Venice Biennale

Venice Biennale
Biennale di Venezia


it focuses on contemporary art,
and also includes events for art, contemporary dance, architecture, cinema and theatre
Frequency biennial, every two years
Location(s) Venice, Italy
Inaugurated 1895
Founder Venetian City Council
The 65th Venice International Film Festival. The Golden Lion is awarded to the best film screened in competition at the festival.
Detail of exhibition
Biennalist Giardini Main Entrance
View of "Pump Room", a work by the Hungarian artist Balázs Kicsiny at the Venice Biennale in 2005
Works at 54th Venice Biennale, special edition for the 150 Anniversary of Italian Unification, 2011–12[1]

The Venice Biennale (/ˌbɛˈnɑːl, -li/; Italian: La Biennale di Venezia [la bi.enˈnaːle di veˈnɛttsja]; in English also called the "Venice Biennial") is an arts organization based in Venice, and also the original and principal exhibition it organizes. The organization changed its name to the Biennale Foundation in 2009, while the exhibition is also called the Art Biennale to distinguish it from the organisation and other exhibitions it organizes. The Art Biennale, a contemporary visual art exhibition, is so called as it is held biennially, in odd-numbered years; is the original biennale on which others elsewhere in the world are modeled. The Biennale Foundation has a continuous existence supporting the arts, as well as organizing the following separate events:

Common name Formal name Since Frequency
Art Biennale International Art Exhibition 1895 odd-numbered years
Biennale Musica International Festival of Contemporary Music 1930
Biennale Teatro International Theatre Festival 1934
Venice Film Festival Venice International Film Festival 1934 annually
Venice Biennale of Architecture International Architecture Exhibition 1980 even-numbered years (since 2000)
Dance Biennale International Festival of Contemporary Dance 1999[2] irregularly[3]
International Kids' Carnival 2009



On April 19, 1893 the Venetian City Council passed a resolution to set up an biennial exhibition of Italian Art ("Esposizione biennale artistica nazionale") to celebrate the silver anniversary of King Umberto I and Margherita of Savoy.[4]

A year later, the council decreed "to adopt a 'by invitation' system; to reserve a section of the Exhibition for foreign artists too; to admit works by uninvited Italian artists, as selected by a jury."[5]

The first Biennale, "I Esposizione Internazionale d'Arte della Città di Venezia (1st International Art Exhibition of the City of Venice)" (although originally scheduled for April 22, 1894) was opened on April 30, 1895 by the Italian King and Queen, Umberto I and Margherita di Savoia. The first exhibition was seen by 224,000 visitors.

The event became increasingly international in the first decades of the 20th century: from 1907 on, several countries installed national pavilions at the exhibition, with the first being from Belgium. In 1910 the first internationally well-known artists were displayed- a room dedicated to Gustav Klimt, a one-man show for Renoir, a retrospective of Courbet. A work by Picasso was removed from the Spanish salon in the central Palazzo because it was feared that its novelty might shock the public. By 1914 seven pavilions had been established: Belgium (1907), Hungary (1909), Germany (1909), Great Britain (1909), France (1912), and Russia (1914).

During World War I, the 1916 and 1918 events were cancelled. In 1920 the post of mayor of Venice and president of the Biennale was split. The new secretary general, Vittorio Pica brought about the first presence of avant-garde art, notably Impressionists and Post-Impressionists.

1922 saw an exhibition of sculpture by African artists. Between the two World Wars, many important modern artists had their work exhibited there. In 1928 the Istituto Storico d'Arte Contemporanea (Historical Institute of Contemporary Art) opened, which was the first nucleus of archival collections of the Biennale. In 1930 its name was changed into Historical Archive of Contemporary Art.

In 1930, the Biennale was transformed into an Ente Autonomo (Autonomous Board) by Royal Decree with law no. 33 of 13-1-1930, Subsequently, the control of the Biennale passed from the Venice city council to the national Fascist government under Benito Mussolini. As a result of this restructure and associated financial boost, as well as the president, Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata, several new sections of the event were established including the Biennale Musica in 1930, also referred to as International Festival of Contemporary Music, the Biennale Theatro in 1934, also referred to as International Theatre Festival, and in the same year the Venice Film Festival, also referred to as Venice International Film Festival.

In 1933 the Biennale organised an exhibition of Italian art abroad.

From 1938, Grand Prizes were awarded in the art exhibition section.

During World War II, the activities of the Biennale were interrupted: 1942 saw the last edition of the events. The Film Festival restarted in 1946, the Music and Theatre festivals were resumed in 1947, and the Art Exhibition in 1948.[6]


The Art Biennale was resumed in 1948 with a major exhibition of a recapitulatory nature. The Secretary General, art historian Rodolfo Pallucchini, started with the Impressionists and many protagonists of contemporary art including Chagall, Klee, Braque, Delvaux, Ensor, and Magritte ,as well as a retrospective of Picasso's work. Peggy Guggenheim was invited to exhibit her famous New York collection, a collection that subsequently found a home at Ca' Venier dei Leoni.

1949 saw the beginning of renewed attention to avant-garde movements in European—and later worldwide—movements in contemporary art. Abstract expressionism was introduced in the 1950s, and the Biennale is credited with importing Pop Art into the canon of art history by awarding the top prize to Robert Rauschenberg in 1964.[7] From 1948 to 1972, Italian architect Carlo Scarpa did a series of remarkable interventions in the Biennales exhibition spaces.

In 1954 the island San Giorgio Maggiore provided the venue for the first Japanese Noh theatre shows in Europe. 1956 saw the selection of films following an artistic selection and no longer based upon the designation of the participating country. The 1957 Golden Lion went to Satyajit Ray's Aparajito which introduced Indian cinema to the West.

1962 included Arte Informale at the Art Exhibition with Jean Fautrier, Hans Hartung, Emilio Vedova, and Pietro Consagra. The 1964 Art Exhibition introduced Europe to Pop Art. The American Robert Rauschenberg was the first American artist to win the Gran Premio, and the youngest to date.

