Judas Iscariot

This article is about the biblical figure. For the band, see Judas Iscariot (band).
"Judas" redirects here. For other uses, see Judas (disambiguation).
"Iscariot" redirects here. For other uses, see Iscariot (disambiguation).
Judas Iscariot (right), retiring from the Last Supper, painting by Carl Bloch, late 19th century

Judas Iscariot (died c. 30–33 AD) was, according to the New Testament, one of the twelve original disciples of Jesus Christ, and son of Simon Iscariot (only mentioned in John 6:71 and John 13:26). He is known for the kiss and betrayal of Jesus to the Sanhedrin for thirty silver coins.[1] His name is often used synonymously with betrayal or treason.

Though there are varied accounts of his death, the traditional version sees him as having hanged himself following the betrayal, as recorded in the Gospel of Matthew. His place among the Twelve Apostles was later filled by Matthias.

Despite his notorious role in the Gospel narratives, Judas remains a controversial figure in Christian history. Judas's betrayal, for instance, is seen as setting in motion the events that led to Jesus's Crucifixion and Resurrection, which, according to traditional Christian theology, brought salvation to mankind. Gnostic texts – rejected by the mainstream Church as heretical – praise Judas for his role in triggering humanity's salvation, and view Judas as the best of the apostles.[2]

Biblical account

Role as an apostle

A 16th-century fresco depicting Judas being paid the thirty pieces of silver
The Betrayal Peter raises his sword; Judas hangs himself. Illumination from a western manuscript, c.1504

Judas is mentioned in the synoptic gospels, the Gospel of John, and at the beginning of Acts of the Apostles. Judas was a common name in New Testament times. Judas Iscariot should not be confused with Jude Thomas (Saint Thomas the Apostle), or with Saint Jude Thaddaeus who was also one of the Twelve Apostles.

The Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke state that Jesus sent out "the twelve" (including Judas) with power over unclean spirits and with a ministry of preaching and healing: Judas clearly played an active part in this apostolic ministry alongside the other eleven.[3] Origen of Alexandria, in his Commentary on John's Gospel, reflected on Judas's interactions with the other apostles and Jesus's confidence in him prior to his betrayal.[4] However, in John's Gospel, Judas's outlook was differentiated - many of Jesus's disciples abandoned him because of the difficulty of accepting his teachings, and Jesus asked the twelve if they would also leave him. Simon Peter spoke for the twelve: "Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life", but Jesus observed then that although Judas was one of the twelve whom he had chosen, he was "a devil".[5]

Matthew directly states that Judas betrayed Jesus for a bribe of "thirty pieces of silver"[6][7] by identifying him with a kiss – "the kiss of Judas" – to arresting soldiers of the High Priest Caiaphas, who then turned Jesus over to Pontius Pilate's soldiers.

Mark's Gospel states that the chief priests were looking for a sly way to arrest Jesus. They decided not to do so during the feast [of the Passover], since they were afraid that people would riot;[8] instead, they chose the night before the feast to arrest him. According to Luke's account, Satan entered Judas at this time.[9]

According to the account in the Gospel of John, Judas carried the disciples' money bag or box (Greek: γλωσσόκομον, glōssokomon),[10] but John's Gospel makes no mention of the thirty pieces of silver as a fee for betrayal. The evangelist comments in John 12:5-6 that Judas spoke fine words about giving money to the poor, but the reality was "not that he cared for the poor, but [that] he was a thief, and had the money box; and he used to take what was put in it". However, when in John 13:27-30, when Judas left the gathering of Jesus and His disciples with betrayal in mind,[11] some [of the disciples] thought that Judas might have been leaving to buy supplies or on a charitable errand.

