United States House of Representatives elections, 1806

United States House of Representatives elections, 1806
United States
April 29, 1806 - August 4, 1807

All 142 seats to the United States House of Representatives
72 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
Leader Joseph Bradley Varnum Charles Goldsborough
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Leader's seat Massachusetts-4th Maryland-8th
Last election 114 seats 28 seats
Seats won 116 26
Seat change Increase 2 Decrease 2

Speaker before election

Nathaniel Macon

Elected Speaker

Joseph Bradley Varnum

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 10th Congress were held at various dates in each state between April 29, 1806 (in New York) and August 4, 1807 (in Tennessee) with the Congress meeting for the first time on October 26, 1807.

The Democratic-Republicans continued to build on their huge supermajority. They were actually able to take over two more seats than they had in the previous Congress, which they controlled by a margin of better than three to one. Commitment to agrarian policy allowed the Democratic-Republicans to dominate rural districts, which represented the bulk of the nation. On the other hand, supporters of the Federalists, even in their traditional base of support in the urban centers of coastal New England, continued to lament the ineffectiveness of their party and its lack of electoral appeal.

Election summaries

116 26
Democratic-Republican Federalist
State Type Date Total
Seats Change Seats Change
Connecticut At-large September 15, 1806 7 0 Steady 7 Steady
Delaware At-large October 7, 1806 1 0 Steady 1 Steady
Georgia At-large October 6, 1806 4 4 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky District (6) August 4, 1806 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District (8[Note 1]) October 6, 1806 9 6 Decrease1 3 Increase1
Massachusetts District (17) November 3, 1806 17 11 Increase1 6 Decrease1
New Hampshire At-large August 25, 1806 5 5 Increase5 0 Decrease5
New Jersey At-large October 14–15, 1806 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
New York District (16[Note 1]) April 29-May 1, 1806 17 15 Steady 2 Steady
North Carolina District (12) August 15, 1806 12 11 Decrease1 1 Increase1
Ohio At-large October 14, 1806 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District (11[Note 2]) October 14, 1806 18 15 Decrease2 3 Increase2
Rhode Island At-large August 26, 1806[Note 3] 2 2 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District (8) October 13–14, 1806 8 8 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont District (4) September 2, 1806 4 2 Steady 2 Steady
1807 elections
Tennessee District (3) August 3–4, 1807 3 3 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District (22) April, 1807 22 21 Steady 1 Steady
Total 142 116
Increase2 26
House seats

Late elections to the 9th Congress

Non-voting delegates

District Incumbent First
Orleans Territory at-large[Note 4] None (District created) Daniel Clarke[Note 5]

Complete returns


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Connecticut at-large
7 seats on a general ticket
Benjamin Tallmadge Federalist 1801 (special) Re-elected Benjamin Tallmadge[Note 5] (F)
Jonathan O. Moseley (F)
Epaphroditus Champion (F)
Timothy Pitkin
Lewis B. Sturges (F)
John Davenport (F)
Samuel W. Dana (F)

Sylvanus Backus (F)
Asa Bacon (F)
John Caldwell (F)
Sylvester Gilbert (F)
Uriel Holmes (F)
Ebenezer Huntington (F)
Lyman Law (F)
Samuel B. Sherwood (F)
John Cotton Smith (F)
Nathaniel Terry (F)
Noah Webster (F)
Jonathan O. Moseley Federalist 1804 Re-elected
Previous incumbent John Cotton Smith (F) resigned August, 1806 Federalist hold
Timothy Pitkin Federalist 1805 (special) Re-elected
Lewis B. Sturges Federalist 1805 (special) Re-elected
John Davenport Federalist 1798 Re-elected
Samuel W. Dana Federalist 1798 Re-elected


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Delaware at-large James M. Broom Federalist 1805 (special) Re-elected James M. Broom (F) 60.5%
Thomas Fitzgerald (DR) 21.3%
Joseph Haslet (DR) 9.8%
Thomas Montgomery (DR) 8.3%

Broom resigned before the 10th Congress started and a special election was held to choose his replacement, which elected Nicholas Van Dyke (F).


