A sticheron (Greek: στιχηρόν "set in verses"; plural: stichera; Greek: στιχηρά) is a hymn of a particular genre that has to be sung during the morning (Orthros) and evening service (Hesperinos) of the Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite.
Stichera are usually sung in alternation with or immediately after psalm or other scriptural verses. These verses are known as stichoi (sing: stichos), but sticheraric poetry usually follows the hexameter and is collected in an own book called sticherarion (Greek: στιχηράριον). A sticherarion is a book containing the stichera for the morning and evening services throughout the year, but chant compositions in the sticheraric melos can also found in other liturgical books like the Octoechos or the Anastasimatarion, or in the Anthology for the Divine Liturgy.
The sticheraric melos and the troparion
In the current traditions of Orthodox Chant, the sticherarion as a hymn book was also used to call a chant genre sticheraric melos, which is defined by its tempo and its melodic formulas according to the eight modes of the Octoechos. Although the hymns of the sticherarion have to be sung in the same melos, there is no direct relation with the poetic hymn genre, because its musical definition rather follows the practice of psalmody. Today the sticheraric melos as opposed to the troparic melos are two different cycles of the Octoechos.
In the past they had been closer related by the practice of psalmody, and a troparion which is nothing else than a refrain sung with psalmody, might become a more elaborated chant from a musical point of view, so that it is sung thrice without the psalm verses, but with the small doxology. The troparion in its melodic form tends to move towards the sticheraric or even papadic melos, and this way, it becomes an own chant genre by itself.
The sticheron and its musical settings
Christian Troelsgård described the sticheron quite similar to the troparion and regarded the sticheron as a subcategory, only that a sticheron as an intercalation of psalmody, has been longer as a poem than a troparion, thus it had been chanted without repetitions of its text, but in sections. There had been a lot of stichera, but the book sticherarion was a rather dislocated collection of stichera from different local traditions and their singer-poets. It was obviously not used on a pulpit during celebrations, but rather an exercise book with various examples which could be studied for own compositions with similar accentuation patterns.
Concerning this paradigmatic use of notation the musical setting of a sticheron, the sticherarion had been mainly a collection of idiomela which had to be understood as individual compositions for a certain sticheron poem, although the melodic patterns could be rather classified according to one of the eight or ten modes (echos or glas) of the Hagiopolitan Octoechos. The reference to it is given by the modal signatures, especially the medial signatures written within notation, so the book sticherarion constituted the synthetic role of its notation (Byzantine round notation), which integrated signs taken from different chant books during the 13th century.
But there was as well the practice of using certain stichera as models (avtomela) to compose other poems (prosomoia), similar to the heirmos. This classification became even more complex by the translation of the hymn books into Slavonic, which forced the kanonarches, responsible for the preparation of the services, to adapt the music of a certain avtomelon to the translated prosomoia and the prosody of the Slavonic language, in certain cases the adaptation needed a musical recomposition of the prosomoion. In practice, the avtomela as well as the prosomeia are often omitted in the books of the sticherarion, they rather belonged to an oral tradition, since the avtomela were known by heart. Often the prosomoia had been written apart before the Octoechos part of Sticherarion, which was usually not organised according the eight modes unlike the Great Oktoechos.
Since John Koukouzeles and other contemporary scribes who revised the sticheraria, there was development from the traditional sticheron, sung by a whole congregation or community, to a rather representative and elaborated performance by a soloist. Manuel Chrysaphes regarded John Koukouzeles as the inventor of the "embellished sticheron" (sticheron kalophonikon), but he emphasized that he always followed step by step the model, as it has been written down in sticherarion. Especially in the kalophonic genre, a systematic collection of compositions by Constantinopolitan maistores, made after the menaion of sticherarion, could already grow, as one part of the sticherarion kalophonikon, to a volume about 1900 pages, an expansion in chant which could be hardly performed during celebrations of any cathedral of the Empire.
