Air Force Special Operations Command

United States Air Force Special Operations Command

Air Force Special Operations Command Emblem
Active 22 May 1990 – present[1]
Country  United States of America
Branch United States Air Force
Type Special Operations
Role Conduct global special operations missions ranging from precision application of firepower to infiltration, aviation foreign internal defense, exfiltration, resupply and refueling of SOF operational elements[2]

17,967 personnel authorized:[3]

  • 15,724 military personnel
  • 2,243 civilian personnel
Part of United States Special Operations Command
Garrison/HQ Hurlburt Field, Florida
Motto(s) "Any Time, Any Place"

Invasion of Panama
Gulf War
Unified Task Force
Operation Gothic Serpent

Operation Uphold Democracy
Operation Enduring Freedom

Iraq War
Lieutenant General Marshall B. Webb[1]

Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC), headquartered at Hurlburt Field, Florida, is the special operations component of the United States Air Force. An Air Force major command (MAJCOM), AFSOC is also the U.S. Air Force component command to United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), a unified combatant command located at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. AFSOC provides all Air Force Special Operations Forces (SOF) for worldwide deployment and assignment to regional unified combatant commands.

Before 1983, Air Force special operations forces were primarily assigned to the Tactical Air Command (TAC) and were generally deployed under the control of U.S. Air Forces in Europe (USAFE) or, as had been the case during the Vietnam War, Pacific Air Forces (PACAF). Just as it had relinquished control of the C-130 theater airlift fleet to Military Airlift Command (MAC) in 1975, TAC relinquished control of Air Force SOF to MAC in December 1982.

AFSOC was initially established on 10 February 1983 as Twenty-Third Air Force (23 AF), a subordinate numbered air force of MAC, with 23 AF headquarters initially established at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois. On 1 August 1987, 23 AF headquarters moved to Hurlburt Field, Florida.

Predecessor USAAF and USAF special operations units

World War II

Korean War

Early Cold War era

Vietnam War era

Late Cold War era






Air Force Special Operations Command OrBat
Several U.S. and Russian-built aircraft of the
Air Force Special Operations Air Warfare Center belonging to the 6th Special Operations Squadron
MH-53J Pave Low III helicopters near Hurlburt Field, circa 2001; upgraded to MH-53M Pave Low IV configuration, the last examples were retired from AFSOC service in late 2008 and replaced by the
CV-22B Osprey
AC-130U Spooky gunship over Hurlburt Field
MC-130H Combat Talon II infiltration/exfiltration and aerial refueling aircraft
MC-130J Commando II aircraft on the tarmac at the Lockheed Martin / Air Force Plant 6 facility at Dobbins ARB, Georgia
EC-130J Commando Solo III psychological warfare/information warfare aircraft
23d Weather Squadron
1st Special Operations Support Squadron
4th Special Operations Squadron, AC-130U Spooky
8th Special Operations Squadron, CV-22B Osprey
9th Special Operations Squadron*, MC-130P Combat Shadow
11th Intelligence Squadron
  • Det 1, 11th Intelligence Squadron, is a GSU at Fort Bragg, North Carolina
15th Special Operations Squadron, MC-130H Combat Talon II
23d Special Operations Weather Squadron[15]
34th Special Operations Squadron, U-28A
319th Special Operations Squadron, U-28A[16]
17th Special Tactics Squadron, Fort Benning, Georgia
21st Special Tactics Squadron, Pope Field, North Carolina
22d Special Tactics Squadron, Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington
23d Special Tactics Squadron, Hurlburt Field, Florida
26th Special Tactics Squadron, Cannon AFB, New Mexico
720th Operations Support Squadron
24th Special Tactics Squadron
724th Operations Support Squadron
724th Intelligence Squadron
724th Special Tactics Training Squadron, Hurlburt Field, Florida
3d Special Operations Squadron, MQ-1 Predator
16th Special Operations Squadron, AC-130H Spectre
20th Special Operations Squadron, CV-22B Osprey
27th Special Operations Support Squadron
33d Special Operations Squadron, MQ-9 Reaper
43d Intelligence Squadron
56th Special Operations Intelligence Squadron
73d Special Operations Squadron, AC-130W Stinger II
318th Special Operations Squadron, U-28A, C-145A Skytruck
522d Special Operations Squadron, MC-130J Commando II
524th Special Operations Squadron C-146A
7th Special Operations Squadron, CV-22B Osprey
67th Special Operations Squadron, MC-130J Commando II
321st Special Tactics Squadron
1st Special Operations Squadron MC-130H Combat Talon II
17th Special Operations Squadron MC-130P Combat Shadow
320th Special Tactics Squadron
6th Special Operations Squadron, UH-1N Iroquois, Mi-8, C-130E Hercules, An-26, C-47T
18th Flight Test Squadron
  • Det 1, 18th Flight Test Squadron is a GSU at Edwards AFB, California
19th Special Operations Squadron, AC-130U, MC-130H
371st Special Operations Combat Training Squadron
551st Special Operations Squadron, AC-130H, AC-130W, MC-130J
United States Air Force Special Operations School, Hurlburt Field, Florida[18]