The student protests of 1968 also marked a crisis for the Biennale. Student protests hindered the opening of the Biennale. A resulting period of institutional changes opened and ending with a new Statute in 1973. In 1969, following the protests, the Grand Prizes were abandoned. These resumed in 1980 for the Mostra del Cinema and in 1986 for the Art Exhibition.

In 1972, for the first time a theme was adopted by the Biennale, called "Opera o comportamento" ("Work or Behaviour").

Starting from 1973 the Music Festival was no longer held annually. During the year in which the Mostra del Cinema was not held, there was a series of "Giornate del cinema italiano" (Days of Italian Cinema) promoted by sectorial bodies in campo Santa Margherita, in Venice.[8]


1974 saw the start of the four-year presidency of Carlo Ripa di Meana. The International Art Exhibition was not held (until it was resumed in 1976). Theatre and cinema events were held in October 1974 and 1975 under the title Libertà per il Cile (Freedom for Chile)- a major cultural protest against the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet.

On 15 November 1977, the so-called 'Biennale of Dissent' (International and of the USSR) opened. Because of the ensuing controversies, president Ripa di Meana resigned.

In 1979 the new presidency of Giuseppe Galasso (1979-1982) began. The principle was laid down whereby each of the artistic sectors was to have a permanent director to organise its activity.

In 1980 the Architecture sector of the Biennale was set up. The director, Paolo Portoghesi, opened the Corderie dell'Arsenale to the public for the first time'. At the Mostra del Cinema, the awards were brought back into being (between 1969 and 1979, the editions were non-competitive). In 1980, Achille Bonito Oliva and Harald Szeemann introduced "Aperto", a section of the exhibition designed to explore emerging art. Italian art historian Giovanni Carandente directed the 1988 and 1990 editions. A three-year gap was left afterwards to make sure that the 1995 edition would coincide with the 100th anniversary of the Biennale.

The 1993 edition was directed by Achille Bonito Oliva. In 1995, Jean Clair was appointed to be the Biennale's first non-Italian director of visual arts[9] while Germano Celant served as director in 1997.

For the Centenary in 1995, the Biennale promoted events in every sector of its activity: the 34th Festival del Teatro, the 46th Esposizione Internazionale d'Arte, the 46th Festival di Musica, the 52nd Mostra del Cinema.[10]


In 1999 and 2001, Harald Szeemann directed two editions in a row (48th & 49th) bringing in a larger representation of artists from Asia and Eastern Europe and more young artist than usual and expanded the show into several newly restored spaces of the Arsenale.

In 1999 a new sector was created for live shows: DMT (Dance Music Theatre).

The 50th edition, 2003, directed by Francesco Bonami, had a record number of seven co-curators involved, including Hans Ulrich Obrist, Catherine David, Igor Zabel, Hou Hanru and Massimiliano Gioni.

The 51st edition of the Biennale opened in June 2005, curated, for the first time by two women, Maria de Corral and Rosa Martinez. De Corral organized "The Experience of Art" which included 41 artists, from past masters to younger figures. Rosa Martinez took over the Arsenale with "Always a Little Further." Drawing on "the myth of the romantic traveler" her exhibition involved 49 artists, ranging from the elegant to the profane. In 2007, Robert Storr became the first director from the United States to curate the Biennale (the 52nd), with a show entitled Think with the Senses – Feel with the Mind. Art in the Present Tense. Swedish curator Daniel Birnbaum was artistic director of the 2009 edition, followed by the Swiss Bice Curiger in 2011.

The biennale in 2013 was curated by the Italian Massimiliano Gioni. His title and theme, Il Palazzo Enciclopedico / The Encyclopedic Palace, was adopted from an architectural model by the self-taught Italian-American artist Marino Auriti. Auriti's work, The Encyclopedic Palace of the World was lent by the American Folk Art Museum and exhibited in the first room of the Arsenale for the duration of the biennale. For Gioni, Auriti's work, "meant to house all worldly knowledge, bringing together the greatest discoveries of the human race, from the wheel to the satellite," provided an analogous figure for the "biennale model itself...based on the impossible desire to concentrate the infinite worlds of contemporary art in a single place: a task that now seems as dizzyingly absurd as Auriti's dream."[11]

Curator Okwui Enwezor was responsible for the 2015 edition.[12] He was the first African-born curator of the biennial. As a catalyst for imagining different ways of imagining multiple desires and futures Enwezor commissioned special projects and programs throughout the Biennale in the Giardini. This included a Creative Time Summit, e-flux journal's SUPERCOMMUNITY, Gulf Labor Coalition, The Invisible Borders Trans-African Project and Abounaddara.[13][14]

The Biennale has an attendance today of over 500,000 visitors.[15][16][17]

Artistic directors

Role in the art market

When the Venice Biennale was founded in 1895, one of its main goals was to establish a new market for contemporary art. Between 1942 and 1968 a sales office assisted artists in finding clients and selling their work,[19] a service for which it charged 10% commission. Sales remained an intrinsic part of the biennale until 1968, when a sales ban was enacted. An important practical reason why the focus on non-commodities has failed to decouple Venice from the market is that the biennale itself lacks the funds to produce, ship and install these large-scale works. Therefore, the financial involvement of dealers is widely regarded as indispensable.[7] Furthermore, every other year the Venice Biennale coincides with nearby Art Basel, the world's prime commercial fair for modern and contemporary art. Numerous galleries with artists on show in Venice usually bring work by the same artists to Basel.[20]

Central Pavilion and Arsenale

The formal Biennale is based at a park, the Giardini. The Giardini includes a large exhibition hall that houses a themed exhibition curated by the Biennale's director.

For the 2013 edition, the main exhibition's budget was about $2.3 million; in addition, more than $2 million were raised mostly from private individuals and foundations and philanthropists.[21]

Initiated in 1980, the Aperto began as a fringe event for younger artists and artists of a national origin not represented by the permanent national pavilions. This is usually staged in the Arsenale and has become part of the formal biennale programme. In 1995 there was no Aperto so a number of participating countries hired venues to show exhibitions of emerging artists.