History of the notated chant book Sticherarion
During the reform of the 17th century the book Sticherarion had been replaced by the Doxastarion, called after the main genre of the former book, the doxastikon: the sticheron which was introduced by both or one of the two stichoi of Δόξα πατρὶ, but it followed the same compositions written down in the old Sticherarion. During the 18th century the repertoire was created which had been printed as Doxastarion since 1820. It was based on transcriptions of the hyphos, short versions created by the generation of Ioannes Trapezountios and Daniel the Protopsaltes who had recomposed the traditional melodies. The hyphos was supposed to abridge the traditional melos in the school of Manuel Chrysaphes, as it had been delivered by 17th-century composers like Panagiotes the New Chrysaphes and Germanos of New Patras. They had grown very long, obviously under influence of the kalophonic method to do the thesis of the sticheraric melos, but also by a hybridisation of the great signs during the traditional thesis of the sticheric melos. Between the 1820 and 1841, the abridged Doxastarion had been published in 3 versions: the "Doxastarion syntomon" of Petros Peloponnesios (1820), the "Doxastarion argon" of Iakovos the Protoposaltes (1836), and the "Doxastarion argosyntomon" of Konstantinos the Protopsaltes (1841).
The medieval Sticherarion had been divided into four books, which also existed as separated books of their own: the Menaion, the Pentekostarion, the Triodion, and the Octoechos. These books of the Sticherarion were created during the Studites reform between the 9th and the 10th centuries, its repertoire was completed until the 11th century, but until the 14th century the whole repertoire had been reduced among scribes who changed and unified the numerous redactions. The 10th-century reform already defined the gospel lectures and the doxastika connected with them. The oldest copies can be dated back to the 10th and 11th centuries, and like the Heirmologion the Sticherarion was the one of the first hymn books, which was entirely provided with musical notation (Palaeo Byzantine neumes). But the complete form still appeared in the time of the 14th-century reform, which had been notated in Middle Byzantine neumes.
The genre sticheron already existed since centuries, it can be traced back to Tropologia written during the 6th century, but the repertoire as it can be reconstructed by Georgian Iadgari Tropologion seems to be different from the Byzantine redaction which was based on the Tropologion of Antioch and later expanded by the hymnographers of Mar Saba (Jerusalem). The book Tropologion was still used until the 12th century and it also contains the canons of the Heirmologion. Originally the Heirmologion and Sticherarion were created as notated chant books during the 10th century.
The parts and cycles of the book sticherarion
The stichera idiomela are commonly written in two liturgical year cycles, the immobile one or sanctoral, and the mobile one between Great Lent and Pentecost. Usually this collection of idiomela consists of three books, the menaion for the immobile cycle and two books called triodion and pentecostarion for the mobile cycle:
- Menaion ("book of the months") contains all hymns of the immobile monthly cycle beginning with September end ending with August. These are hymns dedicated to particular saints commemorated according to the calendar day of the year.
- Triodion contains hymns chanted during Great Lent, beginning with the Sunday of Pharisee and the Publican ten weeks before Easter and ending with the Holy week preceding Easter or with Palm Sunday. It has a huge collection of stichera prosomoia as well.
- Pentecostarion contains hymns chanted during the Paschal Season, beginning with the hesperinos of the Resurrection feast or Monday of the Holy Week until All Saints' Sunday which follows the Sunday of Pentecost.
The old sticherarion had even a fourth book which contained the hymns of a third regularly repeated cycle. It was usually the abridged form which only contained the hymns of Saturday hesperinos preceding the orthros and divine liturgy on Sunday. In most of the Orthodox rites the octoechos meant a cycle of eight weeks which opened with the four kyrioi echoi (each echos per week) and continued with the plagioi echoi. Sometimes the sticherarion also had a separated collection of notated stichera prosomoia preceding the book Octoechos, while the Octoechos contained the best known hymns called stichera avtomela which also served as model for the prosomoia. Originally many of them were even notated quite late, since the singers knew them by heart. The early form was quite short and not yet divided into eight parts accordig to the eight echoi of the weekly cycle.