Death of Judas in Biblical accounts

Judas Iscariot from Tarzhishte Monastery, Strupets, Bulgaria, 16th-century fresco

There are several different accounts of the death of Judas, including two in the modern Biblical canon:

The existence of conflicting accounts of the death of Judas has caused problems for scholars who have seen them as threatening the reliability of Scripture.[17] This problem was one of the points causing C. S. Lewis, for example, to reject the view "that every statement in Scripture must be historical truth".[18]

Various attempts at harmonization have been suggested. Generally they have followed literal interpretations such as that of Augustine, which suggest that these simply describe different aspects of the same event – that Judas hanged himself in the field, and the rope eventually snapped and the fall burst his body open,[17][19] or that the accounts of Acts and Matthew refer to two different transactions.[20] Some have taken the descriptions as figurative: that the "falling prostrate" was Judas in anguish,[21] and the "bursting out of the bowels" is pouring out emotion.[22]

Modern scholars tend to reject these approaches[23][24][25] stating that the Matthew account is a midrashic exposition that allows the author to present the event as a fulfillment of prophetic passages from the Old Testament. They argue that the author adds imaginative details such as the thirty pieces of silver, and the fact that Judas hangs himself, to an earlier tradition about Judas's death.[26]

Matthew's description of the death as fulfilment of a prophecy "spoken through Jeremiah the prophet" has caused difficulties, since it does not clearly correspond to any known version of the Book of Jeremiah but does appear to refer to a story from the Book of Zechariah[27] which describes the return of a payment of thirty pieces of silver.[28] Even writers such as Jerome and John Calvin concluded that this was obviously an error.[29]

More recently, scholars have suggested that the Gospel writer may also have had a passage from Jeremiah in mind,[30] such as chapters 18:1–4 and 19:1–13 which refers to a potter's jar and a burial place, and chapter 32:6–15 which refers to a burial place and an earthenware jar.[31] Raymond Brown suggested, "the most plausible [explanation] is that Matthew 27:9–10 is presenting a mixed citation with words taken both from Zechariah and Jeremiah, and ...he refers to that combination by one name. Jeremiah 18–9 concerns a potter (18:2–; 19:1), a purchase (19:1), the Valley of Hinnom (where the Field of Blood is traditionally located, 19:2), ‘innocent blood’(19:4), and the renaming of a place for burial (19:6, 11); and Jer 32:6–5 tells of the purchase of a field with silver."[32] Randel Helms gives this as an example of the 'fictional and imaginative' use by early Christians of the Old Testament: "Matthew's source has blended Jeremiah's buying of a field and placing the deed in a pot with Zechariah's casting of thirty pieces of silver down in the temple and the purchase of the Potter's Field. The story of Judas's actions after the betrayal is one of the most revealing examples of the early Christians' fictional and imaginative use of the Old Testament as a book about Jesus."[33] Another plausible explanation comes through Charles Ryrie. "They are ascribed to Jeremiah since, in Jesus's day, the books of the prophets were headed by Jeremiah, not Isaiah as now, and the quotation is identified by the name of the first book of the group."[34]


In the Greek New Testament, Judas is called Ὶούδας Ὶσκάριωθ or Ὶσκαριώτης. "Judas" (spelled "Ioudas" (Ιούδαι) in ancient Greek and "Iudas" in Latin, pronounced yudas in both) is the Greek form of the common name Judah (יהודה, Yehûdâh, Hebrew for "God is praised"). The Greek spelling underlies other names in the New Testament that are traditionally rendered differently in English: Judah and Jude. The significance of "Iscariot" is uncertain. There are several major theories on etymology:


Betrayal of Jesus

The kiss of Judas Iscariot, coloured engraving, 15th century.

There are several explanations as to why Judas betrayed Jesus.[43] In the earliest account, in the Gospel of Mark, when he goes to the chief priests to betray Jesus, he is offered money as a reward, but it is not clear that money is his motivation.[44] In the Gospel of Matthew account, on the other hand, he asks what they will pay him for handing Jesus over.[45] In the Gospel of Luke[46] and the Gospel of John,[47] the devil enters into Judas, causing him to offer to betray Jesus. The Gospel of John account has Judas complaining that money has been spent on expensive perfumes to anoint Jesus which could have been spent on the poor, but adds that he was the keeper of the apostles' purse and used to steal from it.[48]

One suggestion has been that Judas expected Jesus to overthrow Roman rule of Israel. In this view, Judas is a disillusioned disciple betraying Jesus not so much because he loved money, but because he loved his country and thought Jesus had failed it.[49] Another is that Jesus was causing unrest likely to increase tensions with the Roman authorities and they thought he should be restrained until after the Passover, when everyone had gone back home and the commotion had died down.[50]