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Georgia at-large
4 seats on a general ticket
Peter Early Democratic-Republican 1804 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Dennis Smelt (DR) 18.4%
George M. Troup (DR) 16.7%
William W. Bibb[Note 6] (DR) 15.3%
Howell Cobb (DR) 12.8%

Elijah Clarke 12.5%
William Barnett (DR) 7.2%
Thomas Carr 6.2%
James Simms 6.2%
Thomas Spalding (DR) 3.1%
Obediah Jones 1.0%
Buckner Harris 0.6%
David Meriwether Democratic-Republican 1804 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Dennis Smelt Democratic-Republican 1806 (special) Re-elected
Thomas Spalding Democratic-Republican 1804 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Kentucky 1 Matthew Lyon Democratic-Republican 1796[Note 7]
Re-elected Matthew Lyon (DR) 57.9%
David Walker (DR) 42.1%
Kentucky 2 John Boyle Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected John Boyle[Note 5] (DR)
Kentucky 3 Matthew Walton Democratic-Republican 1803 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
John Rowan (DR) 55.8%
Stephen Ormsby (DR) 44.2%
Kentucky 4 Thomas Sandford Democratic-Republican 1803 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
Richard M. Johnson (DR) 42.5%
Thomas Sandford (DR) 30.2%
James Moore 27.3%
Kentucky 5 John Fowler Democratic-Republican 1796 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Benjamin Howard (DR) 100%
Kentucky 6 George M. Bedinger Democratic-Republican 1803 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Joseph Desha[Note 5] (DR)


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates[Note 8]
Maryland 1 John Campbell Federalist 1801 Re-elected John Campbell (F) 99.9%
Maryland 2 Leonard Covington Democratic-Republican 1804 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
Archibald Van Horne (DR) 58.4%
Leonard Covington (DR) 41.5%
Maryland 3 Patrick Magruder Democratic-Republican 1801 Lost re-election
Federalist gain
Philip B. Key (F) 53.3%
Patrick Magruder (DR) 46.7%
Maryland 4 Roger Nelson Democratic-Republican 1804 (special) Re-elected Roger Nelson (DR) 96.4%
Nathaniel Rochester (Quid) 3.0%
Maryland 5
Plural district with 2 seats
Nicholas R. Moore Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected Nicholas R. Moore (DR) 44.5%
William McCreery (DR) 25.7%

