Dream of the Red Chamber

"The Story of the Stone" redirects here. For the 1988 novel, see The Story of the Stone (Barry Hughart).
Dream of the Red Chamber

A scene from the novel, painted by Xu Baozhuan (1810–1873)
Author Cao Xueqin
Country China
Language Chinese
Genre Novel, Family saga
Publication date
18th century
Published in English
1868, 1892; 1973–1980 (1st complete English translation)
Media type Scribal copies/Print
Dream of the Red Chamber

"Dream of the Red Chamber (Hong lou meng)" in Traditional (top) and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese 紅樓夢
Simplified Chinese 红楼梦
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 石頭記
Simplified Chinese 石头记
Literal meaning "Records of the Stone"

Dream of the Red Chamber, also called The Story of the Stone, composed by Cao Xueqin, is one of China's Four Great Classical Novels. It was written sometime in the middle of the 18th century during the Qing Dynasty. Long considered a masterpiece of Chinese literature, the novel is generally acknowledged to be the pinnacle of Chinese fiction. "Redology" is the field of study devoted exclusively to this work.[1]

The title has also been translated as Red Chamber Dream and A Dream of Red Mansions. The novel circulated in manuscript copies with various titles until its print publication, in 1791. While the first 80 chapters were written by Cao Xueqin, Gao E, who prepared the first and second printed editions with his partner Cheng Weiyuan in 1791–2, added 40 additional chapters to complete the novel.[2]

Red Chamber is believed to be semi-autobiographical, mirroring the rise and decline of author Cao Xueqin's own family and, by extension, of the Qing Dynasty.[3] As the author details in the first chapter, it is intended to be a memorial to the damsels he knew in his youth: friends, relatives and servants. The novel is remarkable not only for its huge cast of characters and psychological scope, but also for its precise and detailed observation of the life and social structures typical of 18th-century Chinese society.[4]


The novel is composed in written vernacular (baihua) rather than Classical Chinese (wenyan). Cao Xueqin was well versed in Chinese poetry and in Classical Chinese, having written tracts in the semi-wenyan style, while the novel's dialogue is written in the Beijing Mandarin dialect, which was to become the basis of modern spoken Chinese. In the early 20th century, lexicographers used the text to establish the vocabulary of the new standardized language and reformers used the novel to promote the written vernacular.[5]


In the opening chapter of the novel, a couplet is introduced:


Truth becomes fiction when the fiction's true;
Real becomes not-real where the unreal's real.

Dream of the Red Chamber, chapter 1

As one critic points out, the couplet signifies "not a hard and fast division between truth and falsity, reality and illusion, but the impossibility of making such distinctions in any world, fictional or 'actual.'"[6] The name of the main family, Jia (賈, pronounced jiǎ), is a homophone with the character jiǎ 假, meaning false or fictitious; this is mirrored by another family that has the surname Zhen (甄, pronounced zhēn), a homophone for the word "real" (真). It is suggested that the novel's family is both a realistic reflection and a fictional or "dream" version of Cao's own family.

The novel is most often titled Hóng lóu Mèng (紅樓夢), literally "Red Chamber Dream". "Red chamber" is an idiom with several definitions; one in particular refers to the sheltered chambers where the daughters of prominent families reside.[7] It also refers to a dream in Chapter 5 that Baoyu has, set in a "red chamber", where the fates of many of the characters are foreshadowed. "Chamber" is sometimes translated as "mansion" because of the scale of the Chinese word "樓". However the word "mansion" is thought to be an erroneous understanding of the phrase hónglóu, which should more accurately be translated as "chamber", according to scholar Zhou Ruchang.[8]

The novel also provides great insight in its depiction of the Chinese culture of the time, including description of the era's "manners, expectations, and consequences."[9] Many aspects of Chinese culture, such as medicine, cuisine, tea culture, proverbs, mythology, Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, filial piety, opera, music, funeral rites, painting, classic literature and the Four Books, are vividly portrayed. Among these, the novel is particularly notable for its grand use of poetry.[10]

Plot summary

A piece from a series of brush paintings by Qing Dynasty artist Sun Wen (1818–1904), depicting a scene from the novel.