A special edition of the 54th Biennale was held at Padiglione Italia of Torino Esposizioni - Sala Nervi (December 2011 - February 2012) for the 150th Anniversary of Italian Unification. The event was directed by Vittorio Sgarbi.[22]

National pavilions

The Giardini houses 30 permanent national pavilions. Alongside the Central Pavilion, built in 1894 and later restructured and extended several times, the Giardini are occupied by a further 29 pavilions built at different periods by the various countries participating in the Biennale. The Giardini are the property of the individual countries and are managed by their ministries of culture.[23]

Countries not owning a pavilion in the Giardini are exhibited in other venues across Venice. The number of countries represented is still growing. In 2005, China was showing for the first time, followed by the African Pavilion and Mexico (2007), the United Arab Emirates (2009), and India (2011).[24]

The assignment of the permanent pavilions was largely dictated by the international politics of the 1930s and the Cold War. There is no single format to how each country manages their pavilion, established and emerging countries represented at the biennial maintain and fund their pavilions in different ways.[23] While pavilions are usually government-funded, private money plays an increasingly large role; in 2015, the pavilions of Iraq, Ukraine and Syria were completely privately funded.[25] The pavilion for Great Britain is always managed by the British Council while the United States assigns the responsibility to a public gallery chosen by the Department of State which, since 1985, has been the Peggy Guggenheim Collection.[26] The countries at the Arsenale that request a temporary exhibition space pay a hire fee per square meter.[23]

In 2011, the countries were Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Congo, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech and Slovak Republics, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Haiti, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Mexico, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela, Wales and Zimbabwe. In addition to this there are two collective pavilions: Central Asia Pavilion and Istituto Italo-Latino Americano. In 2013, ten new participant countries developed national pavilions for the Biennale: Angola, the Bahamas, Bahrain, the Ivory Coast, Kosovo, Kuwait, the Maldives, Paraguay, Tuvalu, and the Holy See. In 2015, five new participant countries developed pavilions for the Biennale: Grenada , Republic of Mozambique, Republic of Seychelles, Mauritius and Mongolia.


List of exhibitors in the Albanian Pavilion:


In 1901, Argentina was the first Latin American nation to participate in the Biennale. In 2011, it was granted a pavilion in the Sale d'Armi, which it will restore.[27]

List of exhibitors in the Argentine Pavilion:


The original Australian Pavilion, designed by Philip Cox to be a temporary structure of fiber cement and steel,[28] was opened in 1988 at the western edge of the Giardini.[29] Italian-born Australian industrialist Franco Belgiorno-Nettis had previously lobbied so successfully that in 1988 Australia beat 16 other countries to the last site on which to build a permanent pavilion in the Giardini.[30] Cox and other generous donors gifted the pavilion to the Commonwealth Government.[31] The pavilion was not heritage protected because of its temporary status.[32] A new, permanent pavilion was designed by architectural practice Denton Corker Marshall and completed in 2015.[33] Built from concrete and steel, the two-story structure contains 240 square meters of exhibition space and the exterior is covered in black granite from Zimbabwe.[34] Meanwhile, the old pavilion was dismantled and shipped to Australia, where it will be installed at the Coldstream, Victoria estate of Melbourne restaurateur Rinaldo Di Stasio.[34]

Australia's participation at the Venice Biennale is managed by the Australia Council for the Arts. However, all of the A$6 milliom ($6.04 million) originally needed for the new building were to be raised from the private sector.[33] Eventually, the pavilion cost $7.5 million to build, $1 million of which was funded by the Australia Council for the Arts; the rest was donated by 82 private Australian donors, including actress Cate Blanchett[34] and producer Santo Cilauro.[35]

List of exhibitors in the Australian Pavilion:


Designed by Joseph Hoffmann with the collaboration of Robert Kramreiter, 1934 (restored by Hans Hollein, 1984).[29] The clear symmetrical building, conceived as a white cube from the outset, was the first Venice pavilion to have been designed by a leading Classical Modern architect. The Hoffmann pavilion was not used following the annexation of Austria by the Third Reich in 1938, nor in the subsequent Biennale years of 1940 and 1942. Austrian artists with close ties to the Nazi regime were shown in the German Pavilion.[37]

List of exhibitors in the Austrian Pavilion:


List of exhibitors in the Azerbaijan Pavilion:


Designed by Leon Sneyers, 1907 (totally restored by Virgilio Vallot, 1948).[29]

List of exhibitors in the Belgian Pavilion:


Designed by Amerigo Marchesin, 1964.[29]

List of exhibitors in the Brazilian Pavilion:


The Canadian pavilion was designed by the Milan-based architecture firm BBPR (Gian Luigi Banfi, Ludovico Barbiano di Belgiojoso, Enrico Peressutti, Ernesto Nathan Rogers) and was first used at the 1958 biennale.[29] The nation has been participating in the international exhibition since 1952.[39] The National Gallery of Canada took over the Venice selection process from the Canada Council in 2010.

List of exhibitors in the Canadian Pavilion:

Central Asia

The first Central Asian Pavilion was an initiative of Victor Miziano in 2005. The second pavilion was organized by Yulia Sorokina (Almaty) and the third by Beral Madra (Istanbul). Each of these was different in format and approach. The first one – Art from Central Asia. A Contemporary Archive – aimed at placing Central Asia on the ‘map’ of international art. Along the works of invited artists, there were many video compilations of films, performance and happenings presented by Central Asian artists from the end of the 1990s and beginning of 2000.

List of exhibitors in the Central Asia Pavilion:


List of exhibitors in the Chilean Pavilion:


List of exhibitors in the Croatian Pavilion:[42]

Czech Republic and Slovakia

Designed by Otakar Novotný, 1926 (annex built by Boguslav Rychlinch, 1970).[29]

List of exhibitors in the Czech and Slovak Pavilion:


Designed by Carl Brummer, 1932 (annex designed by Peter Koch, 1958).[29]

The Danish Arts Council Committee for International Visual Arts serves as commissioner for the Danish Pavilion at the Biennale, where Denmark has taken part since 1895.[43]

List of exhibitors in the Danish Pavilion:


Egypt was assigned a pavilion in 1952.