Joshua Barney (Quid) 14.9%
John Scott (F) 14.9%
William McCreery Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected
Maryland 6 John Archer Democratic-Republican 1801 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
John Montgomery (DR) 50.2%
John Archer (Quid) 48.7%
Samuel Sutton 1.0%
Maryland 7 Previous incumbent Joseph H. Nicholson (DR) resigned March 1, 1806 Democratic-Republican hold Edward Lloyd[Note 6] (DR) 81.1%
James Brown (Quid) 18.8%
Maryland 8 Charles Goldsborough Federalist 1804 Re-elected Charles Goldsborough (F) 68.8%
Philip Quinton (Quid) 31.1%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates[Note 8]
Massachusetts 1
Known as the Suffolk district
Josiah Quincy Federalist 1804 Re-elected Josiah Quincy (F) 57.7%
James Prince (DR) 42.2%
Massachusetts 2
Known as the Essex South district
Jacob Crowninshield Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected Jacob Crowninshield (DR) 54.8%
Samuel Putnam (F) 45.0%
Massachusetts 3
Known as the Essex North district
Jeremiah Nelson Federalist 1804 Retired
Federalist hold
Edward St. Loe Livermore (F) 67.6%
Thomas Kitteridge (DR) 32.4%
Massachusetts 4
Known as the Middlesex district
Joseph Bradley Varnum Democratic-Republican 1794 Re-elected Joseph Bradley Varnum (DR) 74.0%
Ebenezer Bridgely (F) 25.1%
Massachusetts 5
Known as the Hampshire South district
William Ely Federalist 1804 Re-elected William Ely (F) 57.1%
Samuel Fowler (DR) 38.5%
William Eaton (F) 4.4%
Massachusetts 6
Known as the Hampshire North district
Samuel Taggart Federalist 1803 Re-elected Samuel Taggart (F) 64.4%
Solomon Snead (DR) 35.6%
Massachusetts 7
Known as the Plymouth district
Joseph Barker Democratic-Republican 1804 Re-elected Joseph Barker (DR) 60.8%
Nahum Mitchell (F) 38.4%
Massachusetts 8
Known as the Barnstable district
Isaiah L. Green Democratic-Republican 1804 Re-elected Isaiah L. Green (DR) 63.4%
Wendall Davis (F) 34.6%
Others 2.0%
Massachusetts 9
Known as the Bristol district
Phanuel Bishop Democratic-Republican 1798 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Josiah Dean (DR) 55.1%
Nicholas Tillinghast (F) 43.1%
Nathaniel Morton 1.6%
Massachusetts 10
Known as the Worcester South district
Seth Hastings Federalist 1801 (special) Retired
Federalist hold
Jabez Upham (F) 53.9%
Edward Bangs (DR) 45.4%
Massachusetts 11
Known as the Worcester North district
William Stedman Federalist 1803 Re-elected William Stedman (F) 63.6%
John Whiting (DR) 36.0%
Massachusetts 12
Known as the Berkshire district
Barnabas Bidwell Democratic-Republican 1804 Re-elected Barnabas Bidwell (DR) 59.9%
Daniel Dewey (F) 40.1%
Massachusetts 13
Known as the Norfolk district
Ebenezer Seaver Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected Ebenezer Seaver (DR) 65.3%
Edward H. Robbins (F) 34.7%
District of Maine Massachusetts 14
Known as the York district
Richard Cutts Democratic-Republican 1801 Re-elected Richard Cutts (DR) 55.9%
Joseph Leland (F) 25.8%
Joseph Bartlett (DR) 18.4%
Massachusetts 15
Known as the Cumberland district
Peleg Wadsworth Federalist 1792 Retired
Democratic-Republican gain
Daniel Ilsley (DR) 52.5%
Ezekiel Whitman (F) 47.5%
Massachusetts 16
Known as the Lincoln district
Orchard Cook Democratic-Republican 1804 Re-elected Orchard Cook (DR) 55.9%
Mark L. Hill (F) 44.1%
Massachusetts 17
Known as the Kennebec district
John Chandler Democratic-Republican 1804 Re-elected John Chandler (DR) 76.5%
John Crosby 20.6%
Benjamin Whitwell (F) 2.9%

There were two vacancies during the 10th Congress in Massachusetts' representation. The first occurred in the 12th district when Barnabas Bidwell (DR) resigned on July 13 (before the first session had begun) to accept the position of Massachusetts Attorney General. This vacancy was filled by Ezekiel Bacon (DR). The second vacancy occurred in the 2nd district when Jacob Crowninshield (DR) died April 15, 1808. This vacancy was filled by Joseph Story (DR).

New Hampshire

District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates[Note 8]
New Hampshire at-large
5 seats on a general ticket
Silas Betton Federalist 1802 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain
Jedediah K. Smith (DR) 12.2%
Clement Storer (DR) 12.1%
Peter Carleton (DR) 12.1%
Francis Gardner (DR) 12.0%
Daniel M. Durell (DR) 10.9%

Samuel Tenney (F) 7.8%
Caleb Ellis (F) 7.7%
David Hough (F) 7.6%
Thomas W. Thompson (F) 6.0%
Silas Betton (F) 6.0%
John Wheeler (F) 2.0%
Timothy Farrar (F) 1.7%
Others 2.0%
Thomas W. Thompson Federalist 1804 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain
Samuel Tenney Federalist 1800 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain
David Hough Federalist 1802 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain
Caleb Ellis Federalist 1804 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican gain