The Gospels suggest that Jesus foresaw (John 6:64, Matthew 26:25) and allowed Judas's betrayal (John 13:27–28).[51] One explanation is that Jesus allowed the betrayal because it would allow God's plan to be fulfilled. Another is that regardless of the betrayal, Jesus was ultimately destined for crucifixion.[52] In April 2006, a Coptic papyrus manuscript titled the Gospel of Judas from 200 AD was translated, suggesting that Jesus told Judas to betray him,[53] although some scholars question the translation.[54][55]

Judas is the subject of philosophical writings, including The Problem of Natural Evil by Bertrand Russell and "Three Versions of Judas", a short story by Jorge Luis Borges. They allege various problematic ideological contradictions with the discrepancy between Judas's actions and his eternal punishment. Bruce Reichenbach argues that if Jesus foresees Judas's betrayal, then the betrayal is not an act of free will,[56] and therefore should not be punishable. Conversely, it is argued that just because the betrayal was foretold, it does not prevent Judas from exercising his own free will in this matter.[57] Other scholars argue that Judas acted in obedience to God's will.[58] The gospels suggest that Judas is apparently bound up with the fulfillment of God's purposes (John 13:18, John 17:12, Matthew 26:23–25, Luke 22:21–22, Matt 27:9–10, Acts 1:16, Acts 1:20),[51] yet woe is upon him, and he would have been better unborn (Matthew 26:23–25). The difficulty inherent in the saying is its paradoxicality: if Judas had not been born, the Son of Man would apparently no longer do "as it is written of him." The consequence of this apologetic approach is that Judas's actions come to be seen as necessary and unavoidable, yet leading to condemnation.[59]

The Kiss of Judas's', by Giotto di Bondone

Erasmus believed that Judas was free to change his intention, but Martin Luther argued in rebuttal that Judas's will was immutable. John Calvin states that Judas was predestined to damnation, but writes on the question of Judas's guilt: "surely in Judas's betrayal, it will be no more right, because God himself willed that his son be delivered up and delivered him up to death, to ascribe the guilt of the crime to God than to transfer the credit for redemption to Judas."[60] The Catholic Church has no view on his damnation. The Vatican only proclaims individuals' Eternal Salvation through the Canon of Saints. There is no 'Canon of the Damned', nor any official proclamation of the damnation of Judas.

It is speculated that Judas's damnation, which seems possible from the Gospels' text, may not stem from his betrayal of Christ, but from the despair which caused him to subsequently commit suicide.[61] This position is not without its problems since Judas was already damned by Jesus even before he committed suicide (see John 17:12), but it does avoid the paradox of Judas's predestined act setting in motion both the salvation of all mankind and his own damnation.

Modern interpretations

The betrayal of Jesus by one of his disciples is widely regarded by scholars as authentic, based on the criterion of embarrassment: it is considered unlikely that the early church would have invented this tradition, since it appears to reflect badly on Jesus.[62]

In his 1965 book The Passover Plot, British New Testament scholar Hugh J. Schonfield suggested that the crucifixion of Christ was a conscious re-enactment of Biblical prophecy and that Judas acted with the full knowledge and consent of Jesus in "betraying" him to the authorities. The book has been variously described as 'factually groundless',[63] based on 'little data' and 'wild suppositions',[64] 'disturbing' and 'tawdry'.[65]

Bart Ehrman, though suggesting that the betrayal is "about as historically certain as anything else in the tradition", argues that what was betrayed was not the whereabouts of Jesus, but his private teachings.[66]

In his book The Sins of Scripture, John Shelby Spong says that "the whole story of Judas has the feeling of being contrived".[67] He writes: "the act of betrayal by a member of the twelve disciples is not found in the earliest Christian writings. Judas is first placed into the Christian story by the Gospel of Mark (3:19), who wrote in the early years of the eighth decade of the Common Era."[67] He points out that some of the Gospels, after the Crucifixion, refer to the number of Disciples as "Twelve", as if Judas were still among them. Comparing the three conflicting descriptions of Judas's death – hanging, leaping into a pit, and disemboweling – with three Old Testament betrayals followed by similar suicides, he suggests that these were the real source of the story.

