|Regions with significant populations|
|French, Wallon, Picard, German, Luxembourgish, Lorrain|
Mainly Roman Catholicism|
|Related ethnic groups|
|French, Dutch, Flemish|
Walloons (//; French: Wallons, IPA: [walɔ̃]; Walloon: Walons) are a French-speaking people who live in Belgium, principally in Wallonia. Walloons are a distinctive ethnic community within Belgium. Important historical and anthropological criteria (religion, language, traditions, folklore) bind Walloons to the French people. More generally, the term also refers to the inhabitants of the Walloon Region. They speak regional languages such as Walloon (with Picard in the West and Lorrain in the South). Walloons are the descendants of Gallo-Romans with Germanic Frankish admixture.
Walloon originated in Romance languages alongside other related terms, but it supplanted them. Its oldest written trace is found in Jean de Haynin's Mémoires de Jean, sire de Haynin et de Louvignies in 1465, where it refers to Roman populations of the Burgundian Netherlands. Its meaning narrowed yet again during the French and Dutch periods and, at Belgian independence, the term designated only Belgians speaking a Romance language (French, Walloon, Picard, etc.) The linguistic cleavage in the politics of Belgium adds a political content to "the emotional cultural, and linguistic concept". The words Walloon and Wallons can be seen in the book of Charles White, The Belgic Revolution (1835): "The restless Wallons, with that adventurous daring which is their historical characteristic, abandoned their occupations, and eagerly seizing the pike and the musket marched towards the centre of the commotion.". The Spanish terms of Walon and Walona from the 17th century referred to a Royal Guard Corps recruited in the Spanish Flanders. They were involved in many of the most significant battles of the Spanish Empire. The French word Wallons in English is also used in the Encyclopædia Britannica.
Albert Henry wrote that although in 1988 the word Walloon evoked a constitutional reality, it originally referred to Roman populations of the Burgundian Netherlands and was also used to designate a territory by the terms provinces wallonnes or Walloon country (Pays wallon), from the 16th century to the Belgian revolution, and later Wallonia. The term 'Walloon country' was also used in Dutch viz. Walsch land. The term existed also in German, perhaps Wulland in Hans Heyst's book (1571) where Wulland is translated by Wallonia in English (1814). In German it is however generally Wallonenland : Le païs de Valons, Belgolalia, Wallonenland, in "Le Grand Dictionnaire Royal" Augsbourg, 1767; The name of the churches' consecration is in Touraine assemblées, in Brittany pardons, in the northern Departments sometimes kermesses, sometimes as in the Walloon country, ducasses (from dedicatio) In English, it is Walloon country (see further James Shaw). In French (and France (Wand)), it is le Pays wallon: The Walloon country included the greatest part of to-day's Belgium, the Province of Flandre orientale, the Province of Flandre occidentale both named Flandre wallonne, the Province of Namur, the Hainaut, the Limbourg, the pays de Liège and even the Luxembourg For Félix Rousseau, Walloon country is, after le Roman pays the old name of the country of the Walloons and the nickname Romande was commonly used to describe Walloons until the late 19th century.
Conceptual and emotional aspects
The extent of Wallonia, the area defined by the use of the language, has shifted through the ages. The low-lying area of Flanders and the hilly region of the Ardennes have been under the control of many city-states and external powers. Such changing rule brought variations to borders, culture, and language. The Walloon language, widespread in use up until the Second World War, has been dying out of common use due to growing internationalisation. Although official educational systems do not include it as a language, the French government continues to support the use of French within the "Francophonie" commonwealth.
This is complicated by the federal structure of Belgium, which splits Belgium into three communities with the privilege of using their own tongues in official correspondence, but also into three autonomous regions. The communities are: French community (though not Walloon, but sometimes controversially called Wallonia-Brussels), Flemish community (which uses Dutch), and German-speaking community. The division into political regions does not correspond with the communities: Flemish Region, Walloon Region (including the German community but generally called Wallonia), and the bilingual (French-Dutch) Brussels-Capital Region.