The novel provides a detailed, episodic record of life in the two branches of the wealthy, aristocratic Jia (賈) clan—the Rongguo House (榮國府) and the Ningguo House (寧國府)—who reside in two large, adjacent family compounds in the capital. Their ancestors were made Dukes and given imperial titles, and as the novel begins the two houses are among the most illustrious families in the city. One of the clan’s offspring is made a Royal Consort, and a lush landscaped garden is built to receive her visit. The novel describes the Jias’ wealth and influence in great naturalistic detail, and charts the Jias’ fall from the height of their prestige, following some thirty main characters and over four hundred minor ones. Eventually the Jia clan falls into disfavor with the Emperor, and their mansions are raided and confiscated.

In the novel's frame story, a sentient Stone, abandoned by the goddess Nüwa when she mended the heavens aeons ago, begs a Taoist priest and a Buddhist monk to bring it with them to see the world. The Stone, along with a companion (in Cheng-Gao versions they are merged into the same character), is then given a chance to learn from the human existence, and enters the mortal realm.

The main character of the novel is the carefree adolescent male heir of the family, Jia Baoyu. He was born with a magical piece of "jade" in his mouth. In this life he has a special bond with his sickly cousin Lin Daiyu, who shares his love of music and poetry. Baoyu, however, is predestined to marry another cousin, Xue Baochai, whose grace and intelligence exemplify an ideal woman, but with whom he lacks an emotional connection. The romantic rivalry and friendship among the three characters against the backdrop of the family's declining fortunes form the main story in the novel.[9]


A Qing Dynasty woodcut print depicting a scene from the novel, 1889

Dream of the Red Chamber contains an extraordinarily large number of characters: nearly forty are considered major characters, and there are over four hundred additional ones.[11] The novel is also known for the complex portraits of its many female characters.[12] The names of the maids and bondservants are given in the original pinyin pronunciations and in David Hawkes' translation.

Baoyu and Jinling's Twelve Beauties

Other main characters

A scene from the story, painted by Xu Baozhuan

Notable minor characters

Versions and textual challenges

See also: Redology
A page from the "Jimao manuscript" (one of the Rouge versions) of the novel, c. 1759.[15]

The textual problems of the novel are extremely complex and have excited much critical scrutiny, debate and conjecture in modern times. Cao did not live to publish his novel, and it is believed by some scholars that the original version of this novel consists of 110 or 108 chapters; however, for unknown reasons, only about 80 chapters were later circulated. Only hand-copied manuscripts survived after Cao's death, until 1791, when the first printed version was published. This printed version, presented by Cheng Weiyuan and Gao E, contains edits and revisions not authorised by the author.[16] It is possible that Cao personally destroyed the last 30 chapters of the novel;[17] or that at least parts of Cao's original ending were incorporated into the 120 chapter Cheng-Gao versions,[18] and it was done with Gao E's "careful emendations" of original manuscripts.[19]

Rouge versions

Up until 1791, the novel circulated merely in scribal transcripts. These early hand-copied versions end abruptly at the latest at the 80th chapter. The earlier ones furthermore contain transcribed comments and annotations in red ink from unknown commentators. These commentators' remarks reveal much about the author as a person, and it is now believed that some of them may even be members of Cao Xueqin's own family. The most prominent commentator is Zhiyanzhai, who revealed much of the interior structuring of the work and the original manuscript ending, now lost. These manuscripts are the most textually reliable versions, known as Rouge versions (脂本). Even amongst some 12 independent surviving manuscripts, small differences in some of the characters, rearrangements and possible rewritings cause the texts to vary a little.

The early 80 chapters brim with prophecies and dramatic foreshadowings that give hints as to how the book would continue. For example, it is obvious that Lin Daiyu will eventually die in the course of the novel; that Baoyu and Baochai will marry; that Baoyu will become a monk.

Cheng-Gao versions

In 1791, Gao E and Cheng Weiyuan brought together the novel's first printed edition. This was also the first "complete" edition of The Story of the Stone, which they printed as the Illustrated Dream of the Red Chamber (繡像紅樓夢). While the original Rouge manuscripts have eighty chapters, the 1791 edition completed the novel in 120 chapters. The first 80 chapters were edited from the Rouge versions, but the last 40 were newly published.