Air National Guard (ANG) units

193d Special Operations Squadron, EC-130J Commando Solo III
150th Special Operations Flight, New Jersey Air National Guard, McGuire AFB, New Jersey; C-32B[19]
123d Special Tactics Squadron, Kentucky Air National Guard, Louisville ANGB, Kentucky
125th Special Tactics Squadron, Oregon Air National Guard, Portland ANGB, Oregon
137th Special Operations Security Forces Squadron, Michigan Air National Guard, Selfridge ANGB, Michigan
209th Special Operations Civil Engineer Squadron, Mississippi Air National Guard, Gulfport Combat Readiness Training Center, Mississippi
280th Special Operations Communications Squadron, Alabama Air National Guard, Dothan Regional Airport ANGS, Alabama
107th Weather Flight, Michigan Air National Guard, Selfridge ANGB, Michigan
146th Weather Flight, Pennsylvania Air National Guard, Pittsburgh IAP Air Reserve Station, Pennsylvania
181st Weather Flight, Texas Air National Guard, NAS Fort Worth JRB/Carswell Field, Texas

Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) units

2d Special Operations Squadron (GSU at Hurlburt Field, Florida), MQ-9 Reaper
5th Special Operations Squadron, U-28
711th Special Operations Squadron, C-145A Skytruck

Personnel and resources

AFSOC has about 15,000 active-duty, Air Force Reserve, Air National Guard and civilian personnel.[20]

The commander of AFSOC is Lieutenant General Bradley A. Heithold.

Major General Eugene Haase[21] is Vice Commander, and Chief Master Sergeant Matthew Caruso[22] is the Command Chief Master Sergeant, Air Force Special Operations Command.

The command's SOF units are composed of highly trained, rapidly deployable airmen who are equipped with specialized aircraft. These forces conduct global special operations missions ranging from precision application of firepower, to infiltration, aviation foreign internal defense, exfiltration, resupply and aerial refueling of SOF operational elements.

In addition to the pilots, combat systems officers, and enlisted aircrew who fly AFSOC's aircraft, there is a highly experienced support force of maintenance officers and enlisted aircraft maintenance personnel who maintain these complex aircraft and their support systems, a cadre of premier intelligence officers and enlisted intelligence specialists well versed in special operations, as well as logisticians, security forces and numerous other support officers and personnel.

Another aspect of AFSOC is Special Tactics, the U.S. Air Force's special operations ground force. Similar in ability and employment to Marine Special Operations Command (MARSOC), U.S. Army Special Forces and U.S. Navy SEALs, Air Force Special Tactics personnel are typically the first to enter combat and often find themselves deep behind enemy lines in demanding, austere conditions, usually with little or no support.

The command's Special Tactics Squadrons are led by Special Tactics Officers (STOs). Special Tactics Squadrons combine Combat Controllers, Tactical Air Control Party (TACP), Special Operations Weather Technicians, Pararescuemen (PJs) and Combat Rescue Officers (CROs) to form versatile SOF teams. AFSOC's unique capabilities include airborne radio and television broadcast for psychological operations, as well as combat aviation advisors to provide other governments military expertise for their internal development.

Due to the rigors of the career field, Special Tactics' year-long training is one of the most demanding in the military, with attrition rates between 80 and 90 percent. In an attempt to reduce the high attrition, Special Tactics is very selective when choosing their officers. Special Tactics Officers (STO) undergo a highly competitive process to gain entry into the Special Tactics career field, ensuring only the most promising and capable leaders are selected. STO leadership and role modeling during the difficult training reduces the attrition rate for enlisted trainees.