Brussels - not Walloon but mostly French-speaking
Many non-French-speaking observers (over)generalize Walloons as a term of convenience for all Belgian French-speakers (even those born and living in the Brussels-Capital Region). The mixing of the population over the centuries means that most families can trace ancestors on both sides of the linguistic divide. But, the fact that Brussels is around 85% French-speaking, but is located in Dutch-speaking Flanders, has led to friction between the regions and communities. The local dialect in Brussels, Brussels Vloms, is a Brabantic dialect, reflecting the Dutch heritage of the city.
Walloons are historically credited with pioneering the industrial revolution in Continental Europe in the early 19th century. In modern history, Brussels has been the major town or the capital of the region. Because of long Spanish and minor French rule, French became the sole official language. After a brief period with Dutch as the official language while the region was part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, the people reinstated French after achieving independence in 1830. The Walloon region, a major coal and steel-producing area, developed rapidly into the economic powerhouse of the country. Walloons (in fact French-speaking elites who were called Walloons) became politically dominant. Many Flemish immigrants came to work in Wallonia. Between the 1930s and the 1970s, the gradual decline of steel and more especially coal, coupled with too little investment in service industries and light industry (which came to predominate in Flanders), started to tip the balance in the other direction. Flanders became gradually politically and economically dominant. In their turn, Walloon families have moved to Flanders in search of jobs. This evolution has not been without political repercussions.
Regional language statistics
The Walloon language is an element of Walloon identity. However, the entire French-speaking population of Wallonia cannot be culturally considered Walloon, since a significant portion in the west (around Tournai and Mons) and smaller portions in the extreme south (around Arlon) possess other languages as mother tongues (namely, Picard, Champenois, Luxembourgish, and Lorrain). All of them can speak French as well or better.
A survey of the Centre liégeois d'étude de l'opinion pointed out in 1989 that 71.8% of the younger people of Wallonia understand and speak only a little or no Walloon language; 17.4% speak it well; and only 10.4% speak it exclusively. Based on other surveys and figures, Laurent Hendschel wrote in 1999 that between 30 and 40% people were bilingual in Wallonia (Walloon, Picard), among them 10% of the younger population (18–30 years old). According to Hendschel, there are 36 to 58% of young people have a passive knowledge of the regional languages. On the other hand, Givet commune, several villages in the Ardennes département in France, which publishes the journal Causons wallon (Let us speak Walloon); and two villages in Luxembourg are historically Walloon-speaking.
Walloons in the Middle Ages
Since the 11th century, the great towns along the river Meuse, for example, Dinant, Huy, and Liège, traded with Germany, where Wallengassen (Walloons' neighborhoods) were founded in certain cities. In Cologne, the Walloons were the most important foreign community, as noted by three roads named Walloonstreet in the city. The Walloons traded for materials they lacked, such as copper, found in Germany, especially at Goslar.
In the 13th century, the medieval German colonization of Transylvania (central and North-Western Romania) also included numerous Walloons. Place names such as Wallendorf (Walloon Village) and family names such as Valendorfean (Wallon peasant) can be found among the Romanian citizens of Transylvania.
Walloons in the Renaissance
In 1572 Jean Bodin made a funny play on words which has been well known in Wallonia to the present:
Ouallonnes enim a Belgis appelamur [nous, les "Gaulois"], quod Gallis veteribus contigit, quuum orbem terrarum peragrarent, ac mutuo interrogantes qaererent où allons-nous, id est quonam profiscimur? ex eo credibile est Ouallones appellatos quod Latini sua lingua nunquam efferunt, sed g lettera utuntur.
Translation: "We are called Walloons by the Belgians because when the ancient people of Gallia were travelling the length and breadth of the earth, it happened that they asked each other: 'Où allons-nous?' [Where are we going? : the pronunciation of these French words is the same as the French word Wallons (plus 'us')], i.e. 'To which goal are we walking?.' It is probable they took from it the name Ouallons (Wallons), which the Latin speaking are not able to pronounce without changing the word by the use of the letter G." One of the best translations of his (humorous) sayings used daily in Wallonia is "These are strange times we are living in."