In 1792, Cheng and Gao published a second edition correcting editorial errors of the 1791 version. In the 1791 prefaces, Cheng claimed to have put together an ending based on the author's working manuscripts.[19]

The debate over the last 40 chapters and the 1791–2 prefaces continues to this day. Many modern scholars believe these chapters were a later addition. Hu Shih, in his 1921 essay Proofs on A Dream of the Red Chamber, argued that the ending was actually written by Gao E, citing the foreshadowing of the main characters' fates in Chapter 5, which differs from the ending of the 1791 Cheng-Gao version. However, during the mid-20th century, the discovery of a 120 chapter manuscript that dates well before 1791 further complicated the questions regarding Gao E and Cheng Weiyuan's involvement—whether they simply edited or actually wrote the continuation of the novel.[20] Though it is unclear if the last 40 chapters of the discovered manuscript contained the original works of Cao, Irene Eber found the discovery "seems to confirm Cheng and Gao's claim that they merely edited a complete manuscript, consisting of 120 chapters, rather than actually writing a portion of the novel."[20]

The book is usually published and read in Cheng Weiyuan and Gao E's 120 chapter version. Some modern editions, such as Zhou Ruchang's, do not include the last 40 chapters.

In 2014, three researchers using data analysis of writing styles announced that "Applying our method to the Cheng–Gao version of Dream of the Red Chamber has led to convincing if not irrefutable evidence that the first 80 chapters and the last 40 chapters of the book were written by two different authors."[21]

Reception and influences in modern era

In the late 19th century, Hong Lou Meng's influence was so pervasive that the reformer Liang Qichao attacked it along with another classic novel Water Margin as "incitement to robbery and lust," and for smothering the introduction of Western style novels, which he regarded as more socially responsible.[22] The eminent scholar Wang Guowei, however, achieved a new method of literary interpretation in an innovative and path-breaking 1904 essay which invoked the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer. Wang called the novel "the tragedy of tragedies," in contrast to the prosperous endings in most earlier drama and fiction.[23]

In the early 20th century, although the New Culture Movement took a critical view of the Confucian classics, the scholar Hu Shih used the tools of textual criticism to put the novel in an entirely different light, as a foundation for national culture. Hu and his students, Gu Jiegang and Yu Pingbo, first established that Cao Xueqin was the work's author. Taking the question of authorship seriously reflected a new respect for fiction, since the lesser forms of literature had not been traditionally ascribed to particular individuals.[24] Hu next built on Cai Yuanpei's investigations of the printing history of the early editions to prepare reliable reading texts. The final, and in some respects most important task, was to study the vocabulary and usage of Cao's Beijing dialect as a basis for Modern Mandarin.

In the 1920s, scholars and devoted readers developed Hongxue, or Redology into both a scholarly field and a popular avocation. Among the avid readers was the young Mao Zedong, who later claimed to have read the novel five times and praised it as one of China's greatest works of literature.[25] The influence of the novel's themes and style are evident in many modern Chinese prose works. The early 1950s was a rich period for Redology with publication of major studies by Yu Pingbo. Zhou Ruchang, who as a young scholar had come to the attention of Hu Shih in the late 1940s, published his first study in 1953, which became a best seller.[26] But in 1954 Mao personally criticized Yu Pingbo for his "bourgeois idealism" in failing to emphasize that the novel exposed the decadence of "feudal" society and the theme of class struggle. In the Hundred Flowers Campaign, Yu came under heavy criticism but the attacks were so extensive and full of quotations from his work that they spread Yu's ideas to many people who would not otherwise have known of their existence.[27]

During the Cultural Revolution, the novel initially came under fire, though it quickly regained its prestige in the following years. Zhou Ruchang resumed his lifework, eventually publishing more than sixty biographical and critical studies.[26] In 2006, Zhou, who had long distrusted Gao E's editions, and the novelist Liu Xinwu, author of popular studies of the novel, joined to produce a new 80 chapter version which Zhou had edited to eliminate the Cheng-Gao emendations. Liu completed an ending that was supposedly more true to Cao's original intent.[28]

Today, several manuscripts of the novel can be still found in locations in China and Europe. The "Jiaxu manuscript" (dated to 1754) is currently located in the Shanghai Museum, the "Jimao manuscript" (1759) is located in the National Library of China, and the "Gengchen manuscript" (1760) is located in the library of the Peking University. The Beijing Normal University and the Institute of Oriental Studies in St. Petersburg both also held manuscripts of the novel dating before the first print edition of 1791.

