajkannu asked Bharathiraja to change the film's title. A few alterations were made to the screenplay, and the dialogue was written by P. Kalaimani.
Although Bharathiraja was initially hesitant to direct the film, Rajkannu insisted and he received an advance of ₹500. 16 Vayathinile was initially made on a low budget of ₹425,000. P. S. Nivas was signed as cinematographer, Somnath-Kamalasekharan as art director and R. Bhaskaran as editor.
Bharathiraja wanted Chithra Lakshmanan (assistant director with K. Bhagyaraj) to sign Kamal Haasan for the role of Chappani, expecting to pay Kamal ₹15,000 since the actor had received ₹17,000 for Aayirathil Oruthi (1975). When Kamal asked for ₹30,000, Lakshmanan suggested that Bharathiraja offer the role to Sivakumar since the production unit could not afford Kamal's request; however, Bharathiraja saw Kamal as the ideal choice and agreed to pay him ₹27,000. For his character, the actor grew his curly hair long and wore lungis and khadi high-buttoned shirts. Dhananjayan states in his 2011 book The Best of Tamil Cinema that Sridevi received ₹9,000 for her role as Mayil.
Bharathiraja, who had been an assistant director to Puttanna Kanagal, included Rajinikanth in the film after seeing his performance in Katha Sangama (1976). Although he had finalised ₹3,000 as the salary for Rajinikanth after the latter initially charged ₹5,000, he had paid ₹2,500 to Rajinikanth. 16 Vayathinile marked Rajinikanth's first appearance in a colour film. Since the actor was not fluent in Tamil at the time, Bhagyaraj read him his lines and Rajinikanth repeated them until he mastered them. For Mayil's mother Guruvammal, Bharathiraja wanted someone who could speak the village dialect fluently and chose Ganthimathi for her acting style. Receiving a salary of ₹150, Bhagyaraj was initially considered for the veterinarian's role but wanted to concentrate on directing; that role finally went to Sathyajith. Although comedian Goundamani made his major film debut with Annakili (1976), it was 16 Vayathinile which made him popular.
Shot in 25 days in Mysore, Sivasamudram, Velakkadu, Kolakkadu and Kollegal, 16 Vayathinile was the first Tamil film made completely outdoors and no sets were used. The actors wore normal village clothing and wore no make-up. According to Kamal, due to budgetary constraints the technical crew could not afford a camera which could film slow motion and Sridevi had to run in slow motion for the song "Chendoora Poove". Kamal's salary helped increase the budget from ₹425,000 to ₹500,000.
The scene in which Mayil spits on Parattai required several takes before Rajinikanth insisted that Sridevi actually spit on him for realism. Rajinikanth finished his part of the film in five or six days. While Bharathiraja wanted the film to follow a linear narration, it was Bhagyaraj's idea to begin the film with a flashback sequence. After the film completed its shoot, it was screened at least 20 times for the distributors and the narrative switched every time between the linear and non-linear versions. Eventually, the producer himself released the film, with the flashback narrative. A total of 8,534 metres (27,999 ft) of film negative was used, and its final length was 3,822 m (12,539 ft).
16 Vayathinile focuses on rural Tamil Nadu, and the vulnerabilities of Mayil. Film critic Naman Ramachandran compared Parattai to Rajinikanth's character Kondaji from Katha Sangama (1975), stating "Like in that film, Rajinikanth is a card-playing wastrel with henchmen in tow. Just like the Thimmaraya character in Katha Sangama runs errands for Kondaji, here Chappani/Gopalakrishnan performs services for Parattai, but the similarity ends there because Thimmaraya is evil and Chappani is good." He also described the film as the first instance when a villainous character played by Rajinikanth does not have a change of heart or get away without getting his just deserts: "Here he pays for his deeds with his life." According to film scholar Swarnavel Eswaran Pillai, the film is marked by "ambiguous and dark protagonists, new subjectivity, [and] avoidance of clichéd and cathartic closures". Kumuthan Maderya, writing for Jump Cut, described 16 Vayathinile as a "neo-nativity" film — a story set in rural Tamil Nadu, valorising the rustic and foregrounding the lives of villagers.
|Soundtrack album by Ilaiyaraaja|
|Genre||Feature film soundtrack|
The soundtrack album and background score for 16 Vayathinile were composed by Ilaiyaraaja with lyrics by Kannadasan, Gangai Amaran and Alangudi Somu. Ilaiyaraaja, in an April 2015 interview with Maalai Malar, stated that Kannadasan accepted salaries ranging from ₹1,000 to ₹1,500. Ilaiyaraaja requested Kannadasan to accept ₹750 citing the film's budget constraints, to which Kannadasan agreed. The album was released on EMI Records.