Shakespeare used the word Walloon: "A base Walloon, to win the Dauphin's grace/Thrust Talbot with a spear in the back." A note in Henry VI, Part I says, "At this time, the Walloons [were] the inhabitants of the area, now in south Belgium, still known as the 'Pays wallon'." Albert Henry agrees, quoting Maurice Piron, also quoted by A.J. Hoenselaars: "'Walloon' meaning 'Walloon country' in Shakespeare's 'Henry VI'..."
Walloons in Sweden
Starting from 1620s, numerous Walloon miners and iron-workers, with their families, settled in Sweden to work in iron mining and refining. Walloon methods of iron production were incorporated into Swedish practice, to supplement the existing German techniques. Many Walloon workers settled around the mine at Dannemora producing Öregrund iron which represented 15 per cent of Sweden's iron production at that time.
They were originally led by the entrepreneur Louis de Geer, who commissioned them to work in the iron mines of Uppland and Östergötland. The wave of migration continued substantially into the 18th century. Walloons became gradually integrated into Swedish society, but it was not until the end quarter of the 20th century when they were fully integrated, when the Swedish legislation allowed Catholics to become civil servants. Walloon ancestry is traceable through Walloon surnames. Some people of Walloon descent belong to the Sällskapet Vallonättlingar (Society of Walloon Descendants).
Walloons and the Enlightenment
A 1786 history of the Netherlands noted, "[The] Haynault and Namur, with Artois, now no longer an Austrian Province, compose the Walloon country. The Walloon name and language are also extended into the adjacent districts of the neighbouring Provinces. A large part of Brabant, where that Province borders on Haynault and Namur, is named Walloon Brabant. The affinity of language seems also on some occasions to have wrought a nearer relation."
The Belgian revolution of 1830
The Belgian revolution was recently described as firstly a conflict between the Brussels municipality which was secondly disseminated in the rest of the country, "particularly in the Walloon provinces". We read the nearly same opinion in Edmundson's book:
The royal forces, on the morning of September 23, entered the city at three gates and advanced as far as the Park. But beyond that point they were unable to proceed, so desperate was the resistance, and such the hail of bullets that met them from barricades and from the windows and roofs of the houses. For three days almost without cessation the fierce contest went on, the troops losing ground rather than gaining it. On the evening of the 26th the prince gave orders to retreat, his troops having suffered severely. The effect of this withdrawal was to convert a street insurrection into a national revolt. The moderates now united with the liberals, and a Provisional Government was formed, having amongst its members Rogier, Van de Weyer, Gendebien, [[|Emmanuel van der Linden d'Hooghvorst]], Félix de Mérode and Louis de Potter, who a few days later returned triumphantly from banishment. The Provisional Government issued a series of decrees declaring Belgium independent, releasing the Belgian soldiers from their allegiance, and calling upon them to abandon the Dutch standard. They were obeyed. The revolt, which had been confined mainly to the Walloon districts, now spread rapidly over Flanders.
Jacques Logie wrote: "On the 6th October, the whole Wallonia was under the Provisional Government's control. In the Flemish part of the country the collapse of the Royal Government was as total and quick as in Wallonia, except Ghent and Antwerp." Robert Demoulin who was Professor at the Université de Liège wrote: "Liège is in the forefront of the battle for liberty", more than Brussels but with Brussels. He wrote the same thing for Leuven. According to Demoulin, these three cities are the républiques municipales at the head of the Belgian revolution. In this chapter VI of his book, Le soulèvement national (pp. 93–117), before writing "On the 6th October, the whole Wallonia is free", he quotes the following municipalities from which volunteers were going to Brussels, the "centre of the commotion", in order to take part in the battle against the Dutch troops : Tournai, Namur, Wavre (p. 105) Braine-l'Alleud, Genappe, Jodoigne, Perwez, Rebecq, Grez-Doiceau, Limelette, Nivelles (p. 106), Charleroi (and its region), Gosselies, Lodelinsart (p. 107), Soignies, Leuze, Thuin, Jemappes (p. 108), Dour, Saint-Ghislain, Pâturages (p. 109) and he concluded: "So, from the Walloon little towns and countryside, people came to the capital.." The Dutch fortresses were liberated in Ath ( 27 September), Mons (29 September), Tournai (2 October), Namur (4 October) (with the help of people coming from Andenne, Fosses, Gembloux), Charleroi (5 October) (with people who came in their thousands).The same day that was also the case for Philippeville, Mariembourg, Dinant, Bouillon. In Flanders, the Dutch troops capitulated at the same time in Brugge, Ieper, Oostende, Menen, Oudenaarde, Geeraardsbergen (pp. 113–114), but nor in Ghent nor in Antwerp (only liberated on 17 October and 27 October).