List of exhibitors in the Egyptian Pavilion:


The expositions at the Estonian Pavilion are regularly commissioned by the Center for Contemporary Arts, Estonia.

List of exhibitors in the Estonian Pavilion:


Designed by Alvar Aalto to be a temporary construction for the architecture biennale in 1956, the pavilion was later restored by Fredrik Fogh with the collaboration of Elsa Makiniemi, 19761982. Also used by Iceland.[29] In 2011, a big tree fell on the pavilion in Venice, effectively interrupting the Finnish exhibition in the 2011 biennale. The pavilion and the works exhibited there were damaged and the show had to be closed ahead of time. The pavilion was later restored.[46]


France will be celebrating nearly a century in its pavilion at the 2011 Venice Biennale, which was designed by Faust Finzi in 1912.[39]

List of exhibitors in the French Pavilion:


Gabon first participated in the Venice Biennale in 2009.

List of exhibitors in the Gabonese Pavilion:


List of exhibitors in the Georgian Pavilion:


The commissioner for the German contribution to Biennial is the German Foreign Ministry. On the recommendation of an advisory committee of museum directors and art experts, the ministry appoints a curator (formerly called a commissioner) responsible for the selection of the artists and the organisation of the contribution. This appointment is usually for two years in succession. The Sparkassen-Kulturfonds (culture fund) of the Deutscher Sparkassen- und Giroverband is the pavilion's main sponsor. The Goethe-Institut and, since 2013, the ifa Friends of the German Pavilion are also funders.[23]

From 1982 until 1990 the German Democratic Republic organized its own exhibitions in the former Pavilion of Decorative Art. Germany's pavilion was redesigned by Ernst Haiger and inaugurated in 1938 by the ruling Nazi government, a fact that has inspired artistic responses from some presenters.[39] It was originally designed by Daniele Donghi in 1909.[29]

List of exhibitors in the German Pavilion:

Great Britain

British Pavilion

Designed by Edwin Alfred Rickards, 1909.[29]

Since 1938 the British Council has been responsible for the British Pavilion in Venice.

List of exhibitors in the British Pavilion:


Designed by Brenno Del Giudice, M. Papandre, 1934.[29] In 1934, after the Biennale had organised a second exhibition in Athens (1993) — Greece officially took part for the first time in the Venice exhibition. The exhibitions at the pavilion are commissioned by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism.

List of exhibitors in the Greek Pavilion:


Hong Kong

List of exhibitors in the Hong Kong Pavilion:


Designed by Géza Rintel Maróti, 1909 (restored by Agost Benkhard, 1958).[29]

List of exhibitors in the Hungarian Pavilion:


In 1984, as Finland had joined Norway and Sweden in the Nordic Pavilion, Iceland was given the opportunity to rent the Finnish pavilion until 2006.[29] The Icelandic Art Center commissions the Icelandic Pavilion at the Venice Biennale.[52]

List of exhibitors in the Icelandish Pavilion:[53]


In 2011, India was represented for the first time after 116 years, with the support of the culture ministry and the organizational participation of the Lalit Kala Akademi.[39] Biennale organizers had reportedly invited the country in past years, but the government had declined, a decision attributed to a lack of communication between the culture ministry and the country's National Gallery of Modern Art.[39]


In 2011, Iraq returned to the Biennale for the first time after a 35-year absence. The title of the Iraq Pavilion was "Acqua Ferita" (translated as "Wounded Water"). Six Iraqi artists from two generations interpreted the theme of water in their works, which made up the exhibition.


List of exhibitors in the Irish Pavilion:


Designed by Zeev Rechter, 1952 (modified by Fredrik Fogh, 1966).[29] Somewhat unusual in the Giardini, the pavilion has three exhibition floors.

Partial list of exhibitors at the Israeli Pavilion:


"Palazzo Pro Arte": Enrico Trevisanato, façade by Marius De Maria and Bartholomeo Bezzi, 1895; new façade by Guido Cirilli, 1914; "Padiglione Italia", present façade by Duilio Torres, 1932. The pavilion has a sculpture garden by Carlo Scarpa, 1952 and the "Auditorium Pastor" by Valeriano Pastor, 1977.[29]

Partial list of exhibitors at the Italian Pavilion:


Designed by Takamasa Yoshizaka, 1956.[29] Japan has the longest history at the Venice Biennale compared to any other Asian nation.

List of exhibitors in the Japanese Pavilion:

Republic of Kosovo

List of exhibitors in the Kosovo Pavilion:


List of exhibitors in the Kuwait Pavilion:


Lebanon was present at the Biennale for the first time in 2007.[61] After being absent in 2009 and 2011, it is coming back in 2013.[62]


List of exhibitors in the Lithuanian Pavilion:


The Cà del Duca, situated on the Canale Grande, has been the permanent site for Luxembourg's participations in the Venice Biennale since 1999.

List of exhibitors in the Luxembourg Pavilion:


List of exhibitors in the Macao Pavilion:


List of exhibitors in the Republic of Macedonia Pavilion:


The Maldives Pavilion was introduced in 2013.[63] List of exhibitors in the Maldives Pavilion:


The Mexican Pavilion as introduced for the first time in 1950 with the participation of the Muralists: David Alfaro Siqueiros, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco and Rufino Tamayo. For this participation, David Alfaro Siqueiros was awarded the 1st price to foreign artists. The national participation was interrupted until 2007. The exhibitors that have represented the pavilion are:


The Mongolia Pavilion was introduced for the first time in 2015 with the participation of artists Unen Enkh and Enkhbold Togmidshiirev. The Pavilion was commissioned by Gantuya Badamgarav, curated by Uranchimeg Tsultem and organized by Mongolian Contemporary Art Support Association.

List of exhibitors in the Mongolia Pavilion:


In 1914, the Swedish Pavilion, designed by Gustav Ferdninand Boberg, was handed over to the Netherlands. In 1954 the Dutch pavilion was demolished and reconstructed on the same site, designed by Gerrit Thomas Rietveld in 1954.[29]

Since 1995, the Mondriaan Foundation has been responsible for the Dutch entry at the Biennale di Venezia, appointing a curator for each entry.