16 Vayathinile was Ilaiyaraaja's first collaboration with Kamal. Bharathiraja insisted that the director and Rajkannu meet Ilaiyaraaja, although Rajkannu doubted if Ilaiyaraaja would sign on since he had become well-known after his debut film Annakili (1976). Ilaiyaraaja initially refused because of an earlier bet with Bharathiraja that Ilayaraaja's mentor, G. K. Venkatesh, would compose the music for Bharathiraja's first film. Venkatesh later insisted that Ilaiyaraaja compose the music.
Although Ilaiyaraaja wanted S. P. Balasubrahmanyam to sing "Chavanthi Poo" and "Aattukkutti", the singer had pharyngitis at that time and was replaced by Malaysia Vasudevan. "Chavanthi Poo", the first song recorded, was the first written by Kannadasan for the film, and Gangai Amaran's debut as lyricist. Ilaiyaraaja also debuted as a singer with this film, singing the number "Solam Vidhaikkaiyile", although it does not appear on the soundtrack. According to film critic Baradwaj Rangan, "Chendoora Poove" used Viennese musical tropes. B. Kolappan of The Hindu wrote that the song "employs a rush of violins to set up the intro for the folk melody that follows."
The album, a blend of folk and Western classical music, was praised by critics and "Chendoora Poove" remains popular among the Tamil diaspora. Film producer and writer G. Dhananjayan wrote that Ilaiyaraaja "achieved great heights with the music and background score" of the film. About "Chendoora Poove", B. Kolappan wrote, "The maestro's genius is most evident in his ability to combine forms seamlessly." Tribune described "Chendoora Poove" as a "silver lined melody that paced the film and added to its brilliance. Do not miss it at any cost." P. K. Ajith Kumar of The Hindu praised Janaki's vocals in "Chendoora Poove", saying the song "would not have sounded as special in any other voice". The song inspired the title of a 1988 film starring Vijayakanth, and a television serial of the same name. The film's songs were remastered in DTS 5.1 six-channel audio by A. Muthusamy of Honey Bee Music in June 2013.
|1.||"Manjakkulichi"||Alangudi Somu||S. Janaki||4:26|
|2.||"Chendoora Poove"||Gangai Amaran||S. Janaki||3:33|
|1.||"Aattukkutti"||Kannadasan||Malaysia Vasudevan, S. Janaki||4:20|
|2.||"Chavanthi Poo"||Kannadasan||Malaysia Vasudevan, P. Susheela||4:34|
16 Vayathinile was released on 15 September 1977. During its early theatrical run, the audience could not understand the film and there were catcalls outside theatres. Within a week its box office improved due to positive reviews and word of mouth, and it became commercially successful. 16 Vayathinile completed a theatrical run of 175 days, making it a silver jubilee film.
The film earned $1 million at the box office according to a 2010 estimate by South Scope, and the producer went into hiding to avoid income-tax raids. It was the first Tamil film released by a producer across Tamil Nadu without distributors. When 16 Vayathinile became successful, distributors bought the theatrical rights for a number of areas across the state. The film was remade in Telugu by Kovelamudi Raghavendra Rao as Padaharella Vayasu (1978) and in Hindi by Bharathiraja as Solva Sawan (1979), with Sridevi reprising her role in both. In October 2009, Kannada actor Ganesh revealed that he and his wife bought the remake rights of 16 Vayathinile for Kannada.
The film received critical acclaim, with praise for Bharathiraja's script, Ilaiyaraaja's music and the performances of Kamal, Sridevi and Rajinikanth. The Tamil magazine Ananda Vikatan, in its original review, gave the film 62.5 marks out of 100, their highest rating for a Tamil film. The reviewer praised the film for representing village life with realism, and for avoiding the cliché of (studio) court and police station in its climax, but criticised the error in focusing. Rediff called 16 Vayathinile a "new genre of pastoral film, which was true to village life in characterisation, costumes and dialect". The Times of India stated that it "showcase[s] the best of the superstar [Rajinikanth] and the universal hero [Kamal Haasan]".