Translations and reception in the West

... one of the great monuments of the world's literature ....
 Review of The Dream of the Red Chamber by Anthony West, The New Yorker[29]

It is a major challenge to translate Cao's prose, which utilizes many levels of colloquial and literary language and incorporates forms of classic poetry that are integral to the novel.[30] According to Anne Lonsdale in The Times Literary Supplement, the novel is "notoriously difficult" to translate.[9]

The first recorded attempt at translating the novel into English was done by the noted Protestant missionary and sinologist Robert Morrison (1782–1834) in 1812 when he translated part of chapter four of the novel for the purpose of having it published in the second volume of his 1812 book Horae Sincae (this book was never published). In 1816, Morrison did publish a translation of a conversation from chapter 31 in his Chinese language textbook Dialogues and Detached Sentences in the Chinese Language. In 1819, a short excerpt from chapter 3 was translated by the famous British diplomat and sinologist John Francis Davis (1795–1890) and published in the London Journal Quarterly Review. Davis also published a poem from chapter 3 of the novel in 1830 in the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society.[31]

The next translation into English was a literal translation of selected passages prepared for foreigners learning Chinese published by the Presbyterian Mission Press of Ningbo in 1846.[32] Edward Charles Bowra of the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs published a translation of the first eight chapters in 1868[33] and H. Bencraft Joly of the first fifty-six chapters in 1892.[34]

An abridged translation by Wang Chi-Chen which emphasized the central love story was published in 1929, with a preface by Arthur Waley. Waley said that in the passages which recount dreams "we feel most clearly the symbolic or universal value" of the characters. "Pao Yu", Waley continued, stands for "imagination and poetry" and his father for "all those sordid powers of pedantry and restriction which hamper the artist..."[35] In a 1930 review of Wang's translated version, Harry Clemons of The Virginia Quarterly Review wrote "This is a great novel," and along with the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, it "ranks foremost" among the novels of classic Chinese literature.[36] Although Clemons felt "meaning was only fragmentarily revealed" in the English translated prose and that "many of the incidents" and "much of the poetry" were omitted, he nevertheless thought "at any rate the effort to read The Dream of the Red Chamber is eminently worth making."[36] In 1958 Wang published an expansion on his earlier abridgement, though it was still truncated at 60 chapters.

The stream of translations and literary studies in the West grew steadily, building on Chinese language scholarship. The 1932 German translation by Franz Kuhn[37] was the basis of an abridged version, The Dream of the Red Chamber, by Florence and Isabel McHugh published in 1958,[38] and a later French version. Bramwell Seaton Bonsall, completed a translation in the 1950s, Red Chamber Dream, a typescript of which is available on the web.[39] Critic Anthony West wrote in The New Yorker in 1958 that the novel is to the Chinese "very much what The Brothers Karamazov is to Russian and Remembrance of Things Past is to French literature" and "it is beyond question one of the great novels of all literature."[29] Kenneth Rexroth in a 1958 review of the McHugh translation, describes the novel as among the "greatest works of prose fiction in all the history of literature," for it is "profoundly humane."[40]

The first complete English translation to be published was by David Hawkes some century and a half after the first English translation. Hawkes was already a recognized redologist and had previously translated Chu Ci when Penguin Classics approached him in 1970 to make a translation which could appeal to English readers. After resigning from his professorial position, Hawkes published the first eighty chapters in three volumes (1973, 1977, 1980).[41] The Story of the Stone (1973–1980), the first eighty chapters translated by Hawkes and last forty by John Minford consists of five volumes and 2,339 pages of actual core text (not including Prefaces, Introductions and Appendices).[42] The wordcount of the Penguin Classics English translation is estimated as 845,000 words. In a 1980 review of the Hawkes and Minford translation in The New York Review of Books, Frederic Wakeman, Jr. described the novel as a "masterpiece" and the work of a "literary genius."[43] Cynthia L. Chennault of the University of Florida stated that "The Dream is acclaimed as one of the most psychologically penetrating novels of world literature."[44] Michael Orthofer of the online literary site Complete Review proclaims it as one of the few works that can be considered for the title "Book of the Millennium," and a rare piece of literature "in which one can lose oneself completely."[9]

Extracts from the Hawkes translation were published as The Dream of the Red Chamber (New York: Penguin, Penguin 1960s Classics Series, 1996. ISBN 0-14-600176-1.)