- Octoechos contains either the hymns for each Saturday or those for each day of the week (Great Octoechos), set to the eight echoi. Using one echos or glas for each week, the entire cycle takes eight weeks to complete. This part of the sticherarion became soon an own book, in certain traditions this separated book also included the odes of the canon—the hymns of the book Heirmologion.
Cycles of the book Octoechos
Examples of different liturgical contexts where stichera are commonly used include:
- Hesperinos (the evening office of the Canonical Hours)
- Orthros (the morning office)
Types of stichera
- A sticheron that follows the words, "Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit" is called a doxastichon.
- A sticheron that is dedicated to the Theotokos is called "sticheron dogmatikon" or "theotokion."
- Theotokia normally follow the last words of the small doxology "Both now and ever, and unto the ages of ages amen."
- Those theotokia that come by the end of Κύριε ἐκέκραξα or Господи, воззвахъ к'тєбѣ ("Lord, I Have Cried", Ps 140.1) during Vespers on Saturday night, Friday night and the eves of most Feast Days are called "dogmatika, because their texts deal with the dogma of the Incarnation.
- The aposticha are a type of stichera which differ from the norm with respect, that they precede their stichos (psalm verse) rather than they follow it.
- Avtomelon, Prosomoia
- Debates about the Sticheraric Melos
- Hagiopolitan Octoechos
- Matins Gospel
- Oktoechos mega
- Sticheraric troparia which are sung during the Divine Liturgy, are for instance all genres of the trisagion. The trisagion alternates with its substitutes like the baptism hymn or the troparion for Good Friday (τὸν σταυρὸν σοῦ). Also other genres like cherubikon and koinonikon were originally troparia used during psalm recitation.
- Christian Troelsgård (2001).
- The stichera prosomoia created over the model of an existing sticheron avtomelon, were later added to the books of the sticherarion (Husmann 1972). The composition of the book Triodion by the generation of Theodore the Studite was basically a prosomoia collection, composed over the melodies of avtomela, but also of idiomela.
- Christian Troelsgård regarded this collection as not locally focussed, because the collections in different sticheraria have so much in common, that he identified in the footsteps of Oliver Strunk and Bjarne Schartau these idiomela with numbers of the standard abridged version (SAV).
- About the modal signatures in Byzantine round notation, see Raasted (1966).
- H.J.W. Tillyard (1940, XII) argued that this custom to omit the prosomoia can be explained that they were later added to the book, since they had been created later than the rest of the hymn repertoire. On the other hand, Irina Shkolnik (1998) argued that the oral tradition of prosomoia and their avtomela was closer to the local tradition of a monastery, so there was for a long period no need to write it down unlike the more complex idiomela.
- Nina-Maria Wanek (2013) discussed in her systematic analysis of the August part of the Menaion, what was really Koukouzeles' role concerning the contemporary redaction of the sticheraria. Maria Alexandru (2000, 2007) made a comparative analysis of the musical settings of a few selected stichera as they had been created during the centuries.
- Maria Alexandru (2011).
- For instance a Sticherarion kalophonikon or Menaion kalophonikon by Gabriel of Yeniköy (Berlin, State Library, Mus. ms. 25059). The kalophonic composition of sticheron for St. Peter τῷ τριττῷ τῆς ἐρωτήσεως by Nikolaos Kampanes and John Koukouzeles has been analysed by Oliver Gerlach (2009).
- Nina-Maria Wanek (2013).
- For a catalogue which shows, how the great signs themselves added something to the stichera during the 16th century, see Flora Kritikou (2013).
- Already the triodion of the Leimonos monastery in Lesvos which was only in parts notated with Coislin neumes, had been one of the four books of the contemporary Sticherarion.
- Svetlana Poliakova (2009).
- Christian Troelsgård (2001).
- The manuscript NkS 4960 of the Royal Library at Copenhagen as well as manuscript A139 supp. of the Ambrosian Library of Milan, written by Athanasios of Constantinople in 1341, are sticheraria according to the revision of "John Koukouzeles" (Raasted 1995) and they both contain all four books.
- See Frøyshov (2000, 2012) and Nikiforova (2013).