Spong's conclusion is that early Bible authors, after the First Jewish-Roman War, sought to distance themselves from Rome's enemies. They augmented the Gospels with a story of a disciple, personified in Judas as the Jewish state, who either betrayed or handed over Jesus to his Roman crucifiers. Spong identifies this augmentation with the origin of modern Anti-Semitism.

Jewish scholar Hyam Maccoby suggests that in the New Testament, the name "Judas" was constructed as an attack on the Judaeans or on the Judaean religious establishment held responsible for executing Jesus.[68]

Role in apocrypha

Judas has been a figure of great interest to esoteric groups, such as many Gnostic sects. Irenaeus records the beliefs of one Gnostic sect, the Cainites, who believed that Judas was an instrument of the Sophia, Divine Wisdom, thus earning the hatred of the Demiurge. His betrayal of Jesus thus was a victory over the materialist world. The Cainites later split into two groups, disagreeing over the ultimate significance of Jesus in their cosmology.

Gospel of Judas

Main article: Gospel of Judas

During the 1970s, a Coptic papyrus codex (book) was discovered near Beni Masah, Egypt which appeared to be a 3rd- or 4th-century-AD copy of a 2nd-century original,[69][70] relating a series of conversations in which Jesus and Judas interact and discuss the nature of the universe from a Gnostic viewpoint. The discovery was given dramatic international exposure in April 2006 when the US National Geographic magazine published a feature article entitled "The Gospel of Judas" with images of the fragile codex and analytical commentary by relevant experts and interested observers (but not a comprehensive translation). The article's introduction stated: "An ancient text lost for 1,700 years says Christ's betrayer was his truest disciple".[71] The article points to some evidence that the original document was extant in the 2nd century: "Around A.D. 180, Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon in what was then Roman Gaul, wrote a massive treatise called Against Heresies [in which he attacked] a 'fictitious history,' which 'they style the Gospel of Judas.'"[72]

Before the magazine's edition was circulated, other news media gave exposure to the story, abridging and selectively reporting it.[53]

In December 2007, a New York Times op-ed article by April DeConick asserted that the National Geographic's translation is badly flawed: For example, in one instance the National Geographic transcription refers to Judas as a "daimon", which the society’s experts have translated as "spirit". However, the universally accepted word for "spirit" is "pneuma" — in Gnostic literature "daimon" is always taken to mean "demon".[73] The National Geographic Society responded that "Virtually all issues April D. DeConick raises about translation choices are addressed in footnotes in both the popular and critical editions".[74] In a later review of the issues and relevant publications, critic Joan Acocella questioned whether ulterior intentions had not begun to supersede historical analysis, e.g., whether publication of The Gospel of Judas could be an attempt to roll back ancient anti-semitic imputations. She concluded that the ongoing clash between scriptural fundamentalism and attempts at revision were childish because of the unreliability of the sources. Therefore, she argued, "People interpret, and cheat. The answer is not to fix the Bible but to fix ourselves."[75] Other scholars have questioned the initial translation and interpretation of the Gospel of Judas by the National Geographic team of experts.[54]

Gospel of Barnabas

Main article: Gospel of Barnabas

According to medieval copies (the earliest copies from the 15th century) of the Gospel of Barnabas it was Judas, not Jesus, who was crucified on the cross. This work states that Judas's appearance was transformed to that of Jesus's, when the former, out of betrayal, led the Roman soldiers to arrest Jesus who by then was ascended to the heavens. This transformation of appearance was so identical that the masses, followers of Christ, and even the Mother of Jesus, Mary, initially thought that the one arrested and crucified was Jesus himself. The gospel then mentions that after three days since burial, Judas's body was stolen from his grave, and then the rumors spread of Jesus being risen from the dead. When Jesus was informed in the third heaven about what happened, he prayed to God to be sent back to the earth, and descended and gathered his mother, disciples, and followers, and told them the truth of what happened. He then ascended back to the heavens, and will come back at the end of times as a just king.

This Gospel is considered by the majority of Christians to be late and pseudepigraphical; however, some academics suggest that it may contain some remnants of an earlier apocryphal work (perhaps Gnostic, Ebionite or Diatessaronic), redacted to bring it more in line with Islamic doctrine. Some Muslims consider the surviving versions as transmitting a suppressed apostolic original. Some Islamic organizations cite it in support of the Islamic view of Jesus.