Dutch artists and curators of previous editions:

New Zealand

List of exhibitors in the New Zealand Pavilion:

The Nordic Countries

Designed by Sverre Fehn, 1962 (small annex built by Fredrik Fogh, 1987).[29]

The cooperation between Finland, Norway and Sweden in Venice was initiated in 1962 after the completion of the Nordic Pavilion. Until 1984, the representation of each country was organized nationally.[65] From 1986 to 2009 the pavilion was commissioned as a whole, with the curatorial responsibility alternating between the collaborating countries. From 2011 the cooperation has been temporarily discontinued. In a trial period lasting from 2011 until 2015, the pavilion was used for a national presentation: Sweden in 2011, Finland in 2013, and Norway in 2015.[66]

List of exhibitors in the Nordic Pavilion:[67]

Northern Ireland

List of exhibitors in the Northern Ireland Pavilion:


List of exhibitors in the Philippines Pavilion:


List of exhibitors in the Polish Pavilion:


Romania owns a National Pavilion in the Giardini since 1938, bought from the Italian state when the Venice Pavilion (built in 1932, architect Brenno Del Giudice) was enlarged.[70] The interior was planned under the attention of Nicolae Iorga. It was initially designed as an art salon with three rooms (the main, tall show room being flanked by two smaller ones) and it stayed like that until 1962, when the walls were demolished, uniting the three rooms into one single salon. The initial architecture was recreated in 2015, albeit temporarily, by architect Attila Kim for Adrian Ghenie's Darwin's Room. Since 1997, the Romanian Institute for Culture and Research in Humanities (also known as Casa Romena di Venezia, based in Palazzo Correr) has hosted intermittently parallel exhibitions representing Romania at the Venice Biennale.

Detailed list of Romanian participations:[71]


Designed by Alexey Shchusev in 1914. In 1922, 1938—1954, and 1978—1980 pavilion was closed. In both 1926 and 1936 Russian pavilion hosted exhibition of Italian Futurism curated by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti.

List of exhibitors in the Russian Pavilion:

San Marino

List of exhibitors:[73]


List of exhibitors in the Scottish Pavilion:


List of exhibitors in the Serbian Pavilion:


List of exhibitors in the Singapore Pavilion:

South Africa

South Korea

Designed by Seok Chul Kim and Franco Mancuso, 1995.[29]

South Korea has participated in the Venice Biennale since 1995.[78]

List of exhibitors in the South Korean Pavilion:


Designed by Javier de Luque, 1922 (façade restored by Joaquin Vaquero Palacios, 1952).[29]

List of exhibitors in the Spanish Pavilion:


Pavillon designed by Bruno Giacometti, 1952.[29] Between 1990 and 2009, Switzerland also used the San Stae church as exhibition venue. From 1932 until 1952 Switzerland had another pavilion, designed by Brenno Del Giudice on the island Sant'Elena.

As of 2012, Pro Helvetia has assumed responsibility for the Swiss contributions to the Venice Biennale.

List of exhibitors in the Swiss Pavilion:


In 2013, Turkey signed a 20-year lease for a national pavilion at the Venice Biennale. The state-funded Istanbul Foundation for Culture and Arts is be the co-ordinator of the Turkish pavilion.[82]

List of exhibitors in the Turkish Pavilion:


Despite the cost to the third world country, Tuvalu decided to develop its first national pavilion in 2013 to highlight the negative effects of global warming on the nation, which is forecast to be one of the first countries to disappear due to sea level rise caused by climate change.[85] After working closely with Taiwanese eco artist Vincent J.F. Huang at the 2012 UNFCCC COP18 session in Doha, Qatar and collaborating with the artist on several occasions, Tuvalu's government invited Huang to act as the representative artist for the pavilion.[85] All of the artworks at the 2013 Tuvalu Pavilion focused on climate change and included In the Name of Civilization, a giant oil rig turned agent of destruction, and Prisoner's Dilemma, a depiction of the Statue of Liberty kneeling in apology to ghostly portraits of terra-cotta penguins symbolic of ecological sacrifices made to further the development of human civilization.[86]

List of exhibitors for the Tuvalu Pavilion:


The PinchukArtCentre sponsored Ukraine’s pavilions in 2007, 2009 and 2015.[25]

List of exhibitors in the Ukrainian Pavilion:

United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates' Venice pavilion first opened in 2009, but 2015 was the first time an Emirati has served as curator.

List of exhibitors in the UAE Pavilion:

United States

The United States Pavilion at the Venice Biennale was constructed in 1930[88] by the Grand Central Art Galleries, a nonprofit artists' cooperative established in 1922 by Walter Leighton Clark together with John Singer Sargent, Edmund Greacen, and others.[89] As stated in the Galleries' 1934 catalog, the organization's goal was to "give a broader field to American art; to exhibit in a larger way to a more numerous audience, not in New York alone but throughout the country, thus displaying to the world the inherent value which our art undoubtedly possesses."[90]

In 1930 Walter Leighton Clark and the Grand Central Art Galleries spearheaded the creation of the U.S. Pavilion at the Venice Biennale.[91][92] The pavilion's architects were William Adams Delano, who also designed the Grand Central Art Galleries, and Chester Holmes Aldrich. The purchase of the land, design, and construction was paid for by the galleries and personally supervised by Clark. As he wrote in the 1934 catalog:

"Pursuing our purpose of putting American art prominently before the world, the directors a few years ago appropriated the sum of $25,000 for the erection of an exhibition building in Venice on the grounds of the International Biennial. Messrs. Delano and Aldrich generously donated the plans for this building which is constructed of Istrian marble and pink brick and more than holds its own with the twenty-five other buildings in the Park owned by the various European governments."[90]

The pavilion, owned and operated by the galleries, opened on May 4, 1930. Approximately 90 paintings and 12 sculptures were selected by Clark for the opening exhibition. Artists featured included Max Boehm, Hector Caser, Lillian Westcott Hale, Edward Hopper, Abraham Poole, Julius Rolshoven, Joseph Pollet, Eugene Savage, Elmer Shofeld, Ofelia Keelan, and African-American artist Henry Tanner. U.S. Ambassador John W. Garrett opened the show together with the Duke of Bergamo.[88]

