List of sports clubs playing in the league of another country

There are a number of sports clubs around the world that are based in one country/territory but play in another's league in their respective sport. Conditions for competing in a "foreign" league, as well as in a continental/confederational competition, are set case-by-case by the international sports federation as well as the respective confederation and national sport associations involved.

Clubs which are located in defunct nations that merged with others, new nations separated from others, or which stopped competing in a nation's league system because their locale was transferred to another nation, are not included in this article.

Association football

Britain and Ireland

As a result of the history of football in the United Kingdom, the United Kingdom has four FIFA member countries instead of one. Therefore, clubs that play outside what would be regarded as their 'home country' are included.

England / Scotland

Shielfield Park, home of Berwick Rangers, an English club playing in Scotland's national leagues

EnglandScotland : English in Scotland

ScotlandEngland : Scottish in England

England / Wales

The New Saints of the Welsh Premier League play at Park Hall in the English town of Oswestry

EnglandWales : English in Wales

WalesEngland : Welsh in England

Although all the above clubs play in the English football league system and are allowed to compete in the FA Cup, Wrexham, Colwyn Bay and Merthyr Town are under the jurisdiction of the Football Association of Wales for disciplinary and administration purposes. Swansea City, Cardiff City and Newport County previously had the same governance until an arrangement was made with the FA for the 2011–12 season onwards which sees Welsh clubs playing in the top four divisions of English football under the governance of the FA.[3]

Cardiff City (1921–29, 1952–57, 1960–62 and 2013–14) and Swansea City (1981–83 and 2011–present) have played in the top division of English football (currently the Premier League). Cardiff City are also the only non-English side to have won the FA Cup, winning it in 1927; they again reached the final in 2008, prompting the English FA to change the rules to allow Welsh clubs to represent England in UEFA competitions should they qualify to do so.[4] Swansea City won the 2012–13 Football League Cup, and are the first Wales-based club to qualify for a European competition through a place reserved for the English Football Association.

The following Welsh clubs have also played in the English football league system:

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

The following defunct Welsh clubs also played in the English league system:

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Until 1995, the above clubs were allowed to participate in the Welsh Cup, and represented Wales in the Cup Winners' Cup if they won. Clubs playing in those parts of England close to the Welsh border could also play in the Welsh Cup by invitation, but could not represent Wales if they won.

Northern Ireland / Republic of Ireland

Brandywell Stadium, home of Derry City, a team located in Northern Ireland and playing in the Republic of Ireland

Northern IrelandRepublic of Ireland : Northern Irish in the Republic of Ireland

Derry City have won the league titles of both Northern Ireland (1964–65) and the Republic of Ireland (1988–89, 1996–97), and also the cup titles of both Northern Ireland (1948–49, 1953–54, 1963–64) and the Republic of Ireland (1988–89, 1994–95, 2002, 2006, 2012), and have represented both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland in European club competitions.

Guernsey / England

GuernseyEngland : Guernsey in England

The Guernsey Football Association has no international recognition; it has county status with the English Football Association.

Continental Europe

Andorra / Spain

AndorraSpain : Andorran in Spain

Austria / Germany

AustriaGermany : Austrian in Germany

Cyprus / Greece

CyprusGreece : Cypriot in Greece

From 1967 to 1974, the champion of the Cypriot First Division was promoted to the Greek First Division.

Finland / Sweden

FinlandSweden : Finnish in Sweden

All clubs are based in the Åland Islands, an autonomous region of Finland with an ethnic Swedish population.

France / Switzerland

FranceSwitzerland : French in Switzerland

Germany / Switzerland

GermanySwitzerland : German in Switzerland

Italy / Switzerland

ItalySwitzerland : Italian in Switzerland

SwitzerlandItaly : Swiss in Italy :

Kosovo / Serbia

KosovoSerbia : Kosovar in Serbia
Kosovo is still only a partially recognised state and the government of Serbia still claims the territory as its own. Due to Serbian refusal of Kosovo institutions, Serbs in North Kosovo act independently in sport. For example, the Football First League of North Kosovo was primarily formed of Serbian clubs from four of North Kosovo's municipalities. Both governments agreed upon creating an Association of Serb municipalities.