Representations and symbolism

A red-haired Judas betrays Jesus with a kiss in a Spanish paso figure.

The term Judas has entered many languages as a synonym for betrayer, and Judas has become the archetype of the traitor in Western art and literature. Judas is given some role in virtually all literature telling the Passion story, and appears in numerous modern novels and movies.

In the Eastern Orthodox hymns of Holy Wednesday (the Wednesday before Pascha), Judas is contrasted with the woman who anointed Jesus with expensive perfume and washed his feet with her tears. According to the Gospel of John, Judas protested at this apparent extravagance, suggesting that the money spent on it should have been given to the poor. After this, Judas went to the chief priests and offered to betray Jesus for money. The hymns of Holy Wednesday contrast these two figures, encouraging believers to avoid the example of the fallen disciple and instead to imitate Mary's example of repentance. Also, Wednesday is observed as a day of fasting from meat, dairy products, and olive oil throughout the year in memory of the betrayal of Judas. The prayers of preparation for receiving the Eucharist also make mention of Judas's betrayal: "I will not reveal your mysteries to your enemies, neither like Judas will I betray you with a kiss, but like the thief on the cross I will confess you."

Judas Iscariot is often represented with red hair in Spanish culture[76][77][78] and by William Shakespeare.[78][79] The practice is comparable to the Renaissance portrayal of Jews with red hair, which was then regarded as a negative trait and which may have been used to correlate Judas Iscariot with contemporary Jews.[80]

In paintings depicting the Last Supper, Judas is occasionally depicted with a dark-colored halo (contrasting with the lighter halos of the other apostles) to signify his former status as an apostle. More commonly, however, he is the only one at the table without one. In some church stained glass windows he is also depicted with a dark halo such as in one of the windows of the Church of St John the Baptist, Yeovil.

In the Church of St John the Baptist, Yeovil one stained glass window depicts Judas with a black halo.

Art and literature

Judas has become the archetype of the betrayer in Western culture, with some role in virtually all literature telling the Passion story.