Against these interpretation, in any case for the troubles in Brussels, John W. Rooney Jr wrote:
It is clear from the quantitative analysis that an overwhelming majority of revolutionaries were domiciled in Brussels or in the nearby suburbs and that the aid came from outside was minimal. For example, for the day of 23 September, 88% of dead and wounded lived in Brussels identified and if we add those residing in Brabant, it reached 95%. It is true that if you look at the birthplace of revolutionary given by the census, the number of Brussels falls to less than 60%, which could suggest that there was support "national" (to different provinces Belgian), or outside the city, more than 40%.But it is nothing, we know that between 1800 and 1830 the population of the capital grew by 75,000 to 103,000, this growth is due to the designation in 1815 in Brussels as a second capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the rural exodus that accompanied the Industrial Revolution. It is therefore normal that a large part of the population of Brussels be originating provinces. These migrants came mainly from Flanders, which was hit hard by the crisis in the textile 1826-1830. This interpretation is also nationalist against the statements of witnesses: Charles Rogier said that there were neither in 1830 nor nation Belgian national sentiment within the population. The revolutionary Jean-Baptiste Nothomb ensures that "the feeling of national unity is born today." As for Joseph Lebeau, he said that "patriotism Belgian is the son of the revolution of 1830.." Only in the following years as bourgeois revolutionary will "legitimize ideological state power.
In the Belgian State
A few years after the Belgian revolution in 1830, the historian Louis Dewez underlined that "Belgium is shared into two people, Walloons and Flemings. The former are speaking French, the latter are speaking Flemish. The border is clear (...) The provinces which are back the Walloon line, i.e.: the Province of Liège, the Brabant wallon, the Province of Namur, the Province of Hainaut are Walloon [...] And the other provinces throughout the line [...] are Flemish. It is not an arbitrarian division or an imagined combination in order to support an opinion or create a system: it is a fact..." Jules Michelet traveled in Wallonia in 1840 and we can read many times in his History of France his interest for Wallonia and the Walloons pp 35,120,139,172, 287, 297,300, 347,401, 439, 455, 468 (this page on the Culture of Wallonia, 476 (1851 edition published online)
Relationship with the German-speaking community
The Walloon Region institutionally comprises also the German-speaking community of Belgium around Eupen, in the east of the region, next to Germany which ceded the area to Belgium after the First World War. Many of the 60,000 or so inhabitants of this very small community reject being considered as Walloon and – with their community executive leader Karl-Heinz Lambertz want to remain a federating unit, and to have all the powers of the Belgian Regions and Communities. Even if they do not want them absolutely and immediately (10 July 2008, official speech for the Flanders' national holiday).
- Bergen County, New Jersey
- Département des Ardennes
- Perry County, Indiana
- Quebec and other parts of Canada
- United Kingdom
- Wisconsin: it is estimated that between 5,000 and 7,500 Brabantines and Hesbignons answered the call of the New World from 1852 to 1856. Algoma, Brussels, Casco, Forestville, Green Bay, Kewaunee, Luxemburg, Namur, Sturgeon Bay (Françoise L'Empereur found 700 Walloon family names in the phone books of these towns)
This list includes people from the region before it became known as Wallonia.