In 2016, Kosovo became the 55th member of UEFA, and therefore Football Federation of Kosovo's Football Superleague of Kosovo became a recognised independent league.

From 2010 to 2015, the Football First League of North Kosovo was the top football regional league in North Kosovo, ranked fifth in the Serbian league system. The league was formed primarely of Serbian football clubs that come from four of North Kosovo's municipalities such as Leposavić, Zvečan, Zubin Potok and Northern Kosovska Mitrovica. The league was formed in protest to the establishment of the Kosovo Super League by the Republic of Kosovo; the Serbian clubs from North Kosovo refuse to enter the Republic of Kosovo's institutions as per the Assembly of the Community of Municipalities of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija.

There are two other clubs from North Kosovo, which compete in different leagues:

Liechtenstein / Switzerland

Rheinpark Stadion, home of FC Vaduz, the only Liechtensteiner team to play top-flight football in Switzerland

LiechtensteinSwitzerland : Liechtensteiner in Switzerland

All clubs in Liechtenstein play in the Swiss football league system, as Liechtenstein has no properly recognized league of its own. These clubs also compete in the Liechtenstein Football Cup, which is effectively the championship of Liechtenstein, with the winner representing Liechtenstein in the UEFA Europa League. Liechtenstein clubs do not play in the Swiss Cup, and are not eligible for qualification to European competitions via the Swiss league system.

Monaco / France

MonacoFrance : Monegasque in France

San Marino / Italy

San MarinoItaly : Sammarinese in Italy

The home league of San Marino was established only in 1985. Before that year, other Sammarinese teams have competed in the Italian system, though only San Marino Calcio is allowed to take part in the system and also to Coppa Italia exclusively:

Spain / France

SpainFrance : Spanish in France

Ukraine / Russia

UkraineRussia : Ukrainian in Russia

The three clubs are from Crimea, a territory recognized by Ukraine and a majority of countries as part of Ukraine, but have been under effective Russian control as the Republic of Crimea since the 2014 Crimean crisis. FC Sevastopol and SC Tavriya Simferopol last played in the 2013–14 Ukrainian Premier League, and were dissolved after the completion of the season. The three clubs joined the Russian Professional Football League starting from the 2014–15 season, after approval from the Russian Football Union.[7] The inclusion of Crimean clubs in Russian competitions have not been approved by either FIFA or UEFA, and the Football Federation of Ukraine have lodged a complaint.[8] On 22 August 2014 UEFA decided "that any football matches played by Crimean clubs organised under the auspices of the Russian Football Union will not be recognised by UEFA until further notice",[9] and on 4 December 2014, decided to prohibit Crimean clubs to play in competitions organised by the Russian Football Union as from 1 January 2015 and for the region to be considered as a “special zone” for football purposes until further notice.[10]


Western Sahara / Morocco

Western SaharaMorocco : Western Saharan in Morocco


Many North American sports leagues are made up of teams from different countries—three of the four largest professional leagues have teams representing cities on both sides of the U.S.-Canada border. This phenomenon can also be seen in soccer leagues. Although foreign clubs can and do participate in leagues based in the United States, no such team is eligible to participate in the U.S. Open Cup, which is only open to teams affiliated with the United States Soccer Federation (U.S. Soccer). They are also not eligible to represent the United States in the CONCACAF Champions League. Those teams that do participate in U.S. leagues also participate in various competitions under their local federations to gain entry into the Champions League.

Antigua & Barbuda / United States

Antigua and BarbudaUnited States : Antiguan and Barbudan in the United States

Bermuda / United States

BermudaUnited States : Bermudian in the United States

Canada / United States

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States
Major League Soccer (MLS) and the current North American Soccer League (NASL) are based in the United States, but occupy the top levels of both the American and Canadian soccer pyramids.

