Middle Indo-Aryan languages

Middle Indo-Aryan
Northern and western India
Linguistic classification:


Glottolog: midd1350[1]

Middle Indo-Aryan languages (Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits) is a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family. Middle Indo-Aryan languages are the descendants of the Old Indo-Aryan languages similar to Vedic Sanskrit and the predecessors of the Modern Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu), Odia, Bengali and Punjabi.

The Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA) stage in the evolution of Indo-Aryan languages is thought to have spanned more than a millennium between 600 BCE and 1000 CE, and is often divided into three major subdivisions.


The Indo-Aryan languages are commonly assigned to three major groups - Old Indo-Aryan languages, Middle Indo-Aryan languages and Early Modern and Modern Indo-Aryan languages. The classification reflects stages in linguistic development, rather than being strictly chronological.[5]

The Middle Indo-Aryan languages are younger than the Old Indo-Aryan languages[6] but were contemporaneous with the use of Classical Sanskrit, an Old Indo-Aryan language used for literary purposes.[7]

According to Thomas Oberlies, a number of morphophonological and lexical features of Middle Indo-Aryan languages show that they are not direct continuations of Vedic Sanskrit. Instead they descend from other dialects similar to, but in some ways more archaic than Vedic Sanskrit.[5]

Early phase: 3rd century BCE

Middle phase (200 BCE to 700 CE)

Late phase: Apabhramsa (700-1500)


A Middle Indo-Aryan innovation are the serial verb constructions that have evolved into complex predicates in modern north Indian languages such as Hindi. For example, भाग जा (bhāg jā) 'go run' means run away, पका ले (pakā le) 'take cook' means to cook for oneself, and पका दे (pakā de) 'give cook' means to cook for someone. The second verb restricts the meaning of the main verb or adds a shade of meaning to it.[4] Subsequently, the second verb was grammaticalised further into what is known as a light verb, mainly used to convey lexical aspect distinctions for the main verb.


Main article: Pali

Pali is the best attested of the Middle Indo-Aryan languages because of the extensive writings of early Buddhists. These include canonical texts, canonical developments such as Abhidhamma, and a thriving commentarial tradition associated with figures such as Buddhaghosa. Early Pāli texts, such as the Sutta-nipāta contain many "Magadhisms" (such as heke for eke; or masculine nominative singular in -e). Pāli continued to be a living second language until well into the second millennium. The Pali Text Society was founded in 1881 by T. W. Rhys Davids to preserve, edit, and publish texts in Pāli, as well as English translations.


Main article: Jain Prakrit

Known from a few inscriptions, most importantly the pillars and edicts of Ashoka found in what is now Bihar.[8]


Main article: Gāndhārī language

Many texts in Kharoṣṭhi script have been discovered in the area centred on the Khyber Pass in what was known in ancient times as Gandhara and the language of the texts came to be called Gāndhārī. These are largely Buddhist texts which parallel the Pāli Canon, but include Mahāyāna texts as well. The language is distinct from other MI dialects.


An apabhramsa (also: avahatta) was a language developed from Prakrits.[9][10][11] Modern Provincial languages developed from different apabhramsas. Patanjali was the first to use apabhramsa in his Mahabhasya (200 BC). The term is derived from the Sanskrit word Apabhrasta,[12] means a corrupted form of Sanskrit. Mostly Jain religious language and spiritual literature of Siddhas was composed in Apabhramsa language.
When the Romani people migrated from Rajasthan, Punjab, Sindh and Afghanistan in the 1st century AD, they were speaking an apabhramsa language pertaining to the Western part of India. They spread in Western countries around the 12th century AD.[13]

Apabhramsa poets

Literary work in apabhramsa appeared in 8th century AD. Poets of apabhramsa are as follows:

  1. Svayambhu - his poem is Pauma Cariu


  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Middle Indo-Aryan". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Shapiro, Michael C. Hindi. Facts about the world's languages: An encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present. Ed. Jane Garry, and Carl Rubino: New England Publishing Associates, 2001.
  3. Bubenik, Vit (2007). "Chapter Six: Prākrits and Apabhraṃśa". In Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9.
  4. 1 2 Shapiro, Hindi.
  5. 1 2 Oberlies, Thomas (2007). "Chapter Five: Aśokan Prakrit and Pāli". In Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 163. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9.
  6. "The most archaic Old Indo-Aryan is found in Hindu sacred texts called the Vedas, which date to approximately 1500 BCE". Encyclopedia Britannica - Indo-Aryan languages. General characteristics.
  7. "If in "Sanskrit" we include the Vedic language and all dialects of the Old Indian period, then it is true to say that all the Prakrits are derived from Sanskrit. If on the other hand " Sanskrit " is used more strictly of the Panini-Patanjali language or "Classical Sanskrit," then it is untrue to say that any Prakrit is derived from Sanskrit, except that S'auraseni, the Midland Prakrit, is derived from the Old Indian dialect". Introduction to Prakrit, by Alfred C Woolner. Baptist Mission Press 1917
  8. South Asian folklore: an encyclopedia : Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, By Peter J. Claus, Sarah Diamond, Margaret Ann Mills, Routledge, 2003, p. 203
  9. BPT Vagish Shastri, Bundelkhand Ki Prachinta, Vidvad Gosthi, 1965, Varanasi, India.
  10. Devendra Kumar Jain, Apabhramsa Bhasa aur Sahitya, Bhartiya Jnanapitha Prakashan, 1966, Calcutta, India.
  11. P.D.Gune, An Introduction to Comparative Philology, Poona Oriental BookHouse, 1959, Poona, India.
  12. R.A.Pandey and R.N. Mishra, Pali Prakrat-Apabhramsa Sangraha, Vishwavidyalaya Prakashan, 1968, Varanasi, India
  13. Vagish Shastri, Gypsy language and grammar, Vol XXI, Yogic Voice Consciousness Institute, 2004, Varanasi, India

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