STO selection is a two-phase process. Beginning with Phase One, a board of veteran STOs reviews application packages consisting of letters of recommendation, fitness test scores, and narratives written by the applicants describing their career aspirations and reasons for applying. Based on Phase One performance, about eight to 10 applicants are invited to the next phase. Phase Two is a weeklong battery of evaluations, ranging from physical fitness and leadership to emotional intelligence and personality indicators. At the end of Phase Two, typically two to four applicants are selected to begin the year-plus Special Tactics training pipeline.



AFSOC regularly operates the following aircraft:[23]

Additionally, AFSOC, through its Air Force Special Operations Air Warfare Center, possess and operates a small number of the following aircraft for its special training mission and Aviation Foreign Internal Defense (FID) missions:


New AC-130J and MC-130J aircraft based on the Lockheed Martin KC-130J Super Hercules tanker variant are being acquired and sent to certain AFSOC units. MC-130J aircraft have already entered service while the AC-130J continues developmental testing in preparation for an Initial Operational Capability (IOC) with AFSOC projected for FY 2017[25][26][27]


Twenty-Third Air Force (23 AF)

In December 1982, the Air Force transferred responsibility for Air Force special operations from Tactical Air Command (TAC) to Military Airlift Command (MAC). Consequently, in March 1983, MAC activated Twenty-Third Air Force (23 AF) at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois. This new numbered air force's responsibilities included worldwide missions of special operations, combat rescue, weather reconnaissance and aerial sampling, security support for intercontinental ballistic missile sites, training of USAF helicopter and HC-130 crewmen, pararescue training, and medical evacuation.[6]

Operation Urgent Fury

In October 1983, 23 AF helped rescue Americans from the island nation of Grenada. During the seven-day operation, centered at Point Salines Airport, 23 AF furnished MC-130s, AC-130s, aircrews, maintenance, and support personnel. An EC-130 from the 193rd Special Operations Wing of the Air National Guard (ANG) also played a psy-war role. Lieutenant Colonel (later Major General) James L. Hobson, Jr., an MC-130 pilot and commander of the 8th Special Operations Squadron, was later awarded the Mackay Trophy for his actions in leading the air drop on the Point Salines Airport.[28]

US Special Operations Command

In May 1986, the Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act led to the formation of the United States Special Operations Command. Senators William Cohen and Sam Nunn introduced the Senate bill, and the following month Congressman Dan Daniel introduced a like measure in the House of Representatives. The key provisions of the legislation formed the basis to amend the 1986 Defense Authorizations Bill. This bill, signed into law in October 1986, in part directed the formation of a unified command responsible for special operations. In April 1987, the DoD established the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida, and Army GEN James J. Lindsay assumed command. Four months later, 23 AF moved its headquarters from Scott AFB to Hurlburt Field, Florida.

In August 1989, Gen Duane H. Cassidy, USAF, CINCMAC, divested 23 AF of its non-special operations units, e.g., search and rescue, weather reconnaissance, etc. Thus, 23 AF served a dual role: still reporting to MAC, but also functioning as the air component to USSOCOM.[6]

Operation Just Cause

From late December 1989 to early January 1990, 23 AF participated in the invasion of the Republic of Panama during Operation Just Cause. Special operations aircraft included both active duty AC-130H and Air Force Reserve AC-130A Spectre gunships, EC-130 Volant Solo psychological operations aircraft from the Air National Guard, HC-130P/N Combat Shadow tankers, MC-130E Combat Talons, and MH-53J Pave Low and MH-60G Pave Hawk helicopters. Special tactics Combat Controllers and Pararescuemen provided important support to combat units.[6]

Spectre gunship crews of the 1 SOW earned the Mackay Trophy and Tunner Award for their efforts, with an Air Force Reserve AC-130A Spectre crew from the 919th Special Operations Group (919 SOG) earning the President's Award. An active duty 1st SOW MC-130 Combat Talon crew ferried the captured Panamanian President, Manuel Noriega, to prison in the United States. Likewise, the efforts of the 1 SOW maintenance people earned them the Daedalian Award.[6]