The top five professional clubs in Canada (Toronto FC, Montreal Impact, Vancouver Whitecaps FC, FC Edmonton, and Ottawa Fury FC) contest the Canadian Championship for the Voyageurs Cup to determine Canada's entrant into the CONCACAF Champions League.

As in the men's game, the women's soccer pyramid contains leagues that operate on both sides of the border. The current top level, the National Women's Soccer League, operates solely in the U.S., although it receives financial backing from all three North American federations (U.S. Soccer, Canadian Soccer Association, Mexican Football Federation). One of the second-level leagues, the USL W-League, had six Canadian members—K-W United, Laval Comets, London Gryphons, Ottawa Fury Women, Quebec City Amiral, and Toronto Lady Lynx at its height before folding following the 2015 season.

Haiti / Brazil

HaitiBrazil : Haitian in Brazil

Puerto Rico / United States

Puerto RicoUnited States : Puerto Rican in the United States

Asia & Oceania

Australia / Singapore

AustraliaSingapore : Australian in Singapore

Brunei / Malaysia

BruneiMalaysia : Bruneian in Malaysia

Brunei / Singapore

BruneiSingapore : Bruneian in Singapore

China / Hong Kong

ChinaHong Kong : Mainland Chinese in Hong Kong

Malaysia / Australia

MalaysiaAustralia: Malaysian in Australia

Malaysia / Singapore

MalaysiaSingapore : Malaysian in Singapore

SingaporeMalaysia : Singaporean in Malaysia

New Zealand / Australia

Westpac Stadium, home of the Wellington Phoenix, the sole New Zealand team in Australia's A-League

New ZealandAustralia : New Zealand in Australia

As New Zealand is a member of OFC and Australia is a member of AFC since moving from OFC in 2006, Wellington Phoenix are playing in the league of a member of another football confederation. As per agreement with FIFA, AFC and OFC, Wellington Phoenix are not allowed to participate in the AFC Champions League.[11] They also do not participate in the OFC Champions League, as New Zealand is represented by clubs from its football league, the New Zealand Football Championship. Wellington Phoenix are the only extant professional football team in New Zealand; the New Zealand Football Championship is amateur. The reserve team of Wellington Phoenix began play in the NZ Championship in 2014–15,[12] and have featured in every season since.

Foreign & Satellite teams in Singapore

Besides DPMM FC, a number of "foreign" teams have also played in the S.League. These clubs, while playing their home games in Singapore, are either satellite teams of foreign clubs or are made up exclusively of foreign players:

As of 2016, only Albirex Niigata Singapore FC play in the S.League. The foreign teams are not allowed to represent Singapore in AFC club competitions such as the AFC Champions League and the AFC Cup. Moreover, due to the presence of foreign teams in the S.League, the AFC does not allow S.League teams to participate in the AFC Champions League since 2011.[13]

In recent years, foreign clubs from other countries have also been invited to participate in the Singapore Cup.


Andorra / Spain

AndorraSpain : Andorran in Spain

Australia / New Zealand

New ZealandAustralia : New Zealander in Australia

Canada / United States

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States

The National Basketball Association has had three teams in Canada in its history:

The minor leagues also have several teams:

Gibraltar / Spain

GibraltarSpain : Gibraltarian in Spain

Basketball in Gibraltar is managed by the Gibraltar Amateur Basketball Association (GABBA). Sponsored by Grind House, Men and Ladies GABBA teams play the senior basketball league in the neighbour Spanish province of Cádiz. Grind House GABBA won the 2007/08 female championship[14] GABBA is a member of FIBA since 1985,[15] and the men's team plays biennially the FIBA European Championship for Small Countries.

Monaco / France

MonacoFrance : Monegasque in France

AS Monaco Basket plays in the French basketball league system, paralleling its parent club's presence in the French football system. They have played in the top level, now known as LNB Pro A, on several occasions in their history, most recently since 2015.