New Jersey

District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates[Note 8]
New Jersey at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Ezra Darby Democratic-Republican 1804 Re-elected William Helms[Note 9] (DR) 14.9%
Thomas Newbold (DR) 12.4%
Henry Southard (DR) 12.4%
Ezra Darby (DR) 11.9%
John Lambert (DR) 11.8%
James Sloan (DR) 11.2%

Aaron Ogden (F) 5.9%
Ebenezer Elmer (DR) 5.8%
John Beatty (F) 5.3%
George C. Maxwell (DR) 3.8%
Adam Boyd[Note 10] (DR) 3.4%
Ebenezer Elmer Democratic-Republican 1800 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
William Helms Democratic-Republican 1800 Re-elected
John Lambert Democratic-Republican 1804 Re-elected
Henry Southard Democratic-Republican 1800 Re-elected
James Sloan Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected

The Federalists ran a mixed ticket consisting of 2 Federalists (Aaron Ogden and John Beatty) and 4 Democratic-Republicans (William Helms, Ebenezer Elmer, George Maxwell, and Adam Boyd), one of whom (William Helms) was also on the Democratic-Republican ticket. The Federalists capitalized on resentment over the replacement on the official Democratic-Republican ticket of Ebenezer Elmer, from South Jersey, with Thomas Newbold from Monmouth County and the retention of James Sloan. This ticket was formed too late to gain sufficient support, but the Federalists did do much better in state elections that year than they had in previous elections.[1]

On January 27, 1808, Ezra Darby (DR) died and was replaced in a special election by Adam Boyd (DR)

New York

New York elected representatives to the 10th Congress on April 29-May 1, 1806. This was the second, and last, election in which Districts 2 and 3 were elected on a joint ticket. New York redistricted in the next election.

District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
New York 1 Eliphalet Wickes Democratic-Republican 1804 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Samuel Riker (DR) 100%
New York 2/3
joint ticket
Gurdon S. Mumford Democratic-Republican 1804 (special) Re-elected Gurdon S. Mumford (DR) 27.8%
George Clinton, Jr. (DR) 26.5%

John B. Coles (F) 22.3%
Nicholas Fish (F) 22.3%
John R. Livingston (DR) 1.0%
George Clinton, Jr. Democratic-Republican 1805 (special) Re-elected
New York 4 Philip Van Courtlandt Democratic-Republican 1793 Re-elected Philip Van Courtlandt (DR) 46.5%
Peter A. Jay (F) 41.0 %
Peter Taulman (DR) 6.5%
Samuel S. Smith (DR) 6.1%
New York 5 John Blake, Jr. Democratic-Republican 1804 Re-elected John Blake, Jr. (DR) 62.9%
Reuben Hopkins (F) 37.1%
New York 6 Daniel C. Verplanck Democratic-Republican 1803 (special) Re-elected Daniel C. Verplanck (DR) 100%
New York 7 Martin G. Schuneman Democratic-Republican 1804 Retired
Federalist gain
Barent Gardenier (F) 47.8%
William A. Thompson (DR) 34.7%
Johannes Bruyn (DR) 17.5%
New York 8 Henry W. Livingston Federalist 1802 Retired
Democratic-Republican gain
James I. Van Alen (DR) 50.1%
Robert Le Roy Livingston (F) 49.9%
New York 9 Killian Van Rensselaer Federalist 1800 Re-elected Killian Van Rensselaer (F) 46.6%
Benjamin DeWitt (DR) 32.7%
Henry Glen (DR) 20.6%
New York 10 Josiah Masters Democratic-Republican 1804 Re-elected Josiah Masters (DR) 100%
New York 11 Peter Sailly Democratic-Republican 1804 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
John Thompson (DR) 57.8%
Asahel Porter (F) 39.6%
Peter Sailly (DR) 2.6%
New York 12 David Thomas Democratic-Republican 1800 Re-elected David Thomas (DR) 100%
New York 13 Thomas Sammons Democratic-Republican 1802 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Peter Swart (DR) 69.4%
Isaac H. Tiffany (F) 30.6%
New York 14 John Russell Democratic-Republican 1804 Re-elected John Russell (DR) 67.3%
Solomon Martin (F) 33.7%
New York 15 Nathan Williams Democratic-Republican 1804 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
William Kirkpatrick (DR) 55.3%
John Nicholson (DR)44.7%
New York 16 Uri Tracy Democratic-Republican 1804 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
Reuben Humphrey (DR) 86.1%
Thaddeus M. Wood (F) 8.1%
John Cantine (DR) 3.1%
Uri Tracy (DR) 2.6%
New York 17 Silas Halsey Democratic-Republican 1804 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
John Harris (DR) 35.1%
Daniel W. Lewis (F) 33.6%
Silas Halsey (DR)
James Faulkner (DR) 1.8%