- Zénon Bacq, inventor
- Raoul Cauvin, comics author
- Michael Baius (1513–1589), theologian of the Baianism
- Gilles Binchois, Franco-Flemish composer
- Jules Bordet, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1919)
- Godfroid de Bouillon, leader of the First Crusade and first European King of Jerusalem
- Robert Campin, painter
- Johannes Ciconia, Ars nova composer
- Dardenne brothers
- Jacques Daret, Flemish painter
- Nicolas Defrêcheux, poet in the Walloon language
- Léon Degrelle, Belgian Rexist politician and leader of Waffen SS Walloon contingent
- Paul Delvaux, surrealist painter
- Louis Dewis, Post-Impressionist painter
- Elio Di Rupo, the first Belgian Prime Minister of non-Belgian descent
- Guillaume Dufay, Franco-Flemish composer
- Edouard Empain, engineer whose company constructed the Paris Métro
- Jessé de Forest, Walloon settler, first colonizer of New Netherland and what would become New York City. Monument dedicated and located in Battery Park, Lower Manhattan.
- César Franck, Belgian composer
- Louis De Geer, merchant and industrialist
- Philippe Gilbert, professional cyclist
- Zénobe Gramme, inventor of the Gramme machine
- André Grétry, composer
- Eden Hazard, footballer currently playing for Chelsea Football Club
- Justine Henin, tennis champion
- Louis Hennepin, Niagara Falls and Saint-Anthony Falls were brought to the world's attention by Louis Hennepin
- Pierre Lacocque, harmonica player for American blues band Mississippi Heat
- Marc Lacroix, biochemist and cancer researcher
- Orlande de Lassus, Franco-Flemish composer
- Jean Lemaire de Belges, late Medieval, early Renaissance poet and historian
- Georges Lemaître, originator of the "Big Bang" theory of the origin of the universe
- Juliana of Liège, promoter of feast Corpus Christi
- René Magritte, surrealist artist
- Henri Michaux, poet, writer, and painter
- Pierre Minuit, purchased the island of Manhattan from the Native Americans and founded what would become New York City
- Georges Nagelmackers, founder of Compagnie des wagons lits
- Joachim Patinir, Mosan painter
- Dominique Pire, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (1958)
- Charles Plisnier, Prix Goncourt (1937)
- Henri Pousseur, composer
- Michel Preud'homme footballer
- Édouard Remouchamps, playwright in the Walloon language
- André Renard syndicalist, leader of the longest general strike in Belgium
- Jean Rey, second President of the European Commission
- Félicien Rops, painter
- Pierre de la Rue, Franco-Flemish composer
- Dieudonné Saive, small arms engineer, designer of the FN FAL rifle
- Jean-Michel Saive, table tennis champion
- Adolphe Sax, inventor of the saxophone
- Georges Simenon, author of Maigret and other novels
- Ernest Solvay, inventor of the Solvay process and founder of the Solvay Business School
- Rennequin Sualem, hydraulics engineer
- Count Tilly, Catholic League commander in the Thirty Years' War
- Ernest Vervier, small arms engineer, designer of the FN MAG and FN Minimi machine guns, co-designer of the FN FAL rifle
- Thierry Zéno, filmmaker
Notes and references
- "The World Factbook". cia.gov.
- Results American Fact Finder (US Census Bureau)
- Ethnic Groups Worldwide, a ready reference Handbook, David Levinson, ORYX Press, (ISBN 1-57356-019-7), p. 13 : « Walloons are identified through their residence in Wallonia and by speaking dialects of French. They, too, are descended from the original Celtic inhabitants of the region and Romans and Franks who arrived later. Walloons are mainly Roman Catholic. »
- Ethnic Groups Worldwide, a ready reference Handbook, David Levinson, ORYX Press, ISBN 1-57356-019-7, p.13 : "Walloon culture was heavely influenced by the French"
- The Encyclopedia of the Peoples of the World, A Henri Holt Reference Book, page 645 : « Culturally there is continuity between the French and the Walloons, Wallon culture consisting mainly of dialect literary productions. While historically most Wallons came within France's cultural orbit
- John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, English and Welsh, in Angles and Britons: O'Donnell Lectures, University of Cardiff Press, 1963.