The Grand Central Art Galleries operated the U.S. Pavilion until 1954, when it was sold to the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA). Throughout the 1950s and 1960s shows were organized by MOMA, Art Institute of Chicago, and Baltimore Museum of Art. The Modern withdrew from the Biennale in 1964, and the United States Information Agency ran the Pavilion until it was sold to the Guggenheim Foundation courtesy of funds provided by the Peggy Guggenheim Collection.[93]

Since 1986 the Peggy Guggenheim Collection has worked with the United States Information Agency, the US Department of State and the Fund for Artists at International Festivals and Exhibitions in the organization of the visual arts exhibitions at the US Pavilion, while the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation has organized the comparable shows at the Architecture Biennales. Every two years museum curators from across the U.S. detail their visions for the American pavilion in proposals that are reviewed by the NEA Federal Advisory Committee on International Exhibitions (FACIE), a group comprising curators, museum directors and artists who then submit their recommendations to the public-private Fund for United States Artists at International Festivals and Exhibitions.[94] Traditionally the endowment's selection committee has chosen a proposal submitted by a museum or curator, but in 2004 it simply chose an artist who in turn has nominated a curator, later approved by the State Department.[95]


Partial list of exhibitors at the United States Pavilion:[96]


Ex-warehouse of the Biennale, 1958, ceded to the government of Uruguay, 1960.[29]

List of exhibitors in the Uruguayan Pavilion:


Designed by Carlo Scarpa, 1956.[29]

List of exhibitors in the Venezuelan Pavilion:


The Wales pavilion was introduced in 2003.[108][109]

List of exhibitors in the Wales Pavilion:


Unofficial Pavilions

As well as the national pavilions there are countless "unofficial pavilions"[120] that spring up every year. 2009 there were pavilions such as the Gabon Pavilion and a Peckham pavilion. Upcoming artists in new media showed work in an Internet Pavilion in 2011.



The Venice Biennale has awarded prizes to the artists participating at the Exhibition since the first edition back in 1895. Grand Prizes were established in 1938 and ran until 1968 when they were abolished due to the protest movement. Prizes were taken up again in 1986. The selections are made by the Board of la Biennale di Venezia, following the proposal of the curator of the International Exhibition.

Also, the Biennale names the five members of its international jury, which is charged with awarding prizes to the national pavilions.[121]

1938 to 1968

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Since 1986


On 26 July 1973, the Parliament approved the Organisation's new statute for the Biennale. A "democratic" Board was set up. It included 19 members made up of representatives from the Government, the most important local organisations, major trade unions, and a representative of the staff. The Board was to elect the President and nominate the Sectorial Directors - one each for Visual arts, Cinema, Music, and Theatre.

In 1998 the Biennale was transformed into a legal personality in private law and renamed "Società di Cultura La Biennale di Venezia". The company structure - Board of directors, Scientific committee, Board of auditors and assembly of private backers - has a duration of four years. The areas of activity became six (Architecture, Visual arts, Cinema, Theatre, Music, Dance), in collaboration with the ASAC (the Historical Archives). The President is nominated by the Minister for Cultural Affairs. The Board of directors consists of the President, the Mayor of Venice, and three members nominated respectively by the Regione Veneto, the Consiglio Provinciale di Venezia and private backers. Dance, was added to the others.

On 15 January 2004, the Biennale was transformed into a foundation.