In addition to the National Film Award for Best Female Playback Singer for S. Janaki, 16 Vayathinile won Kamal the Filmfare Award in the Best Tamil Actor category. The film won five Tamil Nadu State Film Awards, and Rajinikanth won the Arima Sangam Award for Best Actor for his role as Parattai.
|National Film Awards||25th National Film Awards||Best Female Playback Singer||S. Janaki||Won|
|Filmfare Awards||6th Filmfare Awards South||Best Actor – Tamil||Kamal Haasan||Won|
|Tamil Nadu State Film Awards||4th Tamil Nadu State Film Awards||Best Film (First prize)||S. A. Rajkannu||Won|
|Best Director||P. Bharathiraja||Won|
|Best Actor||Kamal Haasan||Won|
|Best Music Director||Ilaiyaraaja||Won|
|Best Female Playback Singer||S. Janaki||Won|
I am [Bharathiraja's] very first fan ... These are not empty words. Before 16 Vayathinile's release, when he showed me the film, I wrote him a letter of appreciation. That's why I say that I'm his first fan and proud to be so.— Director K. Balachander, on Bharathiraja.
16 Vayathinile is considered a cult film and a landmark in Tamil cinema, diverging from traditional Tamil films of the time. With Annakili, the film was a bellwether for realistic portrayals of rural life and made stars of Bharathiraja, Kamal, Sridevi and Rajinikanth. According to Naman Ramachandran and S. Shiva Kumar of The Hindu, Kamal's performance was considered a tour de force by critics since he was typecast as a romantic hero at that time. The dialogue "Idhu Eppadi Irukku?" ("How's this?"), the first catchphrase of Rajinikanth's career, became very popular; IANS and Rediff included it on their lists of lines popularised by Rajinikanth. Manisha Lakhe, writing for Forbes India, noted that 16 Vayathinile "paved the way for unkempt villains who had a singularly disgusting laugh." A digitally remastered version of the film was being planned for a late 2013 release; although its trailer was released in October that year, the film has yet to see a theatrical release as of 2016.
In July 2007, S. R. Ashok Kumar of The Hindu asked eight Tamil directors to list their all-time favourite Tamil films; seven – C. V. Sridhar, K. Balachander, J. Mahendran, K. Bhagyaraj, Mani Ratnam, K. S. Ravikumar and Ameer – named 16 Vayathinile. According to Ratnam, the film was "memorable for its script, high standard and realism." The magazine South Scope included Kamal's performance on its list of "Kamal's best performances" in July 2010. S. Shiva Kumar of The Hindu included the film on his December 2010 list of "Electrifying Rajinikanth-Kamal Haasan films" with Moondru Mudichu (1976), Avargal (1977) and Aval Appadithan (1978). In April 2013 CNN-IBN included the film on its list of "100 greatest Indian films of all time", saying that it was a "decisive move away from the studio-bound productions and paved the way for successful integration of subaltern themes and folk arts into mainstream commercial cinema." In December 2014, The Times of India included 16 Vayathinile on its list of "Top 12 Rajinikanth movies". In August 2015, CNN-IBN included the film in its list of "10 performances that make [Sridevi] the 'Last Empress' of Indian cinema". In November the same year, Daily News and Analysis included the film in its list of "Films you must watch to grasp the breadth of Kamal Haasan's repertoire". Actors Vijay Sethupathi and Vikram included 16 Vayathinile among their favourite films. After seeing the film, director K. Balachander wrote in a letter of appreciation to Bharathiraja, "You have hit the bull's eye".
16 Vayathinile was spoofed in Murattu Kaalai (2012) by Vivek, whose character Saroja is called "Mayil" by Cell Murugan's character (a veterinarian similar to Sathyajith's character in the film). Sridevi's line, "Aatha Naan Passaayitten" ("Mother, I've passed the exam"), was the title of a 1990 film starring Arjun Sarja. In Sivaji (2007), Vivek's character delivers one of Rajinikanth's catchphrases and finishes by saying: "Idhu eppadi irukku?". The film's title and characters have inspired other film titles: Parattai Engira Azhagu Sundaram (2007), Mayilu (2012) and 36 Vayadhinile (2015).
- The exchange rate in 1977 was 8.7386 Indian rupees (₹) per 1 US dollar (US$)
- The exchange rate in 1975 was 8.3759 Indian rupees (₹) per 1 US dollar (US$).
- A Silver Jubilee film is one that completes a theatrical run of 175 days (25 weeks).
- Tamil films were mostly made in studios in Chennai till then.
- Rajadhyaksha & Willemen 2014, p. 483.
- Dhananjayan 2014, p. 245.
- Dhananjayan 2011, p. 5.
- Ilangovan, R. (18 October 2013). "Man behind the 1970s wave". Frontline. Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- Dhananjayan 2011, pp. 4–5.