- French: Au concept sentimental, linguistique et culturel s'est ajouté peu à peu, par la suite de l'évolution intérieure en Belgique, depuis 1880 surtout, un contenu politique Albert Henry, Histoire des mots Wallons et Wallonie, Institut Jules Destrée, Coll. «Notre histoire», Mont-sur-Marchienne, 1990, 3rd ed. (1st ed. 1965), p. 14.
- Charles White, The Belgic Revolution of 1830, Whittaker, London, 1835, p. 308, see also, pp. 5, 45, 266, 307 where the same word as in French - Wallons - was used Oxford University's copy
- Quoted also by Maurice Bologne, L'insurrection prolétarienne de 1830 en Belgique. Critique politique, n°9, Bruxelles, Juillet 1981, p.56 and passim
- Quoted also by Bruno Demoulin and Jean-Louis Kupper (editors) Histoire de la Wallonie, De la préhistoire au XXIe siècle, Privat, Toulouse, 2004, p.241 ISBN 2-7089-4779-6
- "Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition". Encyclopedia.jrank.org. Retrieved 2014-07-22.
- Albert Henry, En 1988, le terme Wallonie évoque (...) une réalité politique et administrative constitutionnellement reconnue (...) En 1830, et au cours des années qui suivirent, on avait continué à se servir des expressions provinces wallonnes, cette dernière déjà employée au seizième siècle, au moins et pays wallon plus rarement attestées avant le dix-huitième siècle, opus citatus, pp. 15-16
- Het naembouck van 1562, Tweede druk van het Nederlands - Frans Woordenboek van Hoos Lambrech, published by R.Verdeyen, Liège-Paris, 1945, p.221.
- Also quoted by Albert Henry, opus citatus, p.81
- Hans Heyst, Philippi II, Koenigs in Spanien, Reise aus Spanien nach Genos, und dann ferner durch Italien und Teutschland ins Wulland, und von dannen herauf in die Stadt Augsburg von anno 1549 bis 1551, Journey and Voyage of Philipp II, from Spain to Genos, and then further through Italy and Germany into Wallonia and to hence into the City of Augsburg, Augsburg, 1571, 4to. Published by Par John Pinkerton; Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1814, see the translation of Wulland in the English Wallonia p. 89 A General Collection of the Best and Most Interesting Voyages and Travels in All Parts of the World: Many of which are Now First Translated Into English. Digested on a New Plan, Copy of the University of Michigan
- Albert Henry, opus citatus, note 1. p. 81
- Le païs de Valons, Belgolalia, Wallonennland, in Le Grand Dictionnaire Royal, Augsbourg, 1767 in Etudes d'histoire wallonne, Fondation Plisnier, Bruxelles, 1964 Etudes d'histoire wallonne
- So Heissen die Kirchweihen in der Tourraine assemblées, in der Bretagne pardons, in den nördlichen Departments bald kermesses, bald, wie im Wallonenland, ducasses (von dedicatio)... in Jahrbuch für Romanische und Englische Literatur Leipzig 1864, p. 391 Jahrbuch für Romanische und Englische Literatur
- Albert Henry, Un témoignage anglais, opus citatus, p.48
- Le pays wallon comprenait la plus grande partie de ce qui forme aujourd'hui la Belgique,la Flandre occidentale et orientale, dites ensemble Flandre wallonne, la province de Namur, le Hainaut, le pays de Liège, le Limbourg et même le Luxembourg in Dictionnaire Bescherelle Paris, 1856, Vol II, p. 1664 Bescherelle, Vol II, 1856, Paris, p. 1664
- Albert Henry, opus citatus, p.81 quoted the 1846 edition
- French " En ce qui concerne les termes employés pour désigner la Terre des Wallons au cours des âges, nous avons noté le Roman pays, ensuite le Pays wallon. Il y eut aussi l'expression: les Provinces wallonnes." Félix Rousseau, La Wallonie, terre romane, 6th edition, Charleroi, 1993, p.120, DL/1993/0276/1
- From 1 January 2009, "Wallonia-Brussels International (WBI) "will further enhance the visibility of Wallonia-Brussels international activities, both in Belgium and abroad. WBI will pool all of the international relations work of the French Community, the Walloon Region and the French Community Commission of the Brussels-Capital Region. Wallonia-Brussels International
- "Walloons pioneered the industrial revolution in the Continent", The Guardian, 7 Aug 2008
- "Centre d'étude de l'opinion". Cleo-ulg.be. Retrieved 2014-07-22.