See also


  1. Vittorio Sgarbi, Lo Stato dell'Arte, Moncalieri (Torino), Istituto Nazionale di Cultura, 2012
  2. "Dance". La Biennale di Venezia. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  3. "La Biennale di Venezia - History of Dance Biennale". Venice Biennale. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
  4. "La Biennale di Venezia - The origin". Retrieved 2014-09-29.
  5. "La Biennale di Venezia - From the beginnings until the Second World War". 2014. Retrieved September 28, 2014.
  6. "La Biennale di Venezia - From the beginnings until the Second World War". Retrieved 2014-09-29.
  7. 1 2 Velthuis, Olav (June 3, 2011). "The Venice Effect". The Art Newspaper. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  8. "La Biennale di Venezia - From the post-war period to the reforms of 1973". Retrieved 2014-09-29.
  9. Riding, Alan (June 10, 1995). "Past Upstages Present at Venice Biennale". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  10. "La Biennale di Venezia - From the '70s to the reforms of 1998". Retrieved 2014-09-29.
  11. Massiliano Gioni, Introductory Statement, Il Palazzo Enciclopedico/The Encyclopedic Palace: Short Guide. Venice: Marsilio, 2013: pp. 18 and 21.
  12. Javier Pes (December 4, 2013), Okwui Enwezor named director of the 2015 Venice Biennale The Art Newspaper.
  13. "Addendum -Okwui Enwezor" (Press release). Italy: La Biennale di Venezia. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  14. "e-flux journal at the 56th Venice Biennale" (Press release). New York: e-flux. April 23, 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  15. "The British Council and the Venice Biennale". UK at the Venice Biennale. British Council. 2013. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  16. "La Biennale di Venezia - Recent years". Retrieved 2014-09-29.
  17. Gareth Harris (November 24, 2015), Venice Biennale bows out with more than half a million visitors The Art Newspaper.
  18. "Christine Macel Appointed Artistic Director of 2017 Venice Biennale". Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  19. Adam, Georgina (June 6, 2009). "Trading places". Financial Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  20. Cristina Ruiz (June 13, 2013), Venice makes the art world go round The Art Newspaper.
  21. Carol Vogel (May 23, 2013), New Guide in Venice New York Times.
  22. "54° Edizione della Biennale di Venezia – Sala Nervi di Torino Esposizioni". 2011-12-16. Retrieved 2014-01-22.
  23. 1 2 3 4 Gareth Harris (May 15, 2013), Down but not out, European countries invest in Venice Biennale pavilions The Art Newspaper.
  24. Vogel, Carol (June 7, 2009). "A More Serene Biennale". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  25. 1 2 Farah Nayeri (May 10, 2015), Venice Biennale Pavilions for Iraq, Ukraine and Syria Reflect Strife at Home New York Times.
  26. National Pavilions La Biennale di Venezia.
  27. Hirsch, Faye (June 2, 2011). "Adrian Villar Rojas: The Last Sculpture on Earth". Art in America. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  28. Barbara Graustark (May 7, 2015), Australia's Black Box At The Biennale New York Times.
  29. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Martino, Enzo Di. The History of the Venice Biennale. Venezia: Papiro Arte, 2007.
  30. Jeremy Eccles (December 13, 2013), Banker Simon Mordant on the new Australian pavilion in Venice Financial Times.
  31. The Australian Pavilion Australia Council for the Arts.
  32. Janelle Carrigan (May 6, 2015), Australian Politics at the Venice Biennale New York Times.
  33. 1 2 Louisa Buck (June 27, 2012), Australia’s new Venice pavilion to be built with private money The Art Newspaper.
  34. 1 2 3 Nadja Sayej (May 6, 2015), Venice Biennale: Cate Blanchett and George Brandis open $7.5m Australian pavilion The Guardian.
  35. Katya Wachtel (May 6, 2015), The New Australia Pavilion Opens at the 56th Venice Biennale Broadsheet Melbourne.
  36. Dylan Rainforth (December 15, 2015), Indigenous artist Tracey Moffatt to represent Australia at 2017 Venice Biennale The Sydney Morning Herald.
  37. "The Austrian Pavilion". la Biennale 2011 Austria, Markus Schinwald, Commissioner Eva Schlegel. Federal Ministry for Education, Arts and Culture. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  38. "The pavilion of Azerbaijan — 54th international art exhibition". Retrieved 2014-01-22.
  39. 1 2 3 4 5 "ARTINFO's Comprehensive Guide to the 2011 Venice Biennale National Pavilions". ARTINFO. Louise Blouin Media. May 30, 2011. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  40. Archived June 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  41. Marsha Lederman (December 11, 2015), Vancouver-based installation artist Geoffrey Farmer to represent Canada at Venice Biennale The Globe and Mail.
  42. "Croatian Artists at Venice Biennales". Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  43. "SPEECH MATTERS — The Danish Pavilion at the 54th International Art Exhibition — la Biennale di Venezia" (PDF). Danish Pavilion. May 20, 2011. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  44. Andrew Russeth (July 2, 2014), Danh Vo Will Rep Denmark at the Venice Biennale New York Observer.
  45. Alex Greenberger (December 18, 2015), Kirstine Roepstorff Will Represent Denmark in the 2017 Venice Biennale ARTnews.
  46. Venice Biennale 2013 FRAME Foundation, Helsinki.
  47. Hannah Ghorashi (April 13, 2016), Erkka Nissinen and Nathaniel Mellors To Represent Finland at the 2017 Venice Biennale ARTnews.
  48. Victoria Stapley-Brown (May 22, 2014), Céleste Boursier-Mougenot to represent France at Venice Biennale The Art Newspaper.
  49. Kunst-Biennale Venedig: Florian Ebner kuratiert deutschen Pavillon Spiegel Online, March 27, 2014.
  50. Alex Greenberger (October 27, 2016), Anne Imhof Will Represent Germany at the 2017 Venice Biennale ARTnews.
  51. Julia Halperin (July 16, 2014), Tsang Kin-wah to represent Hong Kong at next Venice Biennale The Art Newspaper.
  52. "Role and Goals". Icelandic Art Center.
  53. A Brief Look Back: Icelandic Participation at the Venice Biennale, LIST Icelandic Art News, 28 February 2007.
  54. Aidan Dunne (January 12, 2015), The inventive and industrious Sean Lynch is a good fit for Venice Biennale The Irish Times.
  55. "The Rubberbandits to perform at the Venice Biennale".
  56. Dana Gilerman (December 13, 2006), The war changed her plans Haaretz.
  57. Alex Greenberger (June 23, 2016), Gal Weistein to Represent Israel, Egill Sæbjörnsson to Represent Iceland at 2017 Venice Biennale ARTnews.
  58. Alex Greenberger (April 25, 2016), Cecilia Alemani Will Curate Italy’s Pavilion at the 2017 Venice Biennale ARTnews.
  59. Tessa Goldsher (July 11, 2016), Takahiro Iwasaki Will Represent Japan at Venice Biennale in 2017 ARTnews.