Canada / United States

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States

In Major League Baseball, the Toronto Blue Jays have played in the American League since 1977. Also, the Montreal Expos were members of the National League from 1969 until they moved to Washington, D.C. in 2004.

In the MLB-affiliated minor leagues, the only active team is the Vancouver Canadians of the Northwest League. However, over the years there have been numerous Canadian teams playing in the U.S-based professional leagues. Among the notable teams were the Montreal Royals, for whom Jackie Robinson made his professional debut in 1946.

The U.S.-based independent leagues currently have four Canadian teams.

Canadian football

United States / Canada

United StatesCanada : American in Canada

In Canadian football, the sport's professional league, the Canadian Football League, expanded into the U.S. in the mid-1990s.

Apart from the Stallions, which had some of the league's best attendance figures and also won the Grey Cup in 1995, the U.S. teams were unsuccessful; even the Stallions posted a modest financial loss that season. The U.S. experiment also led to tension between the American and Canadian teams. Ultimately, the announcement by Art Modell, owner of the NFL's Cleveland Browns, that he would move the team to Baltimore for the 1996 season (where it became the Baltimore Ravens) ended the CFL's foray into the U.S. All of the American teams except for the Stallions folded; the Stallions moved to Montreal to become the current version of the Montreal Alouettes.


Andorra / Spain

AndorraSpain : Andorran in Spain

Ice Hockey


The National Hockey League was organized on November 26, 1917, in Montreal, Quebec, after the suspension of operations of its predecessor organization, the National Hockey Association (NHA), which had been founded in 1909 in Renfrew, Ontario.[16] The NHL immediately took the NHA's place as one of the leagues that contested for the Stanley Cup in an annual interleague competition before a series of league mergers and folds left the NHL as the only league left competing for the Stanley Cup in 1926. At its inception, the NHL had four teams—all in Canada, thus the adjective "National" in the league's name. The league expanded to the United States in 1924, when the Boston Bruins joined, and has since consisted of American and Canadian teams. However the league is now currently based in New York City, New York in the United States and US teams make up the majority of the league.

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States

Current teams:

Former teams:


The American Hockey League is a feeder league to the NHL. The league offices are located in Springfield, Massachusetts, and historically has been a U.S. league.

United StatesCanada : Canadian in the United States
Current teams:

Future teams:

Former teams:

North American Hockey League

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States

The North American Hockey League is a minor hockey league in the USA. Although no foreign teams are currently in the league, several Canadian teams used to be part of the competition, all from the province of British Columbia:

United States Hockey League

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States

The United States Hockey League is a minor hockey league in north-west USA.


CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States
The Eastern Junior Hockey League (EJHL) was an USA Hockey-sanctioned junior ice hockey league.


The Canadian Junior Hockey League (CJHL), an association of Canadian junior ice hockey leagues and teams.

United StatesCanada : American in Canada


The Ontario Junior Hockey League has one team not from Ontario, Buffalo Jr. Sabres from Buffalo, New York. Between 1998 and 2005 Syracuse Jr. Crunch from Syracuse, New York were part of the league before leaving to join the EJHL.


The British Columbia Hockey League has one team not from British Columbia, Wenatchee Wild from Washington.


The Northern Ontario Junior Hockey League (NOJHL) is a Canadian Junior ice hockey league with one U.S. team, the Soo Eagles from Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan who joined in 2015.


The Canadian Hockey League (CHL) is an umbrella organization that represents the three Canadian-based major junior ice hockey leagues for players 16 to 20 years of age. It is composed of its three member leagues, the Western Hockey League, Ontario Hockey League, and Quebec Major Junior Hockey League. For the 2012-13 season, its three leagues and 60 teams represent nine Canadian provinces (52 teams) as well as four American states (8 teams).

United StatesCanada : American in Canada


The Ontario Hockey League or OHL for short, has consisted almost exclusively of teams from Ontario, but currently hosts three teams from the U.S.: two from Michigan and one from Pennsylvania.