- Antweiler, Werner (2015). "Foreign Currency Units per 1 U.S. Dollar, 1948–2014" (PDF). PACIFIC Exchange Rate Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- Dhananjayan 2011, p. 4.
- Dhananjayan 2014, p. 244.
- "Southscope July 2010 – Side A". South Scope. 2010. p. 51. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- "Rajini & Kamal come together to promote '16 Vayathinile'". Sify. 5 October 2013. Archived from the original on 12 October 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
- "Both Rajinikanth and Kamal Haasan in October". Behindwoods. 4 October 2013. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Ramachandran 2014, p. 66.
- Sri (12 June 2010). "K.Bhaagya Raj — Chitchat — Slide 1". Telugucinema.com. Archived from the original on 30 December 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "Actor Kanthimathi dead". The Hindu. 9 September 2011. Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Kumar, S. R. Ashok (29 March 2007). "A good feature film must be remembered for time to come". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- "Actor Satyajit Speaks at 16 Vayathinile Trailer Launch video". Sulekha. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- Raghavan, Nikhil (21 May 2016). "Return of the counter". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
- Shrikumar, A. (26 January 2013). "Rustic tone". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- "When Sridevi spat on Rajinikanth!". The Times of India. 5 October 2013. Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Baskaran, S. Theodore (2009). "Tamil Cinema - DIARY OF A SOCIETY ON CELLULOID" (PDF). India Perspectives. pp. 24–27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Srivatsan (17 July 2016). "Happy 75th Birthday Bharathiraja: Remembering the iconoclasts best films". India Today. Archived from the original on 26 September 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
- Ramachandran 2014, p. 68.
- Pillai, Swarnavel Eswaran (31 January 2012). "The 1970s Tamil Cinema and the Post - classical Turn" (PDF). Temple University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Maderya, Kumuthan (2010). "Rage against the state: historicizing the "angry young man" in Tamil cinema". Jump Cut. Archived from the original on 26 September 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
- "16 Vayathinile songs". Raaga.com. Archived from the original on 15 August 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Ilaiyaraaja (19 April 2015). "பாரதிராஜாவின் 16 வயதினிலே படத்திற்கு இசை அமைக்க இளையராஜா மறுப்பு!" [Ilayaraaja refuses to compose for Bharathiraja's 16 Vayathinile]. Maalai Malar (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Ilaiyaraaja (1977). "16 Vayathinile". The Gramophone Company of India Ltd. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Rangan, Baradwaj (6 September 2014). "And more on the Ilaiyaraaja connection". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Ilaiyaraaja (20 April 2015). "16 வயதினிலே படத்தின் பாடல் பதிவு: எஸ்.பி.பாலசுப்பிரமணியத்துக்கு பதிலாக மலேசியா வாசுதேவன்" [16 Vayathinile song recording: S. P. Balasubrahmanyam replaced with Malaysia Vasudevan]. Maalai Malar (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Ilaiyaraaja (21 April 2015). "இளையராஜா இசை அமைப்பில் செந்தூரப்பூவே பாடலை எழுதினார், கங்கை அமரன்" [Gangai Amaran wrote the lyrics for Ilaiyaraaja's "Chendoora Poove"]. Maalai Malar (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- "Isaignani Ilaiyaraaja in Conversation with G. Venket Ram". The Brew. January 2013. pp. 22–26. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- "இளையராஜாவின் இதயத்தில் இடம்பெற்ற எம்.எஸ்.வி." [MSV, who found a place in Ilaiyaraaja's heart]. Dina Thanthi (in Tamil). 16 April 2016. Archived from the original on 14 July 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- Rangan, Baradwaj (14 October 2011). "The strange man in a Superman suit". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Kolappan, B. (25 December 2012). "In tune with nativity and modernity". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Ramachandran 2014, p. 67.
- Dhananjayan 2011, p. 6.
- Tribune, Volume 27, Issues 15–33. Ceylon News Service. 1983
- Kumar, P. K. Ajith (23 September 2016). "I have sung enough: S. Janaki". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 26 September 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
- "Top 10 Vijayakanth movies - 06". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- "Senthoora Poove". The Hindu. 25 July 2008. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Jeshi, K. (13 June 2013). "Music to his ears". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- "16 வயதினிலே (1977)" [At age 16 (1977)]. Cinema Express (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 14 July 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- Sharadhaa, A. (23 October 2013). "Yesterday, once more". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Dhananjayan 2011, p. 184.
