Retroflex flap

Retroflex flap
IPA number 125
Entity (decimal) ɽ
Unicode (hex) U+027D
Kirshenbaum *.
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235)
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The retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɽ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r`.


Features of the retroflex flap:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bengali গাড়ি [gaɽi:] 'car' See Bengali phonology
Dutch[1][2] North Brabant[3] riem [ɽim] 'belt' A rare variant of /r/;[4][5] occurs almost exclusively word-initially.[6] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
Northern Netherlands[3][7]
Elfdalian luv [ɽʏːv] 'permission'
Enga la [jɑɽɑ] 'shame'
Hausa bara [bəɽa] 'servant' Represented in Arabic script with ر
Hindi ड़ा [bəɽäː] 'big' Represented by ड़. Hindi contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Nepali[8] भाड़ा [bʱaɽa] 'rent' See Nepali phonology
Norwegian Eastern and central dialects blad [bɽɑː] 'leaf', 'blade' Allophone of /ɭ/. See Norwegian phonology
Almost the same as above bord [buːɽ] 'board', 'table' Allophone of /r/. See Norwegian phonology
Portuguese Some European speakers[9] falar [fəˈlaɽ] 'to speak' Allophone of /ɾ/. May rhotacize ("color") preceding vowel. See Portuguese phonology
Brazilian caipira speakers[10][11] madeira [mɐˈdeːɽə] 'wood', 'timber'
Some sertanejo speakers[12] gargalhar [ɡaɽɡɐˈʎaɽ] 'to chortle',
'to guffaw'
Spanish Paraguay perder [peɽdeɽ] 'to lose'
Punjabi ਘੋੜਾ [kòːɽɑ̀ː] 'horse'
Swedish Some dialects blad [bɽɑː(d)] 'leaf' Allophone of /l/. See Swedish phonology
Urdu سڑک [səɽək] 'road' see Hindi-Urdu phonology

Toda has a retroflex trill, which is transcribed with the same IPA symbol.

See also



  • Goeman, Ton; van de Velde, Hans (2001), "Co-occurrence constraints on /r/ and /ɣ/ in Dutch dialects", in van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland, 'r-atics, Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 91–112, ISSN 0777-3692 
  • Khatiwada, Rajesh (2009), "Nepali", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 337–380, doi:10.1017/s0025100309990181 
  • Verstraten, Bart; van de Velde, Hans (2001), "Socio-geographical variation of /r/ in standard Dutch", in van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland, 'r-atics, Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 45–61, ISSN 0777-3692 

Heide, Eldar, 2010: «Tjukk l – Retroflektert tydeleggjering av kort kvantitet. Om kvalitetskløyvinga av det gamle kvantitetssystemet.» Maal og minne, s. 3-44.

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