The Flint Firebirds franchise relocated several times within the state of Michigan; previous identities of that team are:


The Western Hockey League or WHL for short, has a U.S. Division in its Western Conference with 5 teams:


The Quebec Major Junior Hockey League (QMJHL) is composed of teams mostly from Quebec, and a few teams from Ontario. However, in the past a few short-lived U.S. teams have played:

Austrian Hockey League

The Austrian Hockey League has several foreign teams playing in its league, and has a history of foreign team playing at various points in its history:

CroatiaAustria : Croatian in Austria

Czech RepublicAustria : Czech in Austria

HungaryAustria : Hungarian in Austria

ItalyAustria : Italian in Austria

SloveniaAustria : Slovenian in Austria

Belorusian Extraleague

The Belarusian Extraleague has had two foreign teams in its league in the past:

UkraineBelarus : Ukrainian in Belarus

LatviaBelarus : Latvian in Belarus

Vysshaya Liga

The Vysshaya Liga is second tier of Belorussian ice hockey.

LithuaniaBelarus : Lithuanian in Belarus

Croatian Ice Hockey League

SloveniaCroatia : Slovenian in Croatia


In the Eredivisie one foreign team participates in the league:

BelgiumNetherlands : Belgian in The Netherlands

FFHG Division 3

The FFHG Division 3 is the lowest (fourth) division of professional ice hockey in France.

LuxembourgFrance : Luxembourger in France

2. Divisioona

EstoniaFinland : Estonian in Finland

Latvian Hockey League

LithuaniaLatvia : Lithuanian in Latvia

EstoniaLatvia : Estonian in Latvia

Lithuanian Hockey League

RussiaLithuania : Russian in Lithuania

Luxembourg Cup

The Luxembourg Cup is the main and only ice hockey competition in the country, after the Luxembourg Championship was disbanded in 2003. Prior to 2003, clubs from other countries in the region were allowed to participate in the cup tournament.

BelgiumLuxembourg : Belgian in Luxembourg


LuxembourgGermany : Luxembourger in Germany

Rheinland-Palatinat Liga

LuxembourgGermany : Luxembourger in Germany

Slovenian Ice Hockey League

AustriaSlovenia : Austrian in Slovenia

CroatiaSlovenia : Croatian in Slovenia

SerbiaSlovenia : Serbian in Slovenia

English National Ice Hockey League

WalesEngland : Welsh in England
Active teams:

Defunct teams:

ScotlandEngland : Scottish in England

Irish Hockey League

Northern IrelandRepublic of Ireland : Northern Irish in the Republic of Ireland

Scottish National League

The Scottish National League hosts one foreign team:

Northern IrelandScotland : Northern Irish in Scotland

MOL Liga

The MOL Liga is an international ice hockey league organized for clubs based in Hungary and Romania. The games played between the Hungarian teams count towards the Hungarian National Championship in the OB I bajnokság. The Romanian teams also compete in the Romanian National Championship Liga Naţională.

SlovakiaHungaryRomania : Slovakian in Hungary & Romania

Inter-National League

The Inter-National League is an international ice hockey league that is a partnership between the national federations of Austria and Slovenia. It was created as a solution to semi-professional hockey in both Austria and neighbouring Slovenia. However, the league welcomed guest Italian teams in the past:

ItalyAustriaSlovenia : Italian in Austria & Slovenia


Originally a Russian league, the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) was established in 2008 to rival the NHL. Since its inception, a number of teams joined the league from post-Soviet states; however in recent years other European teams have joined, and the league expanded into China in 2016.

Currently there are two foreign teams in the Chernyshev division:

KazakhstanRussia : Kazakh in Russia

ChinaRussia : Chinese in Russia

There are 4 foreign teams that play in the Bobrov Division:

BelarusRussia : Belarusian in Russia

LatviaRussia : Latvian in Russia

FinlandRussia : Finnish in Russia

CroatiaRussia : Croatian in Russia

SlovakiaRussia : Slovakian in Russia

There were two more foreign teams in the past:

Czech RepublicRussia : Czech in Russia

UkraineRussia : Ukrainian in Russia


The Supreme Hockey League (VHL or HHL for short) is a feeder league to the KHL, however not all teams are affiliated.