On 22 May 1990, General Larry D. Welch, USAF, the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, redesignated Twenty-Third Air Force as Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC). This new major command consisted of three wings: the 1st, 39th and 353rd Special Operations Wings as well as the 1720th Special Tactics Group (1720 STG), the U.S. Air Force Special Operations School, and the Special Missions Operational Test and Evaluation Center.[6]

Currently, after major redesignations and reorganizations, AFSOC direct reporting units include the 16th Special Operations Wing, the 352nd Special Operations Group, the 353rd Special Operations Group, the 720th Special Tactics Group (720 STG), the USAF Special Operations School and the 18th Flight Test Squadron (18 FLTS). During the early 1990s a major reorganization occurred within AFSOC. The 1720 STG became the 720 STG in March 1992; the transfer of ownership of Hurlburt Field from Air Mobility Command (AMC, and formerly MAC) to AFSOC in October 1992, followed by the merger of the 834th Air Base Wing (834 ABW) into the 1 SOW, which assumed host unit responsibilities. A year later the 1 SOW became the 16 SOW in a move to preserve Air Force heritage.[29][30][31]

Meanwhile, the Special Missions Operational Test and Evaluation Center (SMOTEC), which explored heavy lift frontiers in special operations capabilities, while pursuing better equipment and tactics development, was also reorganized. In April 1994, the Air Force, in an effort to standardize these types of organizations, redesignated SMOTEC as the 18th Flight Test Squadron (18 FLTS).[32]

Gulf War

From early August 1990 to late February 1991, AFSOC participated in Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm, the protection of Saudi Arabia and liberation of Kuwait. Special tactics personnel operated throughout the theater on multiple combat control and combat rescue missions. Special operations forces performed direct action missions, combat search and rescue, infiltration, exfiltration, air base ground defense, air interdiction, special reconnaissance, close air support, psychological operations, and helicopter air refuelings. Pave Low crews led the helicopter assault on radars to blind Iraq at the onset of hostilities, and they also accomplished the deepest rescue for which they received the Mackay Trophy.[33]

MC-130E/H Combat Talons dropped the BLU-82, the largest conventional bombs of the war and, along with MC-130P Combat Shadows, dropped the most psychological warfare leaflets, while AC-130A and AC-130H Spectre gunships provided valuable fire support and armed reconnaissance. However, the AC-130 community also suffered the single greatest combat loss of coalition air forces with the shoot down of an AC-130H, call sign Spirit 03, by an Iraqi SA-7 Grail surface-to-air missile. All fourteen crew members aboard Spirit 03 were killed.[34][35]


Post-Gulf War

In December 1992, AFSOC special tactics and intelligence personnel supported Operation Restore Hope in Somalia. In late 1994, AFSOC units spearheaded Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti, and in 1995 Operation Deliberate Force in the Balkans.[36]

Operation Enduring Freedom

Then-MSgt Bart Decker from the 23rd STS, on horseback in the Balkh valley, during the initial days of the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan in 2001.

The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City, and the Pentagon, Washington D.C., on 11 September 2001 pushed the United States special operations forces to the forefront of the war against terrorism. By the end of September 2001, AFSOC deployed forces to southwest Asia for Operation Enduring Freedom to help destroy the al Qaeda terrorist organization and remove the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. AFSOC airpower delivered special tactics forces to the battle ground and they in turn focused U.S. airpower and allowed Afghanistan's Northern Alliance ground forces to dispatch the Taliban and al Qaeda from Afghanistan. AFSOC personnel also deployed to the Philippines to help aid that country's efforts against terrorism.[36]

Operation Iraqi Freedom

In March 2003, AFSOC again deployed forces to southwest Asia this time in support of what would become Operation Iraqi Freedom – the removal of Saddam Hussein and his Baathist government. The command's personnel and aircraft teamed with SOF and conventional forces to quickly bring down Saddam Hussein's government by May 2003. AFSOC forces continued to conduct operations in support of the new Iraqi government against insurgents and terrorists.[36]


AFSOC has had eleven commanders since its inception in 1990.