David Thomas (DR) of the 12th district resigned upon being named New York State Treasurer on February 5, 1808. A special election was held to replace him on April 26–28, 1808 which elected Nathan Wilson (DR).

North Carolina

District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates[Note 8]
North Carolina 1 Thomas Wynns Democratic-Republican 1802 (special) Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Lemuel Sawyer (DR) 64.0%
William H. Murfree (DR) 36.0%
North Carolina 2 Willis Alston Democratic-Republican 1798 Re-elected Willis Alston (DR) 100%
North Carolina 3 Thomas Blount Democratic-Republican 1793
Re-elected Thomas Blount (DR) 50.1%[Note 11]
William Kennedy (DR) 49.9%
North Carolina 4 William Blackledge Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected William Blackledge[Note 5] (DR)
North Carolina 5 Thomas Kenan Democratic-Republican 1805 (special) Re-elected Thomas Kenan[Note 5] (DR)
Benjamin Smith (DR)
Samuel Jacelyn
Alexander D. Moore
North Carolina 6 Nathaniel Macon Democratic-Republican 1791 Re-elected Nathaniel Macon (DR) 99.8%
North Carolina 7 Duncan McFarlan Democratic-Republican 1804 Lost re-election
Federalist gain
John Culpepper (F) 48.1%
Duncan McFarlan (DR) 47.2%
John Hay (F) 3.7%
James Sanders (DR) 1.0%
North Carolina 8 Richard Stanford Democratic-Republican 1796 Re-elected Richard Stanford (DR) 94.3%
Calvin Jones 2.6%
North Carolina 9 Marmaduke Williams Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected Marmaduke Williams (DR) 57.9%
Theophilus Lacy (DR) 42.1%
North Carolina 10 Evan S. Alexander Democratic-Republican 1806 (special) Re-elected Evan S. Alexander[Note 5]
Matthew Brandon
North Carolina 11 James Holland Democratic-Republican 1800 Re-elected James Holland (DR) 96.1%
Joseph Graham 3.7%
North Carolina 12 Joseph Winston Democratic-Republican 1803 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Meshack Franklin (DR) 63.1%
William Lenoir (DR) 32.5%
Peter Eaton (DR) 4.4%

In the 7th district, Culpepper's election was contested by McFarlan. The House Committee on Elections declared the seat vacant on January 2, 1808, due to electoral irregularities and a special election was subsequently held, which Culpepper won.


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates[Note 8]
Ohio at-large Jeremiah Morrow Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected Jeremiah Morrow (DR) 73.9%
James Pritchard (DR/F) 26.0%

Both candidates were Democratic-Republicans, but from election articles published in The Scioto Gazette it was suggested that James Pritchard was the candidate of the Ohio Quids and that in a few counties, notably Columbiana and Jefferson, he was also supported by the Federalists.