- Lucy Baugnet, L'identité culturelle des jeunes Wallons, Liège 1989
- L.Hendschel, Quelques indices de la vitalité du wallon, in Walloon Qué walon po dmwin? pp 114-134, Quorum, Gerpinnes ISBN 2-87399-072-4
- "L'association" [The Association]. Ardenne Wallonne (in French). Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- Félix Rousseau, L'art mosan, introduction historique, Duculot, Gembloux,1970 p. 44, ISBN 2-8011-0004-8
- Félix Rousseau, opus citatus, p. 46
- Konrad Gündisch Without a doubt, among the settlers were not only Germans, be they Teutonici from Southern Germany or Saxons from Middle and Northern Germany but also Romanic people from the western regions of the then German Empire. One of the earliest documents on Transylvanian Saxons points at Flandrenses who had at least two independent settler groups. These came from an economically highly developed region of the empire, where during the 11th and 12th centuries shortage of land was overcome through intensive planning and building of dike systems. Cities were developed through the textile industry and trade. Many knights of the first crusade came from here. It is undisputed that Flandrenses played an important role in the German East-Migration. Latins, settlers of Romanic-Walloon origin, were also represented. For example, Johannes Latinus, who arrived as knight but also as one of the first Transylvanian merchants; Gräf Gyan from Salzburg who frightened the bishop of Weißenburg; and Magister Gocelinus, who presented Michelsberg to the Cistercian abbey Kerz. Also to be mentioned is the name of the town Walldorf (villa Latina, "Wallonendorf", town of Walloons) and villa Barbant or Barbantina, a name which brings to mind Brabant in Belgium. Based on the described and often contradictory research results, answers to the question of the origin of Transylvanian Saxons cannot be considered as final. An incontestable clarification cannot be expected since it is probable that the colonists of different religions and ethnic background came in small groups from all regions of the then empire and grew, once in Transylvania, into a group with its own distinct identity, with German language and culture. In any event, their number was negligibly small and has been estimated at 520 families, approximately 2600 persons. in Siebenbürgen und die Siebenbürger Sachsen, Taschenbuch - 304 Seiten (1998) Langen-Müller, München.; ISBN 3-7844-2685-9. English translation The History of Transylvania and the Transylvanian Saxons
- Albert Henry, opus citatus, p. 112.
- "Wallons-nous?". Google.com. Retrieved 2014-07-22.