List of AFSOC Commanders
Name Tenure start Tenure End
Maj Gen Thomas E. Eggers 22 May 1990 20 Jun 1991
Maj Gen Bruce L. Fister 21 Jun 1991 21 Jul 1994
Maj Gen James L. Hobson, Jr. 22 Jul 1994 8 Jul 1997
Maj Gen Charles R. Holland 9 Jul 1997 4 Aug 1999
Lt Gen Maxwell C. Bailey 5 Aug 1999 15 Jan 2002
Lt Gen Paul V. Hester 16 Jan 2002 30 Jun 2004
Lt Gen Michael W. Wooley 1 Jul 2004 26 Nov 2007
Lt Gen Donald C. Wurster 27 Nov 2007 24 Jun 2011
Lt Gen Eric E. Fiel 24 Jun 2011 1 Jul 2014
Lt Gen Bradley A. Heithold 1 Jul 2014 19 Jul 2016
Lt Gen Marshall B. Webb 19 Jul 2016 Incumbent

Contingency operations

A PJ from the 23rd STS searching for survivors of the 2010 Haiti earthquake in Port-au-Prince
Operations supported by Air Force Special Operations Forces since the Vietnam War.[37]
Date(s) Operation
1975 Mayaguez incident, Cambodia
1975 Operation Eagle Pull, Cambodia
1975 Operation Frequent Wind, Vietnam
1976 Operation Fluid Drive, Lebanon
1978 Zaire Airlift
1980 Operation Eagle Claw, Iran
1981 Kidnapping of U.S. Army Brigadier General James Dozier, Italy
1981 Gulf of Sidra incident, Libya
1983 Operation Urgent Fury, Grenada
1983 Operation Big Pine, Honduras
1983–1985 Operation Bat, Bahamas, Turks and Caicos
1983–1988 Operation Bield Kirk, Operation Blue Flame, Operation Blinking Light, El Salvador
1984 Salvadorean President José Napoleón Duarte's daughter kidnapping, El Salvador
1985 TWA Flight 847 plane hijacking, Algeria/Lebanon
1985 Achille Lauro hijacking, Mediterranean Sea
1986 Operation El Dorado Canyon, Libya
1986 Pan Am Flight 73 plane hijacking, Pakistan
1987–1988 Operation Earnest Will, Operation Prime Chance, Persian Gulf
1988 Operation Golden Pheasant, Honduras
1989 Operation Safe Passage, Afghanistan
1989 Operation Poplar Tree, El Salvador
1989 1989 Philippine coup attempt, Philippines
1989 Operation Just Cause, Panama
1990 Operation Promote Liberty, Panama
1990 Civilian evacuation, Liberia
1990–1991 Operation Desert Shield, Operation Desert Storm, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq
1991 Operation Eastern Exit, Somalia
1991–2003 Operation Provide Comfort I–III, Operation Northern Watch, Turkey, Iraq
1991 Operation Sea Angel, 1991 Bangladesh cyclone relief, Bangladesh
1991 Operation Fiery Vigil, Philippines
1991 Operation Desert Calm, Saudi Arabia
1991–2003 Operation Southern Watch, Kuwait
1992 Operation Silver Anvil, Sierra Leone
1992–1994 Operation Provide Promise I–II, Italy, Yugoslavia
1992–1993 Operation Restore Hope, Somalia
1993–1995 Operation Continue Hope I–III, Somalia
1993 Operation Deny Flight, Yugoslavia
1993 Operation Silver Hope, Ukraine
1994 Operation Restore Democracy, Operation Uphold Democracy, Haiti
1994 Operation Support Hope, Rwanda
1995 Operation United Shield, Somalia
1995–1996 Operation Deliberate Force, Operation Joint Endeavor, Operation Joint Guard, Italy, Yugoslavia, Bosnia
1996 Search and Rescue support for U.S. Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown CT-43 crash, Croatia
1996 Operation Assured Response, evacuation, Liberia
1996 Operation Guardian Retrieval, Uganda
1996 Operation Pacific Bridge, Palau
1996 Operation Guardian Assistance, Rwanda
1997 Operation Silver Wake, evacuation, Albania
1997 Operation Guardian Angel, Yugoslavia
1997 Operation Firm Response, evacuation, Republic of Congo
1997 Operation High Flight, Namibia
1998 Operation Desert Thunder, Persian Gulf
1998 Operation Desert Fox, Iraq
1999 Operation Allied Force, Serbia, Kosovo
2000 Operation Atlas Response, flood relief, Mozambique
2000 Operation Fiery Relief, volcano relief, Philippines
2001 Operation Valiant Return, China
2001–present Operation Enduring Freedom, Global War on Terror
2002 Operation Autumn Return, evacuation, Côte d'Ivoire
2003 Operation Shining Express, evacuation, Liberia
2003–2011 Operation Iraqi Freedom, Iraq
2003–2008 Operation Willing Spirit, Columbia
2004 Operation Atlas Shield, Greece
2004 Operation Secure Tomorrow, Haiti
2005–2005 Operation Unified Assistance, Indian Ocean, Southeast Asia
2005 Task Force Katrina, hurricane relief, United States
2006 evacuation, Lebanon
2008 Operation Aster Silver, evacuation, Chad
2008 Operation Assured Delivery, Georgia
2008 Operation Olympic Titan, Pacific Ocean
2010 Operation Unified Response, earthquake relief, Haiti
2011 Operation Tomodachi, earthquake and tsunami relief, Japan
2011 Operation Odyssey Dawn, Libya
2013 Operation Damayan, typhoon relief, Philippines


