Voiced retroflex implosive

Voiced retroflex implosive
Entity (decimal) ᶑ
Unicode (hex) U+1D91

The voiced retroflex implosive is a type of consonantal sound. It has not been confirmed to be phonemically distinct from alveolar /ɗ/ in any language, though the claim has been made for Ngad'a, an Austronesian language of Flores.[1] Sindhi has an implosive that varies between dental and retroflex articulation, and Oromo has /ᶑ/ but not /ɗ/.

The symbol for this, (a D with a tail for retroflex and a hook-top for implosive), is not explicitly recognized by the IPA, but is supported in the Unicode Phonetic Extensions Supplement.


Features of the voiced retroflex implosive:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Saraiki ڈاک [ᶑak] 'mail' either apical or subapical, place of articulation is more forward than for the retroflex stops, does not contrast with a dental implosive[2]


  1. Djawanai, Stephanus. (1977). A description of the basic phonology of Nga'da and the treatment of borrowings. NUSA linguistic studies in Indonesian and languages in Indonesia, 5, 10-18.
  2. Shackle, Christopher (1976). The Siraiki language of central Pakistan : a reference grammar. London: School of Oriental and African Studies. pp. 22–23.

See also

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