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates[2]
Pennsylvania 1
Plural district with 3 seats
Joseph Clay Democratic-Republican 1802 Re-elected John Porter (DR) 21.1%[Note 6]
Jacob Richards (DR) 20.7%
Joseph Clay (DR) 20.4%

William Graham (F) 18.3%
Joseph Hemphill (F) 12.7%
John Sergeant (Quid) 6.8%
Jacob Richards Democratic-Republican 1802 Re-elected
Previous incumbent Michael Leib (DR) resigned on February 14, 1806 Democratic-Republican hold
Pennsylvania 2
Plural district with 3 seats
Robert Brown Democratic-Republican 1798 (Special) Re-elected Robert Brown (DR) 18.0%
William Milnor (Quid/F) 16.8%
John Pugh (DR) 16.6%

John Hahn (DR) 16.5%
Frederick Conrad (Quid) 16.2%
William Latimore (Quid) 16.0%
Frederick Conrad Democratic-Republican 1802 Lost re-election
Federalist gain
John Pugh Democratic-Republican 1804 Re-elected
Pennsylvania 3
Plural district with 3 seats
Isaac Anderson Democratic-Republican 1802 Retired
Federalist gain
John Hiester (Quid/DR) 18.3%
Matthias Richards (Quid/DR) 18.1%
Robert Jenkins (Quid/F) 17.7%

John Whitehill (DR) 15.5%
Roger Davis (DR) 15.2%
William Witman (DR) 15.1%
Christian Lower Democratic-Republican 1804 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
John Whitehill Democratic-Republican 1802 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 2 seats
Robert Whitehill Democratic-Republican 1805 (Special) Re-elected Robert Whitehill (DR) 47.7%
David Bard 42.7%

Evers Doty (DR) 7.8%
Oliver Pollock (?) 1.8%
David Bard Democratic-Republican 1802 Re-elected
Pennsylvania 5 Andrew Gregg Democratic-Republican 1791 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
Daniel Montgomery, Jr. (DR) 57.7%
Andrew Gregg 42.3% (Quid)
Pennsylvania 6 James Kelly Federalist 1804 Re-elected James Kelly (Quid/F) 100%
Pennsylvania 7 John Rea Democratic-Republican 1802 Re-elected John Rea (DR) 52.7%
Andrew Dunlap (F) 29.7%
Henry Woods (Quid) 17.6%
Pennsylvania 8 William Findley Democratic-Republican 1802 Re-elected William Findley (DR) 100%
Pennsylvania 9 John Smilie Democratic-Republican 1792
Re-elected John Smilie (DR) 100%
Pennsylvania 10 John Hamilton Democratic-Republican 1804 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
William Hoge (DR) 62.0%
John Hamilton (Quid) 38.0%
Pennsylvania 11 Samuel Smith Democratic-Republican 1805 (Special) Re-elected Samuel Smith (DR) 55.9%
John Wilkins (Quid) 44.1%

Joseph Clay (DR) of the 1st district resigned March 18, 1808 and was replaced in a special election by Benjamin Say (DR).

Rhode Island

Rhode Island's electoral laws at the time required a candidate to receive votes from a majority of voters to win. In the 1806 election, only one candidate won a majority on the first ballot, and so a run-off election was required to choose the second seat.

District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates[Note 8]
First ballot Second ballot
Rhode Island at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Nehemiah Knight Democratic-Republican 1802 Re-elected Nehemiah Knight (DR) 26.9%
Isaac Wilbour (DR) 24.4%
William Hunter (F) 22.2%
Thomas Arnold (F) 21.8%
Thomas B. Hazard (Quid) 4.7%
Isaac Wilbour (DR) 58.2%
William Hunter (F) 41.3%
Joseph Stanton, Jr. Democratic-Republican 1800 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold

On June 13, 1808, Nehemiah Knight (DR) died. A special election was held to fill the resulting vacancy which elected Richard Jackson, Jr. (F).