  60. "National Works - Kuwait in Venice 2013". Nafas Art Magazine. 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  61. "Pavilion of Lebanon, Venice Biennale". Pavilion of Lebanon, Venice Biennale. 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  62. "Akram Zaatari represents Lebanon at Venice.". Biennial Foundation. 20 October 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  63. "Maldives Pavilion, Portable Nation 2013, Venice Biennale". Maldives Pavilion, Venice Biennale. 2013.
  64. Alex Greenberger (May 20, 2016), Wendelien van Oldenborgh Will Represent the Netherlands at the 2017 Venice Biennale ARTnews.
  65. Milnes, Anne, Norsk deltakelse på Venezia-biennalen (Oslo : Universitetet i Oslo, Institutt for arkeologi, kunsthistorie og numismatikk , 1996)
  66. Jonas Ekeberg. "Kunstkritikk — Slutt for det nordiske samarbeidet i Venezia". Kunstkritikk.
  67. Anne Karin Jortveit and Andrea Kroksnes (eds.): Devil-may-care : the Nordic pavilion at the 50th Venice Biennial 2003. Oslo: OCA, 2003, p. 180 ff.
  68. Maximilíano Durón (October 13, 2016), Manuel Ocampo and Lani Maestro Will Represent the Philippines at the 2017 Venice Biennale ARTnews.
  69. Alex Greenberger (October 19, 2016), Sharon Lockhart Will Represent Poland at the 2017 Venice Biennale ARTnews.
  70. Venice Biennale official website - Chronology of the National Pavilions
  71. 1907-1980: Ruxandra Juvara-Minea, Participarea României la Bienala de la Veneția (Romanian Participations at the Venice Art Biennale), Editura Vremea, Bucharest, 2000
  72. 1980-present: Catalogues of the Romanian Pavilion at the Venice Art Biennale; General Catalogues of the Venice Art Biennale
  73. "La Biennale di Venezia - National Participations". Retrieved 2016-03-05.
  74. Alex Greenberger (May 10, 2016), Rachel Maclean Will Represent Scotland at the 2017 Venice Biennale ARTnews.
  75. Alex Greenberger (January 5, 2015), Ivan Grubanov to Represent Serbia at This Year’s Venice Biennale ARTnews.
  76. NAC, "Singapore At 51st Venice Biennale 2005", Singapore At 51st Venice Biennale 2005, 3 Mar 2005
  77. Alex Greenberger (November 2, 2016), Candice Breitz and Mohau Modisakeng Will Represent South Africa at the 2017 Venice Biennale ARTnews
  78. Lee Woo-young (August 2013, 2012), Kim selected for Venice Biennale Korea Pavilion The Korea Herald.
  79. Jordi Colomer representará a España en la Bienal de Venecia El Cultural, October 14, 2016.
  80. Andrew Russeth (March 8, 2016), Philipp Kaiser Will Curate Switzerland’s Pavilion at the 2017 Venice Biennale ARTnews.
  81. Andrew Russeth (November 2, 2016), Carol Bove and Teresa Hubbard / Alexander Birchler Tapped for 2017 Swiss Pavilion in Venice ARTnews
  82. Gareth Harris (December 26, 2013), Turkey secures national pavilion at Venice Biennale until 2034 The Art Newspaper.
  83. Julia Halperin (August 5, 2014), Turkey picks Sarkis for 2015 Venice Biennale The Art Newspaper.
  84. Robin Scher (April 26, 2016), Cevdet Erek Will Represent Turkey at the 2017 Venice Biennale ARTnews.
  85. 1 2 "Tuvalu Takes Climate Threat to Venice Biennale". Australian Broadcasting Company Radio Australia.
  86. Tuvalu Pavilion, ed., Tuvalu Pavilion: 55th International Art Exhibition-la Biennale di Venezia, Taipei: Xin Chuan Cultural Foundation
  87. Laura van Straaten (January 27, 2015), UAE announces group show with 14 artists for its Venice pavilion The Art Newspaper.
  88. 1 2 3 "American Art Show Opened at Venice", New York Times, May 5, 1930
  89. "Painters and Sculptors' Gallery Association to Begin Work", New York Times, December 19, 1922
  90. 1 2 Grand Central Art Galleries catalog
  91. "Venice to Exhibit Art of Americans", The New York Times, March 6, 1932
  92. Vogel, Carol (August 3, 2004). "American Art Is Adrift for Biennale in Venice". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  93. "US Pavilion". Peggy Guggenheim Collection. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  94. Vogel, Carol (May 12, 2011). "War Machines (With Gymnasts)". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  95. Vogel, Carol (October 29, 2004). "Ruscha to Represent U.S. at the Venice Biennale". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  96. "La Biennale di Venezia — Chelsea Art Galleries". Retrieved 2014-01-22.
  97. Josine Ianco-Starrels (June 29, 1986), Noguchi Represents U.s. At 42nd Venice Biennale Los Angeles Times.
  98. Edward J. Sozanski (June 23, 1988), [Jasper Johns' Coup In Venice Show Organized By The Art Museum Is The Probable Hit Of The Biennale] The Philadelphia Inquirer.
  99. Carol Vogel (June 12, 1993), The Venice Biennale: An Art Bazaar Abuzz New York Times.
  100. Video Artist Is Chosen For the Venice Biennale New York Times, May 7, 1994.
  101. Carol Vogel (June 17, 1996), A Painter Is Chosen For Biennale New York Times.
  102. "MIT News", June 3, 1998.
  103. "Art Projects | The Official Website of The Finnish Author". Retrieved 2015-04-17.
  104. "MIT News", October 30, 2002.
  105. Carol Vogel (January 25, 2008), Bruce Nauman Chosen for Venice Biennale New York Times.
  106. Carol Vogel (April 15, 2014), Joan Jonas to Represent United States at 2015 Venice Biennale New York Times.
  107. Sebastian Smee (April 18, 2016), Rose Art Museum to present US representative to Venice Biennale The Boston Globe.
  108. "Cymru yn Fenis Wales in Venice 2013". Arts Council of Wales. Retrieved 2014-01-22.
  109. "British Council − British Pavilion in Venice". Retrieved 2014-01-22.
  110. Sherwin, Skye (2 March 2011). "Artist of the week 128: Bethan Huws". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
  111. "Wales - Arts - Venice Biennale - Wales at the Venice Biennale". BBC. 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2014-01-22.
  112. "Somewhere Else: Artists from Wales". e-flux. 2005-05-28. Retrieved 2014-01-22.
  113. "What's on | National Museum Wales". 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2014-01-22.
  114. "Arts Council of Wales | Paul Granjon". Retrieved 2014-01-22.
  115. "Welsh artists at Venice Biennale". BBC News. June 10, 2007.
  116. "British Council − British Pavilion in Venice". Retrieved 2014-01-22.
  117. "Wales Arts International | Wales at the Venice Biennale of Art". Retrieved 2014-01-22.
  118. Thomas, Huw (1 June 2013). "Venice Biennale: Bedwyr Williams looks to the stars". BBC News. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
  119. Alex Greenberger (May 26, 2016), James Richards Will Represent Wales at the 2017 Venice Biennale ARTnews
  120. Horan, Tom (June 8, 2009). "Venice Biennale: finding out about the now". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  121. Andrew Russeth (April 23, 2015), Venice Biennale Awards Golden Lions to El Anatsui, Susanne Ghez, Names Jury ARTnews.
  122. "Georges Braque 1882–1963". Tate.
  123. Monod-Fontaine, Isabelle. "Henri Laurens (French, 1885–1954)". Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press / MoMA.
  124. "Max Ernst 1891–1976". Tate.

Further reading

Media related to Venice Biennale at Wikimedia Commons

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/4/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.