- "Love Reels". South Scope. February 2010. p. 57. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- "We've slowed down: Kamal Haasan on competition with Rajinikanth". Daily News and Analysis. Indo-Asian News Service. 4 October 2013. Archived from the original on 21 May 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
- Rajpal, Roktim (21 May 2016). "Happy Birthday Sridevi: 10 performances that make her the 'Last Empress' of Indian cinema". CNN-News18. Archived from the original on 21 May 2016.
- Srinidhi, Sharadha (23 October 2009). "I want to return to big screen: Ganesh". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 24 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- Dhananjayan 2011, pp. 6–7.
- "ஆனந்த விகடன் விமர்சனக் குழுவின் இரண்டாவது அதிகபட்ச மதிப்பெண்கள் 'விசாரணை'க்கு!". Ananda Vikatan (in Tamil). 9 February 2016. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
- "Rajnikath, the villain". Rediff. 21 May 2007. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
- "Kamal-Rajini 3-in-1 Double Dhamaka". The Times of India. 17 October 2008. Archived from the original on 21 May 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
- Dhananjayan 2011, p. 6; Ramachandran 2014, p. 68.
- Dhananjayan 2014, p. 246.
- Pillai, Sreedhar (26 April 2007). "Mother-son sentiment". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- "Rajini & Kamal come together to promote '16 Vayathinile'". Sify. 5 October 2013. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Srinivasan, Pavithra (20 May 2008). "The best of Kamal Haasan". Rediff. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Seshagiri, Sangeetha (10 October 2013). "Rajinikanth, Kamal Haasan's Cult Classic '16 Vayathinile' to Re-Release in October". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Dhananjayan 2014, p. 243.
- Dhananjayan 2014, p. 246; Ramachandran 2014, p. 67.
- Dhananjayan 2011, p. 7.
- Shiva Kumar, S. (27 August 2009). "'I'm a limelight moth'". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Dhananjayan 2014, pp. 245–246.
- "Rajinikanth's punchnama". The Hindu. IANS. 13 December 2013. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
- Lakhe, Manisha (27 September 2010). "Why Rajinikanth Rocks". Forbes India. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Kandavel, Sangeetha; Vijayakumar, Sanjay (5 October 2013). "Rajinikanth, Kamal Haasan bring back 35-year-old 'Ninaithale Inikkum'". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
- Ramesh, Neeraja (14 July 2016). "With '16 Vayathinile' slated for re-release, we look at Bharathiraja's failed heroes". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- Ashok Kumar, S. R. (13 July 2007). "Filmmakers' favourites". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Shiva Kumar, S. (31 December 2010). "Immortality ode". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 January 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- "100 Years of Indian Cinema: The 100 greatest Indian films of all time". CNN-IBN. 17 April 2013. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- "Top 12 Rajinikanth movies". The Times of India. 11 December 2014. Archived from the original on 26 May 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "Birthday special: Films you must watch to grasp the breadth of Kamal Haasan's repertoire". Daily News and Analysis. 7 November 2015. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Kamath, Sudhish (19 September 2013). "Full of pizzazz!". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- "Why I like ... Pathinaaru Vayathinile". The Hindu. 15 February 2008. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Rangarajan, Malathi (22 April 2010). "Another avatar". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Mannath, Malini (17 June 2012). "'Murattu Kaalai' (Tamil)". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
- Rangarajan, Malathi (16 June 2012). "Murattu Kaalai – Not as raging ...". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 8 September 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Bharathiraja, P. (director) (1977). 16 Vayathinile (motion picture). India: Sri Amman Creations.
- Saimohan, M. K. (director) (1990). Aatha Naan Paasayiten (motion picture). India: Anita Pictures.
- Shankar, S. (director) (2007). Sivaji (motion picture). India: AVM Productions.
- "Mayilu Movie Review". The Times of India. 28 October 2012. Archived from the original on 20 May 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- Mishra, Nivedita (20 March 2015). "36 Vayathinile: Watch Jyothika's emotional journey to self discovery". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- Dhananjayan, G. (2011). The Best of Tamil Cinema, 1931 to 2010: 1977–2010. Galatta Media. ISBN 978-81-921043-0-0.
- Dhananjayan, G. (2014). Pride of Tamil Cinema: 1931 to 2013. Blue Ocean Publishers. ISBN 978-93-84301-05-7.
- Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen, Paul (2014) . Encyclopaedia of Indian Cinema. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-57958-146-6.
- Ramachandran, Naman (2014) . Rajinikanth: The Definitive Biography (2nd ed.). Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-81-8475-796-5.