|Part of the Cold War|
Presidents Eduardo Lonardi and Pedro Aramburu, the first leaders of the post-Perón era in Argentina
|Commanders and leaders|
|Civilian Opposition, Radical Civic Union, Socialist Party, Catholic Church|
|Part of the Argentine Armed Forces||Part of the Argentine Armed Forces|
|Casualties and losses|
Part of a series on the
|History of Argentina|
The Revolución Libertadora (Spanish pronunciation: [reβoluˈsjon liβertaˈðoɾa], Liberating Revolution) was a military and civilian uprising that ended the second presidential term of Juan Perón in Argentina, on September 16, 1955.
President Perón was first elected in 1946. In 1949, a constitutional amendment sponsored by the government introduced a number of workers' rights and the possibility of presidential reelection. Perón was reelected in 1952. At the time, his administration was widely supported by the labor unions, the military and the Catholic Church.
However, economic problems, some of the government's policies and Perón's own personality cult changed this situation. The opposition criticized Perón because of his treatment of dissidents. (Writers, artists, politicians and other intellectuals were harassed and sometimes were forced into exile.) The government's relationship with the Catholic Church also worsened. As the Church increasingly distanced itself from Perón, the government, which had first respected the Church's privileges, now took them away in a distinctly confrontational fashion. By 1954, the Church was openly anti-Peronist, which also influenced some factions of the military. Meanwhile, a Christian Democratic Party was founded in 1954 after several other organisations had been active promoting Christian democracy in Argentina.
By 1955, Perón had lost the support of a large part of the military, who conspired with other political actors (members of the Radical Party and the Socialist Party, as well as conservative groups). There was turmoil in different parts of the country. On June 14, Catholic bishops spoke against Perón during a Corpus Christi procession which turned into an anti-government demonstration.
On June 16, Navy and Air Force fighters bombed the Plaza de Mayo, killing over 300 civilians and wounding hundreds more. In retaliation, extremist Peronist groups attacked and burned several churches that night, allegedly instigated by Vice-President Alberto Teisaire.
The only important political support for Perón came from the CGT (the main confederation of labor unions), which called the workers to defend the president. Perón addressed a workers' demonstration on August 31.
On September 16, a new uprising, led by General Eduardo Lonardi, General Pedro E. Aramburu and Admiral Isaac Rojas, deposed Perón and established a provisional government. For several days, there was some fighting in places like the city of Córdoba (Gen. Lonardi's central command), the Puerto Belgrano Naval Base near Bahía Blanca, another naval base in Río Santiago, and a mechanized infantry regiment in Curuzú Cuatiá, Corrientes Province.
The rebellion in Corrientes, which was initially defeated, was led by Pedro Eugenio Aramburu, who later became one of the main players of the future government. Two rebel destroyers, that were enforcing the blockade of the Río de la Plata, were strafed by loyalist aircraft and suffered some casualties. The city of Mar del Plata was subjected to naval bombardment on September 19 by the light cruiser 9 de Julio and several destroyers, and scattered skirmishes and air strikes took place elsewhere, including Buenos Aires itself.
On September 23, General Lonardi assumed the presidency and gave a speech from the balcony of the Casa Rosada, saying that there would be "neither victors nor vanquished" (ni vencedores ni vencidos, replaying a phrase uttered by Urquiza when he was victorious over Rosas at the Battle of Caseros). General Lonardi promised that the interim administration would end as soon as the country was "reorganized". His conciliatory tone earned him the opposition of hard-liners, and in November an internal coup deposed Lonardi and placed General Aramburu in the presidency.
After the Revolución Libertadora, Perón and his followers were accused of treason, and Eva Perón's remains were moved secretly to Italy and buried in a graveyard at Milan under a fake identity. Public references to Perón or his late wife, including songs, writings and pictures, were forbidden.
- (Spanish) Peronismo.
- (Spanish) Historia Argentina: Los gobiernos de Perón.
- (Spanish) Sucesos Históricos Argentinos.
- (Spanish) Civiles y militares de 1955 a 1983.
- (Spanish) La Revolución Libertadora en Internet
- (Spanish) 16 de septiembre de 1955 - Golpe autodenominado “Revolución Libertadora”
- Potash, Robert A. (1980) The Army and Politics in Argentina, 1945-1962: Peron to Frondizi Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0804710565