- According to Gerda Wolfram (New Grove) the oldest Sticheraria were notated collections of Idiomela and discovered in the library of the Great Lavra on the Mount Athos and can be dated back to the 10th (Ms. γ.12, γ.67 is the only with an octoechos) and 11th century (γ.72, γ.74). The oldest notation used was theta notation, later replaced by Chartres and Coislin notation. The oldest Slavonic sticherarion dates back to the 12th century and has adiastematic sematic notation. It was discovered in the library of the Hilandar Monastery (Ms. 307).
- The early Prosomoia composed by Theodore the Studites for the evening service during Lenten period which belong to the book Triodion (Husmann 1972, 216-231). These prosomoia are not composed over stichera avtomela, but over stichera ideomela, especially compositions dedicated to martyres.
- See the collection of prosomoia in the Sticherarion of the Pantokratoros monastery (GB-Ctc Ms. B.11.17, ff. 282–294).
- See for instance the octoechos part of the sticherarion of Copenhagen: stichera anastasima (f. 254r), alphabetika (f. 254v), anavathmoi and stichera anatolika (f. 255v), stichera heothina (f. 277v), dogmatika (f. 281v) and staurotheotikia (f. 289r).
Palaeobyzantine notation (10th–13th century)
- "Lesbos, Library of the Leimonos Monastery, Ms. Lesbiacus Leimonos 31". Triodion of the Leimonos Monastery, parts with Coislin notation (12th century). Lesvos: Leimonos Monastery. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- "Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, fonds grec, Ms. 356". Menaion fragment (October-July) written in developed Coislin notation (about 1200).
- "Mount Sinai, St. Catherine's Monastery, Ms. syr. 261". Syriac Sticherarion written in Coislin Notation from Saint Catherine's Monastery (13th century). Retrieved 15 August 2012.
Middle Byzantine notation (13th–19th century)
- "Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, fonds grec, Ms. 355". Complete Menaion with Middle Byzantine notation (ff. 7r-326v) of the Sticherarion with various additions at the end and at the beginning (13th century).
- "Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, fonds grec, Ms. 265". Incomplete Sticherarion (parts replaced later) with Menaion, Triodion with Prosomoia, Pentekostarion, and Oktoechos (13th century).
- "Copenhagen, Det kongelige Bibliotek, Ms. NkS 4960, 4°". Complete Sticherarion with Menaion, Triodion, Pentekostarion, and Oktoechos (14th century). Retrieved 31 October 2012.
- "Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, fonds grec, Ms. 261". Complete Sticherarion with Byzantine Round notation of Cyprus (Menaion ff. 1r-139r; Triodion ff. 141r-179r; Ἀκολουθία τῶν παθῶν ff. 179r-196v; Pentekostarion ff. 196v-218r) and Oktoechos with stichera prosomoia (14th century with later palimpsests around the stichera heothina).
- "Rome, Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, Cod. Ottob. gr. 380". Complete Sticherarion with Menaion, Triodion, Pentekostarion, and Oktoechos with prosomoia (late 14th century).
- "Bucharest, Bibliotheca Academiei Române, Ms. gr. 953". Complete Sticherarion with Menaion, Triodion, Pentekostarion, and Oktoechos (c. 1400).
- "Cambridge, Trinity College, Ms. B.11.17". Complete Sticherarion with Menaion, Triodion, Pentekostarion and Oktoechos with Prosomoia of the Athonite Pantokrator Monastery (c. 1400).
- "Bologna, Biblioteca del Liceo Musicale, Ms. P.147 (olim Cod. 155)". Triodion of the Old Sticherarion, partly damaged - Cod. 155 of Padre Martini's Manuscript Collection (16th century). Bologna: Museo internazionale e Biblioteca della musica di Bologna. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- Petros Peloponnesios. "University of Birmingham, Cadbury Research Library, Ms. Mingana Gr. 7". Doxastarion syntomon (Menaion, Triodion and Pentekostarion) copied by Anastasios Proikonesios (18th century).
