The Ziyuan (Chinese: 字苑; pinyin: Zìyuàn; Wade–Giles: Tzu-yüan; literally: "Character Garden"; or "Essays on Chinese Characters") was a Chinese dictionary attributed to the Eastern Jin Dynasty scholar Ge Hong. The original text was lost, and the small modern Ziyuan recension has 34 headwords, mostly Chinese Buddhist loanword terminology.
塔/ta/=浮屠/futu/=浮图/futu/=佛图/futu/=数斗波/shudoupo/=兜婆/doupo/：Buddhist tower: "塔,佛堂也 [The ta is Buddhist tower]" (字苑), "作九层浮图 To build the Buddhist tower with nine levels" (水经注), "塔亦胡言, 犹宗庙也. [ta comes from languages of Hu nationalities, it means tower.]" (魏书). It was borrowed from buddhastupa of Sanskrit. The process of pronunciation change is as follows: Buddhastupa stupa tupa t’ap.
- Feng Zhiwei, "The Semantic Loanwords and Phonemic Loanwords in Chinese Language", Proceedings for 11th International Symposium, The National Institute for Japanese Language, pp. 200-229, 2004, Tokyo.
- The Origin of Pagodas, China Through a Lens