South Carolina

District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1
Also known as Charleston district
Robert Marion Democratic-Republican 1804 Re-elected Robert Marion (DR) 55.6%
William L. Smith (F) 43.6%
South Carolina 2
Also known as Beaufort and Edgefield district
William Butler, Sr. Democratic-Republican 1800 Re-elected William Butler, Sr. (73.6%)
Richard B. Screven (F) 26.2%
South Carolina 3
Also known as Georgetown district
David R. Williams Democratic-Republican 1804 Re-elected David R. Williams (DR) 97.9%
South Carolina 4
Also known as Orangeburgh district
O'Brien Smith Democratic-Republican 1804 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
John Taylor (DR) 55.3%
Henry Dana Ward (F) 30.0%
Miles B. Pinkney (DR) 14.3%
South Carolina 5
Also known as Sumter district
Richard Winn Democratic-Republican 1802 (special) Re-elected Richard Winn (DR) 73.0%
Anthony Butler (F) 27.0%
South Carolina 6
Also known as Abbeville district
Levi Casey Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected Levi Casey (DR) 50.1%
John A. Elmer (F) 25.2%
Joseph Calhoun[Note 10] (DR) 24.7%
South Carolina 7
Also known as Chester district
Thomas Moore Democratic-Republican 1800 Re-elected Thomas Moore (DR) 100%
South Carolina 8
Also known as Pendleton district
John B. Earle Democratic-Republican 1803 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Lemuel J. Alston (DR) 39.7%
William Hunter (DR) 30.3%
Elias Earle (DR) 30.0%

In the 6th district, Levi Casey (DR) died February 3, 1807, before the 10th Congress began, a special election was held to elect a replacement which replaced him with Joseph Calhoun (DR)


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Tennessee 1
Known as the Washington district
John Rhea Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected John Rhea (DR) 100%
Tennessee 2
Known as the Hamilton district
George W. Campbell Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected George W. Campbell (DR) 69.3%
Pleasant M. Miller (DR) 30.7%
Tennessee 3
Known as the Mero district
William Dickson Democratic-Republican 1801 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Jesse Wharton (DR) 62.5%
James Lyon 31.2%
Spencer Clack 3.5%
Moses Fisk 2.8%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates[Note 8]
Vermont 1
Known as the Southwestern district
Gideon Olin Democratic-Republican 1802 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
James Witherell (DR) 54.1%
Jonas Galusha (F) 29.4%
Others 16.5%
Vermont 2
Known as the Southeastern district
James Elliot Federalist 1802 Re-elected James Elliot (F) 57.9%
William Hunter (DR) 32.2%
Others 9.9%
Vermont 3
Known as the Northeastern district
James Fisk Democratic-Republican 1804 Re-elected James Fisk (DR) 61.0%
William Chamberlain (F) 37.1%
Others 1.9%
Vermont 4
Known as the Northwestern district
Martin Chittenden Federalist 1802 Re-elected Martin Chittenden (F) 52.6%
Ezra Butler (DR) 43.3%
Others 4.2%

On May 1, 1808, James Witherell (DR) of the 1st district resigned to accept a position as a judge of the Supreme Court of Michigan Territory. A special election was held to fill the resulting vacancy electing Samuel Shaw (DR)