Cathédrale Saint-Lazare, Autun. Judas hangs himself

See also


  1. Matthew 26:14, Matthew 26:47, Mark 14:10, Mark 14:42, Luke 22:1, Luke 22:47, John 13:18, John 18:1
  2. See Gospel of Judas
  3. See Matthew 10:5-10; Mark 6:6; and Luke 9:1
  4. see Samuel Laeuchli, Origen's Interpretation of Judas Iscariot, Church History, Vol. 22, No. 4 (Dec., 1953), pp. 253–68, available at http://www.jstor.org/stable/3161779), accessed 6 April 2015.
  5. John 6:67-71
  6. These "pieces of silver" were most likely intended to be understood as silver Tyrian shekels.
  7. Matthew 26:14
  8. Mark 14:1-2
  9. "BibleGateway.com – Passage Lookup: Luke 22:3". BibleGateway. Retrieved 2008-06-21.
  10. John 12:6andJohn 13:29
  11. John 13:2, Jerusalem Bible translation
  12. Matthew 27:9–10
  13. Acts 1:18.
  14. Perseus Project: καὶ πρηνὴς γενόμενος ἐλάκησε μέσος, καὶ ἐξεχύθη πάντα τὰ σπλάγχνα αὐτοῦ
  15. Gospel of Judas 44–45.
  16. (Papias Fragment 3, 1742–1744).
  17. 1 2 Zwiep, Arie W. Judas and the choice of Matthias: a study on context and concern of Acts 1:15–26. p. 109.
  18. letter to Clyde S. Kilby, 7 May 1959, quoted in Michael J. Christensen, C. S. Lewis on Scripture, Abingdon, 1979, Appendix A.
  19. "Easton's Bible Dictionary: Judas". christnotes.org. Retrieved 2007-06-26.
  20. "The purchase of "the potter's field", Appendix 161 of the Companion Bible". Retrieved 2008-02-15.
  21. The Monthly Christian Spectator 1851–1859 p.459 "while some writers regard the account of Judas's death as simply figurative ..seized with preternatural anguish for his crime and its consequences his bowels gushed out."
  22. Clarence Jordan The Substance of Faith: and Other Cotton Patch Sermons p.148 "Greeks thought of the bowels as being the seat of the emotions, the home of the soul. It's like saying that all of Judas's motions burst out, burst asunder"
  23. Raymond E. Brown, An Introduction to the New Testament, p. 114.
  24. Charles Talbert, Reading Acts: A Literary and Theological Commentary, Smyth & Helwys (2005) p. 15.
  25. Frederick Dale Bruner, Matthew: A Commentary, Eerdmans (2004), p. 703.
  26. Reed, David A. (2005). ""Saving Judas" – A social Scientific Approach to Judas's Suicide in Matthew 27:3–10" (PDF). Biblical Theology Bulletin. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-29. Retrieved 2007-06-26.
  27. Zechariah 11:12–13
  28. Vincent P. Branick, Understanding the New Testament and Its Message, (Paulist Press, 1998), pp. 126–28.
  29. Frederick Dale Bruner, Matthew: A Commentary (Eerdmans, 2004), p. 710; Jerome, Epistolae 57.7: "This passage is not found in Jeremiah but in Zechariah, in quite different words and a different order" ; John Calvin, Commentary on a Harmony of the Evangelists, Matthew, Mark and Luke, 3:177: "The passage itself plainly shows that the name of Jeremiah has been put down by mistake, instead of Zechariah, for in Jeremiah we find nothing of this sort, nor any thing that even approaches to it." .
  30. Donald Senior, The Passion of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew (Liturgical Press, 1985), pp. 107–08; Anthony Cane, The Place of Judas Iscariot in Christology (Ashgate Publishing, 2005), p. 50.
  31. See also Maarten JJ Menken, 'The Old Testament Quotation in Matthew 27,9–10', Biblica 83 (2002): 9–10.
  32. Brown, Raymond (December 1, 1998). The Death of the Messiah, From Gethsemane to the Grave, Volume 1: A Commentary on the Passion Narratives in the Four Gospels. Yale University Press. p. 912. ISBN 0300140096.
  33. p116 of chapter vi, ' The Passion Narrative ' from " Gospel fictions " by Randel Helms, published 1988 by Prometheus Books
  34. p1568, Notes on Matt. 27:9, Ryrie Study Bible New American Standard edition, 1995 update, published by the Moody Bible Institute.
  35. John 6:71 and John 13:26
  36. Richard Bauckham, Jesus and the Eyewitnesses: The Gospels as Eyewitness Testimony, Eerdmans (2006), p. 106.
  37. New English Translation Bible, n. 11 in Matthew 11.
  38. Bastiaan van Iersel, Mark: A Reader-Response Commentary, Continuum International (1998), p. 167.
  39. Brown, Raymond E. (1994). The Death of the Messiah: From Gethsemane to the Grave: A Commentary on the Passion Narratives in the Four Gospels v.1 pp. 688–92. New York: Doubleday/The Anchor Bible Reference Library. ISBN 0-385-49448-3; Meier, John P. A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus's' (2001). v. 3, p. 210. New York: Doubleday/The Anchor Bible Reference Library. ISBN 0-385-46993-4.
  40. 1 2 Joan E. Taylor, "The name 'Iskarioth' (Iscariot)", pages 367–383 in Journal of Biblical Literature 129 no 2 (Sum 2010), 369. Online: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001790392&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 2011-03-12.
  41. Joan E. Taylor, "The name 'Iskarioth' (Iscariot)", pp. 367–83 in Journal of Biblical Literature 129 no 2 (Sum 2010), 370. Online: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001790392&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 2011-03-12.