See also


  1. 1 2 SOCOM Public Affairs (2014). SOCOM Fact Book 2014 (PDF). SOCOM Public Affairs.
  2. SOCOM Public Affairs (2013). SOCOM Fact Book 2013 (PDF). SOCOM Public Affairs.
  4. "The Carpetbagger Photographic Archives".
  5. ZenosWarbirds (29 May 2013). "Operation Carpetbagger: B-24s drop agents and supplies into occupied Europe in WW2" via YouTube.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
  7. Haas, Michael E., "Apollo’s Warriors: US Air Force Special Operations during the Cold War", Air University Press, Maxwell AFB, Alabama, 1997, page 36.
  8. Haas, Apollo's Warriors: U.S. Special Operations During the Cold War
  9. "Topic: A-26A/B-26K Counter Invader Farm Gate Program - Bien Hoa AB Association".
  10. "Nakhon Phanom During The Secret War 1962-1975".
  11. "The Air Commando Association - Air Commando and Special Operations Combat".
  12. 1 2 "Air Force Special Operations Command Brief History > Air Force Special Operations Command > Display".
  13. 1 2 23rd AF deactivates. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
  14. AFSOC stands up Air Warfare Center Archived 17 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
  16. The SOF Makeover (Air Force Special Operations Command's aircraft and review), by Marc V. Schanz, June 2010, Vol. 93, No. 6.
  18. "Air Force Special Operations Command > Units > Air Force Special Operations Air Warfare Center".
  19. 1 2 3 "Air Force Special Operations Command > Home".
  20. U.S. Seeks Faster Deployment; Smaller, More Flexible Special-Operations Teams Would Tackle Emerging Threats Under New Plan 7 May 2012
  21. "MAJOR GENERAL EUGENE HAASE > U.S. Air Force > Biography Display".
  22. "CHIEF MASTER SERGEANT MATTHEW M CARUSO > Air Force Special Operations Command > Display".
  23. USAF Special Operations Command Official Site.
  24. "6th Special Operations Squadron - Defense Media Network".
  25. Lockheed Martin C-130J selected for new special operations role, by Stephen Trimble, Washington DC, 18 Jun 2008; accessed: 20 Feb 2012
  26. "MC-130J Commando II > U.S. Air Force > Fact Sheet Display".
  27. "AC-130J Ghostrider > U.S. Air Force > Fact Sheet Display".
  28. "MAJOR GENERAL JAMES L. HOBSON JR. > U.S. Air Force > Biography Display".
  29. Pike, John. "Air Force Special Operations Command".
  30. Pike, John. "Hurlburt Field".
  32. Pike, John. "18th Flight Test Squadron [18th FLTS]".
  33. "25th Anniversary of Desert Storm".
  34. "In Memory Of "Spirit 03" Jan 31, 1991".
  35. "In memory of Spirit 03".
  36. 1 2 3
  38. Trest, Warren A., "Air Commando One: Heinie Aderholt And America's Secret Air Wars", Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., London, 2000, Library of Congress card number 99-053643, ISBN 978-1-56098-807-6

Further reading

External links

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