- Petros Peloponnesios; Petros Byzantios. "London, British Library, Ms. Add. 17718". Anastasimatarion and Doxastarion (about 1800). British Library. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- Georgios of Crete (1790s). "Δοξαστάριο Ιακώβου Πρωτοψάλτου (πρωτότυπο, παλαιά γραφή)". Kozan: Κοβεντάρειος Δημοτική Βιβλιοθήκη. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
Chrysanthine notation (since 1814)
- "Argostoli, Corgialenios Library, Collection Michael Raze, Ms. 87". Sticherarion of Panagiotes the New Chrysaphes (1820). Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- Petros Peloponnesios the Lampadarios (1820). Ephesios, Petros Manuel, ed. Σύντομον δοξαστάριον του αοιδίμου Πέτρου Λαμπαδαρίου του Πελοποννησίουν: Μεταφρασθέν κατά την νέαν μέθοδον της Μουσικής των Μουσικολογιωτάτων Διδασκάλων του νέου Συστήματος (PDF). Bucharest.
- Iakovos the Protopsaltes (1836). Chourmouzios Chartophylakos, ed. Δοξαστάριον περιέχον τα δοξαστικά όλων των δεσποτικών, και θεομητορικών εορτών, των τε εορταζομένων αγίων του όλου ενιαυτού, του τε Τριωδίου και Πεντηκοσταρίου, μελοποιηθέν παρά Ιακώβου Πρωτοψάλτου της του Χριστού Μεγάλης Εκκλησίας. Εξηγηθέν απαραλλάκτως εις την Νέαν της Μουσικής Μέθοδον παρά Χουρμουσίου Χαρτοφυλακός. 1–2. Istanbul: Isaac De Castro.
- Konstantinos the Protopsaltes (1841). Stephanos the Domestikos, ed. Δοξαστάριον περιέχον τα δοξαστικά όλων των δεσποτικών και θεομητορικών εορτών των τε εορταζομένων αγίων του όλου ενιαυτού του τε Τριωδίου και Πεντηκοσταρίου μελοποιηθέν παρά Κωνσταντίνου Πρωτοψάλτου της του Χριστού Μεγάλης Εκκλησίας. Εξηγηθέν απαραλλάκτως εις την Νέαν της Μουσικής Μέθοδον παρά πρώτου Δομεστίχου Στεφάνου. 1–2. Istanbul: Patriarchate.
- Petros Peloponnesios the Lampadarios (1899). Violakes, Georgios; Klavvas, Georgios; Navpliotes, Iakovos, eds. Το Δοξαστάριον Πέτρου Πελοποννησίου; εξηγηθέν πιστώς εκ της αρχαίας εις την καθ' ημάς γραφήν υπό του Πρωτοψάλτου της Μεγάλης του Χριστού Εκκλησίας Γεωργίου Βιολάκη. 1–2. Istanbul: publisher of the patriarchate.
- Alexandru, Maria (2000). Studie über die 'großen Zeichen' der byzantinischen musikalischen Notation unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Periode vom Ende des 12. bis Anfang des 19. Jahrhunderts (Ph.D. thesis). University of Copenhagen.
- Alexandru, Maria (2007). "«Χρυσέοις έπεστι», ένα στιχηρό του Αγίου Ιωάννου του Χρυσοστόμου στη διαχρονική του εξέλιξη: Παλαιογραφικές και αναλυτικές αναζητήσεις" (PDF). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference of the ASBMH. pp. 337–485.
- Alexandru, Maria (2011). "Byzantine Kalophonia, illustrated by St. John Koukouzeles' piece Φρούρηζον πανένδοξε in Honour of St. Demetrios from Thessaloniki. Issues of Notation and Analysis". Studii şi cercetări de istoria artei. Teatru, muzică, cinematografie. Serie novă. 49-50: 57–105.
- Frøyshov, Stig; Paul Géhin (2000). "Nouvelles découvertes sinaïtiques. À propos de la parution de l'inventaire des manuscrits grecs". Revue des études byzantines. 58 (1): 167–184. doi:10.3406/rebyz.2000.1990. ISSN 0766-5598.