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Virginia 1 John G. Jackson Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected John G. Jackson (DR) 58.9%
Noah Linsley (F) 41.1%
Virginia 2 John Morrow Democratic-Republican 1805 Re-elected John Morrow (DR) 100%
Virginia 3 John Smith Democratic-Republican 1801 Re-elected John Smith[Note 5] (DR)
James Singleton
Virginia 4 David Holmes Democratic-Republican 1797 Re-elected David Holmes (DR) 100%
Virginia 5 Alexander Wilson Democratic-Republican 1804 (special) Re-elected Alexander Wilson (DR) 57.0%
Oliver Towles (DR) 23.4%
Robert Bailey (Quid) 19.3%
Virginia 6 Abram Trigg Democratic-Republican 1797 Re-elected Abram Trigg[Note 5] (DR)
Daniel Sheffey (Quid)
Virginia 7 Joseph Lewis, Jr. Federalist 1803 Re-elected Joseph Lewis, Jr. (F) 55.2%
John Littlejohn (DR) 44.8%
Virginia 8 Walter Jones Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected Walter Jones (DR) 86.7%
Richard Barnes (F) 13.3%
Virginia 9 Philip R. Thompson Democratic-Republican 1793 Lost re-election
Democratic-Republican hold
John Love (DR) 60.5%
Philip R. Thompson (DR) 39.5%
Virginia 10 John Dawson Democratic-Republican 1797 Re-elected John Dawson (DR) 60.0%
John Mercer (DR) 40.0%
Virginia 11 James M. Garnett Democratic-Republican 1805 Re-elected James M. Garnett (DR) 63.2%
Larkin Smith (DR) 36.8%
Virginia 12 Burwell Bassett Democratic-Republican 1805 Re-elected Burwell Bassett (DR) 100%
Virginia 13 William A. Burwell Democratic-Republican 1806 (special) Re-elected William A. Burwell (DR) 100%
Virginia 14 Matthew Clay Democratic-Republican 1797 Re-elected Matthew Clay (DR) 99.5%
Virginia 15 John Randolph Democratic-Republican 1799 Re-elected John Randolph (DR) 100%
Virginia 16 John W. Eppes Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected John W. Eppes (DR) 100%
Virginia 17 John Claiborne Democratic-Republican 1805 Re-elected John Claiborne (DR) 100%
Virginia 18 Peterson Goodwyn Democratic-Republican 1803 Re-elected Peterson Goodwyn (DR) 100%
Virginia 19 Edwin Gray Democratic-Republican 1799 Re-elected Edwin Gray (DR) 100%
Virginia 20 Thomas Newton, Jr. Democratic-Republican 1799 Re-elected Thomas Newton, Jr. (DR) 100%
Virginia 21 Thomas M. Randolph Democratic-Republican 1803 Retired
Democratic-Republican hold
Wilson C. Nicholas (DR) 100%
Virginia 22 John Clopton Democratic-Republican 1801 Re-elected John Clopton (DR) 52.4%
Peyton Randolph (Quid) 47.8%

Note: On many of these elections, the source did not have detailed information. Several individuals reported here as being elected by 100% may have had a few votes against them, but all had no formal opposition.

John Claiborne (DR) of the 17th district died on October 8, 1808. A special election was held to fill the resulting vacancy, which elected Thomas Gholson, Jr. (DR).

Non-voting delegates

As in the previous congress, there were three territories with non-voting delegates in the 10th Congress. In Indiana Territory, the legislature elected the delegate. The source used did not have information about Mississippi or Orleans Territory. Mississippi used popular election in 1808, while Orleans Territory elected its delegate by the legislature in 1808, suggesting Orleans probably used legislative election this year, too.

District Incumbent First
Result Candidates
Indiana Territory at-large Benjamin Parke 1805 Re-elected Benjamin Parke 8
John Rice Jones 1
Waller Taylor 1
Shadrach Bond 1
Mississippi Territory at-large William Lattimore 1802 George Poindexter[Note 5]
Orleans Territory at-large Daniel Clark 1806 Re-elected Daniel Clark[Note 5]

Parks resigned to accept a position on Governor's staff, replaced by Jesse B. Thomas.

See also


  1. 1 2 Includes 1 plural district
  2. Includes 4 plural districts
  3. Majority required for election which was not met for one seat requiring a runoff election
  4. Election held in 1806 near the end of the 9th Congress
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Source does not give numbers of votes or has incomplete data
  6. 1 2 3 Also won special election to fill vacancy in 9th Congress
  7. In Vermont
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Only candidates with at least 1% of the vote listed
  9. Also member of the official Federalist ticket
  10. 1 2 Won subsequent special election
  11. Victory by a 6-vote margin, 2,056-2,050



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