- William Shakespeare, Henry VI, Part 1, (Michael Taylor, ed.) Oxford University Press, 2003 ISBN 0-19-818392-5, ISBN 978-0-19-818392-1, p.104, note 137
- Note sur le sens de Wallon chez Shakespeare, Académie de langue et de littérature françaises, 42 (1964)
- Reclamations of Shakespeare, Rodopi, 1994, p. 24 ISBN 90-5183-606-6, a mistake with the inverted figures of 1492, in fact 1429 (the Siege of Orléans)
- Histoire des mots wallons et Wallonie, op. cit., note 1, Chapter II, p. 81
- Luc Courtois,De fer et de feu l'émigration wallonne vers la Suède (Ouvrage publié avec l'aide du Fonds national de la recherche scientifique), Fondation wallonne, Louvain-la-neuve, 2003 ISBN 2-9600072-8-X
- "Swedish Economic History and the 'New Atlantic Economy', Paper, presented at the "Economic History Society Annual Conference". University of Reading. 31 March – 2 April 2006. Archived from the original on 25 September 2006. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- Huguenots-Walloons-Europe Archives", Archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com
- James Shaw, Sketches of the History of the Austrian Netherlands: With Remarks on the Constitution, Commerce, ..., London: G. G. J. and J. Robinson, 1786, p. 64
- French une tension entre l'autorité communale bruxelloise et le pouvoir hollandais dans un premier temps, et une diffusion de la colère dans le reste du pays -notamment dans les principales villes wallonnes - dans un deuxième temps Bruno Demoulin and Jean-Louis Kupper (editors) Histoire de la Wallonie opus citatus, p. 239
- George Edmundson The History of Holland Cambridge at the University Press, 1922, pp. 389-404 The History of Holland
- Jacques Logie, 1830. De la régionalisation à l'indépendance, Duculot, Gembloux,1980, p.168, ISBN 2-8011-0332-2
- RobertDemoulin, La révolution de 1830, La Renaissance du Livre, Bruxelles, 1950, p. 93
- Robert Demoulin, opus citatus p. 113
- Robert Demoulin, opus citatus, p. 109
- Robert Demoulin, opus citatus, pp. 111-113
- John W. Rooney Jr., Profil du combattant de 1830 dans Revue belge d'histoire contemporaine, T. 12, 1981,p.487 Profil du combattant de 1830
- French La Belgique est partagée entre deux peuples, les Wallons et les Flamands. Les premiers parlent la langue française; les seconds la langue flamande. La ligne de démarcation est sensiblement tracée. [...] Ainsi les provinces qui sont en deçà de la ligne wallonne, savoir: la province de Liège, le Brabant wallon la Province de Namur, la Province de Hainaut, sont wallonnes [...] Et celles qui sont au-delà de la ligne [...] sont flamandes. Ce n'est point ici une division arbitraire ou un plan fait d'imagination pour appuyer une opinion ou créer un système; c'est une vérité de fait... Louis Dewez, Cours d'histoire de Belgique contenant les leçons publiques données au musée des Lettres ert des Sciences de Bruxelles, tome II, pp. 152-153, JP Méline, Bruxelles, 1833
- Histoire de France. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-07-22.
- Neben Flandern, Brüssel und der Wallonie möchten sie [die deutschsprachigen Belgier] ein eigenständiger Bestandteil, eine autonome gliedstaatliche Körperschaft, eine eigene „Gemeinschaft/Region“ bleiben, die für alle Gemeinschaftszuständigkeiten und jene regionalen Zuständigkeiten verantwortlich ist, die sie eigenverantwortlich gestalten will. Und auch wenn sie diese nicht unbedingt und unmittelbar fordert. Ansprache von Karl-Heinz Lambertz, Ministerpräsident der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft Belgiens, 10. Juli 2008
- "Ardenne-wallone.org". Ardenne-wallonne.org. Retrieved 2014-07-22.
- Paul R. Magocsi (Multicultural History Society of Ontario) , Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples, University of Toronto Press, 1999, pp. 257-270 ISBN 0-8020-2938-8, ISBN 978-0-8020-2938-6
- Robin D. Gwynn, Huguenot Heritage, Sussex Academic Press, 2001 ISBN 1-902210-34-4
- "1852: Emigration of the farmers from Brabant and Hesbaye". Uwgb.edu. Retrieved 2014-07-22.
- Françoise L'Empereur Les Wallons d'Amérique du Nord, Duculot, Gembloux, pp. 61-68, ISBN 978-2-8011-0085-1
- B.Demoulin and JL Kupper (editors), Histoire de la Wallonie, Privat, Toulouse, 2004, pages 233-276, p. 246 ISBN 2-7089-4779-6
- Hervé Hasquin,La Wallonie son histoire, Pire, Bruxelles, 1979,p. 284 ISBN 2-930240-18-0
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