The respected and prolific team Gladys Yang and Yang Hsien-yi also translated a complete version, A Dream of Red Mansions (Beijing: Foreign Language Press, three volumes, 1978–1980).

In 2014, an abridged translation of Dream by writer Lin Yutang resurfaced in a Japanese library. Lin's translation, about half the length of the original, is reportedly not a literal one.[45]

An English-language opera based on the novel, with music by Bright Sheng and libretto by Bright Sheng and David Henry Hwang, was first performed by the San Francisco Opera on 10 September 2016.[46]


  1. Jonathan Spence, The Search for Modern China (New York: Norton, 1990), 106–110.
  2. David Hawkes, "Introduction," The Story of the Stone Volume I (Penguin Books, 1973), pp. 15–19.
  3. Jonathan D. Spence, Ts'ao Yin [Cao Yin] and the K'ang-Hsi Emperor: Bondservant and Master (New Haven,: Yale University Press, 1966) is a study of Cao's grandfather.
  4. "CliffsNotes, About the Novel: Introduction". Cliffsnotes.com. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
  5. "Vale: David Hawkes, Liu Ts'un-yan, Alaistair Morrison". China Heritage Quarterly of the Australian National University.
  6. Levy (1999), p. 15.
  7. "词语"红楼"的解释 汉典". Zdic.net. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
  8. Zhou, Ruchang. 红楼夺目红. 作家出版社. p. 4. ISBN 7-5063-2708-2.
  9. 1 2 3 4 "The Story of the Stone (The Dream of the Red Chamber)". Complete review.
  10. Liu, Zaifu and Yunzhong Shu (2008). Reflections on Dream of the red chamber. Cambria Press. p. 115. ISBN 1-60497-524-5.
  11. Yang, Weizhen; Guo, Rongguang (1986). 《红楼梦》辞典. 山东文艺出版社. Introduction. There are entries for 447 named characters. ISBN 7-5329-0078-9.
  12. Helen Tierney (1999). Women's studies encyclopedia, Volume 1. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 247. ISBN 0-313-31071-8.
  13. Cao, Xueqin; Gao E. "Chapter 23". Hong Lou Meng.
  14. The Story of the Stone, Vol I The Golden Days, translated by David Hawkes, pp. 206–209, 300, 320–23. See also Jonathan Spence, "Ch'ing," in K.C. Chang, ed., Food in Chinese Culture (Yale University Press, 1977), p. 279.
  15. Yu, Anthony C. (2001). Rereading the Stone: Desire and the Making of Fiction in Dream of the Red Chamber. Princeton University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-691-09013-0.
  16. A convenient summary of this scholarship is David Hawkes, "Introduction," The Story of the Stone Volume I (Penguin Books, 1973), pp. 15–19. The pioneering discussion in English is Shih-Ch'ang Wu, On the Red Chamber Dream : A Critical Study of Two Annotated Manuscripts of the 18th Century (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1961).
  17. "曹雪芹自己销毁了110回《红楼梦》的后30回 (Cao Xueqin himself destroyed the 110 chapter Dream of the Red Chambers' last 30 chapters)". ifeng.com of Phoenix Television. 2008-02-04.
  18. Maram Epstein, "Reflections of Desire: The Poetics of Gender in Dream of the Red Chamber," Nan Nu 1.1 (1999): 64.
  19. 1 2 Edwards (1994), p. 11, 64.
  20. 1 2 Irene Eber, "Riddles in the Dream of the Red Chamber," in Galit Hasan-Rokem, and David Dean Shulman, eds. Untying the Knot : On Riddles and Other Enigmatic Modes (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 237.
  21. Xianfeng Hu, Yang Wang, Qiang Wu, "Multiple Authors Detection: A Quantitative Analysis Of Dream Of The Red Chamber" Advances in Adaptive Data Analysis 6.4 October 2014