- Frøyshov, Stig Simeon R. (2012). "The Georgian Witness to the Jerusalem Liturgy: New Sources and Studies". In Bert Groen, Steven Hawkes-Teeples, Stefanos Alexopoulos (eds.). Inquiries into Eastern Christian Worship: Selected Papers of the Second International Congress of the Society of Oriental Liturgy (Rome, 17–21 September 2008). Eastern Christian Studies. 12. Leuven, Paris, Walpole: Peeters. pp. 227–267.
- Gerlach, Oliver (2009). "Zur kalophonen Bearbeitung des Stichīron τῷ τριττῷ τῆς ἐρωτήσεως". Im Labyrinth des Oktōīchos – Über die Rekonstruktion mittelalterlicher Improvisationspraktiken in liturgischer Musik. Berlin: Ison. 1: 351–367. ISBN 9783000323065. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- Husmann, Heinrich (1972). "Strophenbau und Kontrafakturtechnik der Stichera und die Entwicklung des byzantinischen Oktoechos". Archiv für Musikwissenschaft. 34: 151–161; 213–234. doi:10.2307/930068. JSTOR 930421.
- Husmann, Heinrich (1975). "Ein syrisches Sticherarion mit paläobyzantinischer Notation (Sinai syr. 261)". Hamburger Jahrbuch für Musikwissenschaft. 1: 9–57.
- Kritikou, Flora (2013). "The Embellishment of a Sticherarion by Chrysaphes the Younger as a Phenomenon of Renewal of Byzantine Chant". In Gerda Wolfram, C Troelsgård. Tradition and Innovation in Late Byzantine and Postbyzantine Liturgical Chant II: Proceedings of the Congress held at Hernen Castle, the Netherlands, 30 October - 3 November 2008. Eastern Christian Studies. 17. Leuven, Paris, Walpole: Peeters. pp. 215–259. ISBN 9789042920156.
- Nikiforova, Alexandra (2013). "Tropologion Sinait.Gr. ΝΕ/ΜΓ 56–5 (9th c.): A new source for Byzantine Hymnography". Scripta & e-Scripta. International Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies. 12: 157–185.
- Poliakova, Svetlana (June 2009). "Sin 319 and Voskr 27 and the Triodion Cycle in the Liturgical Praxis in Russia during the Studite Period" (PDF). Lissabon: Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- Raasted, Jørgen (1966). Intonation Formulas and Modal Signatures in Byzantine Musical Manuscripts. Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae, Subsidia. 7. Copenhagen: E. Munksgaard.
- Shkolnik, Irina (1998). "Byzantine prosomoion singing, a general survey of the repertoire of the notated stichera models (automela)" (PDF). In László Dobszay (ed.). Cantus Planus: Papers read at the 7th Meeting, Sopron, Hungary 1995. Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences. pp. 521–537. ISBN 9637074678.
- Raasted, Jørgen (1995). Szendrej, Janka; Hiley, David, eds. "Koukouzeles' Revision of the Sticherarion and Sinai gr. 1230". Laborare fratres in unum: Festschrift in honor of László Dobszay's 60th birthday. Spolia Berolinensi. Hildesheim, Zurich: Weidmann. 7: 261–277. ISBN 3615001710.
- Tillyard, H.J.W. (1940). The Hymns of the Octoechus. MMB Transcripta. 3. Copenhagen.
- Troelsgård, Christian (2001). Dobszay, László, ed. "What kind of chant books were the Byzantine Sticherária?". Cantus planus: Papers read at the 9th meeting, Esztergom & Visegrád, 1998. Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences Institute for Musicology: 563–574. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
- Wanek, Nina-Maria (2013). Sticheraria in spät- und postbyzantinischer Zeit: Untersuchungen anhand der Stichera für August. Vienna: Praesens Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7069-0749-1.
- Wolfram, Gerda. "Stichērarion". Grove Music Online. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- Troelsgård, Christian (2003). "A handlist of the 'Standard Abridged Version' (SAV) of the Sticherarion according to Oliver Strunk".