KazakhstanRussia : Kazakh in Russia

BelarusRussia : Belarusian in Russia


The Russian Junior Hockey League (MHL)[20] is a major junior ice hockey league in Eurasia, founded in 2009. It currently consists of 39 teams from 7 countries.[21] Some of these teams are subsidiaries (feeder teams) for their respective Kontinental Hockey League professional counterparts, other teams are subsidiaries of teams of other leagues (VHL, BEL, PHL) and some teams don't have an affiliated team.

BelarusRussia : Belarusian in Russia

LatviaRussia : Latvian in Russia

KazakhstanRussia : Kazakh in Russia


The Junior Hockey League Division B is the is the second level of the Junior Hockey League.

BelarusRussia : Belarusian in Russia

LatviaRussia : Latvian in Russia

LithuaniaRussia : Lithuanian in Russia

MoldovaRussia : Moldovan in Russia


Canada / United States

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States

The National Lacrosse League, headquartered in New York City and playing the indoor box version of the sport, traces its history to a league formed in 1987, and has operated under its current name since 1998. While it was initially a U.S-only league, it expanded into Canada in 1998, and has had teams in Canada ever since.

Motorcycle Speedway

Czech League

SlovakiaCzech Republic : Slovakian in the Czech Republic

Finnish League

LatviaFinland : Latvian in Finland

Polish Leagues

HungaryPoland : Hungarian in Poland

LatviaPoland : Latvian in Poland

UkrainePoland : Ukrainian in Poland

Russian Leagues

LatviaRussia : Latvian in Russia

UkraineRussia : Ukrainian in Russia


Australia / New Zealand

New Zealand & Australia : New Zealand and Australia

Rugby league

Australia / New Zealand

New ZealandAustralia : New Zealander in Australia

Canada / England

CanadaEngland : Canadian in England

The Toronto Wolfpack, a rugby league club from Toronto, have been accepted into the British rugby league system. While teams from France and Wales compete in the system, the great majority of teams are based in England, and the system is organised by the Rugby Football League, based in Leeds. The Wolfpack will start play at the third level of the system, League 1, in 2017.

France / England

FranceEngland : French in England

Three different French teams have played in the British rugby league system:

Wales / England

WalesEngland : Welsh in England

Several Welsh clubs have played in the British league system.

Rugby union

Argentina / South Africa

ArgentinaSouth Africa : Argentine in South Africa

The Pampas XV, a developmental side for the Argentina national rugby union team, played in the Vodacom Cup, the second level of South Africa's domestic structure, from 2010 to 2013. The team withdrew from the competition after 2013 for financial reasons, but it was not the end of Argentina's involvement in South African rugby. Starting in 2016, an Argentine side, the Jaguares, entered the hemispheric Super Rugby competition.

Australia / New Zealand / South Africa / Argentina / Japan

New Zealand,Australia, South Africa, Argentina, Japan: Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina and Japan.
The Super Rugby competition, operated by the Sydney-based SANZAAR, a joint enterprise between the governing bodies of Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and since 2016 Argentina, has six teams from South Africa, five teams each from Australia and New Zealand, and one each from Argentina and Japan.

Liechtenstein / Switzerland

LiechtensteinSwitzerland : Liechtensteiner in Switzerland

In rugby union, there are only two clubs in the country; Lynx RC, which is based at Sportpark Eschen-Mauren, in Eschen, they used to play in the Swiss rugby union leagues,[22] and FC Vaduz Red Pride Rugby, based in Liechtenstein's capital, Vaduz.

Luxembourg / Belgium

LuxembourgBelgium : Luxembourger in Belgium

Rugby Club Luxembourg joined the Belgian second division in 1995, and remain a part of it 1998, when it earned promotion to the Belgian Elite League.[23] In 2001, the club decided to return to the French league system.