  42. Joan E. Taylor, "The name 'Iskarioth' (Iscariot)", pp. 367–83 in Journal of Biblical Literature 129 no 2 (Sum 2010), pp. 379–83. Online: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001790392&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 211-03-12.
  43. Joel B. Green; Scot McKnight; I. Howard Marshall (1992). Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. InterVarsity Press. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-8308-1777-1.
  44. (Mark 14:10–11)
  45. (Matthew 26:14–16)
  46. Luke 22:3–6
  47. John 13:27
  48. John 12:1–6
  49. Joel B. Green; Scot McKnight; I. Howard Marshall (1992). Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. InterVarsity Press. p. 407. ISBN 978-0-8308-1777-1.
  50. Dimont, Jews, God & History. p. 135 (New York: North American Library, 2d ed. 1962).
  51. 1 2 Judas and the choice of Matthias: a study on context and concern of Acts 1:15–26, Arie W. Zwiep. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
  52. Did Judas betray Jesus Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, April 2006
  53. 1 2 Associated Press, "Ancient Manuscript Suggests Jesus Asked Judas to Betray Him", Fox News Thursday, 6 April 2006.
  54. 1 2 André Gagné, "A Critical Note on the Meaning of APOPHASIS in Gospel of Judas 33:1." Laval théologique et philosophique 63 (2007): 377–83.
  55. Deconick, April D. (December 1, 2007). "Gospel Truth". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-01.
  56. John S. Feinberg; David Basinger (2001). Predestination & free will: four views of divine sovereignty & human freedom. Kregel Publications. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-8254-3489-1.
  57. John Phillips (1986). Exploring the gospel of John: an expository commentary. InterVarsity Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-87784-567-6.
  58. Authenticating the activities of Jesus, Bruce Chilton, Craig A. Evans. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
  59. The place of Judas Iscariot in christology, Anthony Cane. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
  60. David L. Jeffrey. A Dictionary of biblical tradition in English literature. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
  61. David L. Jeffrey. A Dictionary of biblical tradition in English literature. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
  62. Robert H. Stein, "Criteria for the Gospels' Authenticity", in Paul Copan, William Lane Craig, Contending with Christianity's Critics: Answering New Atheists & Other Objectors (B&H Publishing Group, 2009), p. 93; John P. Meier, "Criteria: How Do We Decide What Comes from Jesus?" in James D. G. Dunn, Scot McKnight, The Historical Jesus in Recent Research (Eisenbrauns, 2005) pp. 127–28.
  63. John A. T. Robinson, Can We Trust the New Testament? cited in Gary R. Habermas, The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ (College Press, 1996) page 71.
  64. John Shelby Spong, The Easter Moment (HarperCollins, 2010) p. 150.
  65. Susan Gubar, Judas: A Biography (W. W. Norton & Company, 2009) pp. 298–99 (referring to several books, including this one).
  66. Bart Ehrman, Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium (Oxford University Press, 1999) pp. 216–17.
  67. 1 2 John Shelby Spong, The Sins of Scripture (HarperCollins, 2009)
  68. Hyam Maccoby, Antisemitism And Modernity, Routledge 2006, p. 14.
  69. Timeline of early Christianity at National Geographic
  70. Judas 'helped Jesus save mankind' BBC News, 7 May 2006 (following National Geographic publication)
  71. Cockburn A The Gospel of Judas National Geographic (USA) May 2006
  72. Cockburn A at p. 3
  73. Deconick A D Gospel Truth New York Times 1 December 2007
  74. Statement from National Geographic in Response to April DeConick's New York Times Op-Ed "Gospel Truth"
  75. Acocella J Betrayal: Should we hate Judas Iscariot? The New Yorker 3 August 2009
  76. pelo de Judas ("Judas hair") in the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española.
  77. Page 314 of article Red Hair from Bentley's Miscellany, July 1851. The eclectic magazine of foreign literature, science, and art, Volumen 2; Volumen 23, Leavitt, Trow, & Co., 1851.
  78. 1 2 p. 256 of Letters from Spain, Joseph Blanco White, H. Colburn, 1825.
  79. Judas colour in p. 473 of A glossary: or, Collection of words, phrases, names, and allusions to customs, proverbs, etc., which have been thought to require illustration, in the words of English authors, particularly Shakespeare, and his contemporaries, Volumen 1. Robert Nares, James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps, Thomas Wright. J. R. Smith, 1859
  80. Judas's Red Hair and The Jews, Journal of Jewish Art (9), 1982, Melinnkoff R.M
  81. . JSTOR 456954. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  82. "Dante's Inferno – Circle 9 – Cantos 31–34".
  83. "NGA – Caravaggio's The Taking of Christ".
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  91. Diski, Jenny (2006-11-17). "Review: My Name Was Judas by CK Stead". The Guardian. London.

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