Luxembourg / France

LuxembourgFrance : Luxembourger in France

Rugby Club Luxembourg played its first competitive game against US Castillionnaise in September 1973. Up until 1995, the club played in the Alsace-Lorraine regional league. In that year, the team joined the Belgian second division. In 2001, the club decided to return to the French league system, again playing regionally in Alsace-Lorraine. It won its division in 2008 but, after an invitation to play in Germany, decided to join the German league system in 2009.[23]

Luxembourg / Germany

LuxembourgGermany : Luxembourger in Germany

Rugby Club Luxembourg has played in the German league system since 2009, having previously played in the Belgian and French league system, and earning promotion to the highest tier, the Rugby-Bundesliga, in 2015–16.[24] The inclusion of the club in the 2009 promotion round to the 2nd Bundesliga caused some debate in regards to its legality, as the club had not qualified through the German league system and was not a member of any of the German regional rugby federations. However, RC Luxembourg's application was declared valid in regards to the German rugby federations rules and regulations and the team finished second in the promotion round, earning a place in the 2nd Bundesliga for 2009-10.[25]

Namibia / South Africa

NamibiaSouth Africa : Namibian in South Africa

The Welwitschias, a developmental side for the Namibia national rugby union team, have played in the South African domestic rugby structure on three separate occasions. The history of Namibian involvement in South African rugby predates the country's independence in 1990; when Namibia was a South African colony known as South West Africa, it regularly competed in the top South African domestic competition, the Currie Cup, from 1954 until withdrawing in 1989. After independence, Namibia began fielding a side in the Vodacom Cup in 1999, with the side initially known as Kudus before adopting the Welwitschias name in 2000. Namibia withdrew from the Vodacom Cup after the 2001 season. The Welwitschias returned to the Vodacom Cup in 2010 and 2011 before withdrawing yet again. They returned to the Vodacom Cup in 2015, after which South Africa scrapped the Vodacom Cup in favour of an expanded Currie Cup. The Welwitschias now play in the Currie Cup.

Canada / United States

United StatesCanada : American in Canada


Canada / United States

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States



  1. Conn, David (12 November 2009). "Premier League clubs reject Old Firm but consider expansion". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
  2. League entry denied
  3. Scott, Matt (6 May 2011). "Football Association breaks Welsh jurisdiction over Cardiff and Swansea". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  4. FA approves Cardiff for Uefa Cup
  5. 1 2 3 4 Twydell, Dave (5 November 2001). Denied F.C.: The Football League Election Struggles. Harefield: Yore Publications. p. 24. ISBN 1-85983-512-0.
  6. AK Allgäu 4 BFV website, accessed: 26 September 2016
  7. "Crimean clubs to play in Russian second division from next season". Inside World Football. 13 August 2014.
  8. "Ukraine crisis: Russia's claim on Crimea's football clubs". BBC Sport. 15 August 2014.
  9. "UEFA Emergency Panel decision on Crimean clubs". 22 August 2014.
  10. "UEFA Nations League format and schedule confirmed". 4 December 2014.
  11. Ad hoc Committee for Professional Clubs
  12. "Phoenix reserve team to play in national league". 22 August 2014.
  13. Singapore seek to pull out of ACL
  14. Comienza la liga senior provincial femenina (Spanish)
  15. GFA proposal to join UEFA, pg. 16
  16. The National Hockey League Official Record Book & Guide 2009 77th Edition, p. 9. New York: National Hockey League (2008)
  19. "HC Panter lõpetas Soome liigas neljanda kohaga" (in Estonian). Postimees.
  21. О Лиге (in Russian). Retrieved 2012-05-16.
  23. 1 2 RCL - a potted history RCL website, accessed: 8 April 2010
  24. "Rugby Club Luxembourg steigt in Bundesliga auf" (in German). L'essentiel Online. 23 May 2016.
  25. Karlsruhe und Luxemburg steigen in die 2.Liga Süd auf (German), published: 6 July 2009, accessed: 19 March 2010
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