  22. Leo Ou-fan Lee, "Literary Trends I: The Quest for Modernity, 1895–1927," in John K. Fairbank, ed., Cambridge History of China Vol. 12 Republican China 1912–1949 Pt I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983): 455.
  23. Yu (1997), p. 119-121.
  24. Haun Saussy, "The Age of Attribution: Or, How the "Honglou Meng" Finally Acquired an Author," Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews (CLEAR) 25 (2003): 119–132.
  25. Dr. Li Zhisui,The Private Life of Chairman Mao (New York: Random House, 1994), p. 82.
  26. 1 2 Editor's Preface, Ruchang Zhou, Between Noble and Humble: Cao Xueqin and the Dream of the Red Chamber (New York: Peter Lang, 2009), xiv. .
  27. Joey Bonner, "Yü P'ing-Po and the Literary Dimension of the Controversy over Hung Lou Meng," The China Quarterly.67 (1976): 546–581; Merle Goldman, Literary Dissent in Communist China (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967).
  28. Conspiracy of the Red Mansions. Danwei (December 6, 2006).
  29. 1 2 West, Anthony (1958-11-22). "Through a Glass, Darkly". The New Yorker.
  30. Li Liyan. "The Stylistic Study of the Translation of A Dream of Red Mansions" (in Chinese). 伟大不朽的古典现实主义作品《红楼梦》是我国古典小说艺术成就的最高峰。
  31. Gray, Ronald “The Stone’s Curious Voyage to the West: A Brisk Overview of Honglou meng’s English Translation History and English Hongxue.” Journal of Sino-Western Communication 3.2 (December, 2011).
  32. Robert Thom, The Chinese Speaker; or, Extracts from Works Written in the Mandarin Language, as Spoken at Peking (Ningpo: Presbyterian mission Press, 1846).
  33. E. C. Bowra The China Magazine (Hong Kong: Noronha & Sons, 1868–1870) University of Virginia Chinese Text Initiative (This etext contains only the Preface and Chapter 1) , .
  34. The Dream of the Red Chamber or (Hung Lou Meng) (Hong Kong: Kelly & Walsh) 1891, 1892.] Hung Lou Meng, from the Project Gutenberg, Hong Kong: Kelly & Walsh, 1892–1893, paper published edition is also available. Wildside Press, ISBN 0-8095-9268-1; and Hard Press, November 3, 2006, ISBN 1-4069-4079-8. Text of the 1892–1893 English translation at University of Adelaide; rpr. with a new foreword by John Minford, Tokyo; North Clarendon, Vt.: 2010 ISBN 0-8048-4096-2.
  35. Dream of the Red Chamber (Wang Chi-Chen), (New York: Doubleday; London: Routledge, 1929) enlarged version (New York: Twayne: 1958 ISBN 0-385-09379-9).
  36. 1 2 Clemons, Harry (Spring 1930). "Book Reviews: The Dream of the Red Chamber". The Virginia Quarterly Review.
  37. Der Traum Der Roten Kammer (Leipzig: Insel-verlag, 1932).
  38. (New York: Pantheon: 1958, ISBN 0-8371-8113-5). Available at Open Library (link).
  39. "Red Chamber Dream. Translation from Chinese by B.S. Bonsall". Lib.hku.hk. Retrieved 2013-04-10.
  40. Rexroth, Kenneth. "The Chinese Classic Novel in Translation". University of Pennsylvania School of Arts and Sciences, original from Kenneth Rexroth 1958.
  41. Gittings, John (2009-08-25). "Obituary for the Scholar and translator David Hawkes". The Guardian. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
  42. (Penguin Classics and Bloomington: Indiana University Press, five volumes, 1973–1980. ISBN 0-14-044293-6, ISBN 0-14-044326-6, ISBN 0-14-044370-3; ISBN 0-14-044371-1, ISBN 0-14-044372-X).
  43. Wakeman Jr., Frederic (1980-06-12). "Review (Book review): The Genius of the Red Chamber". The New York Review of Books.
  44. Chennault, Cynthia. "CHT 4111, "Dream of the Red Chamber"" (PDF). University of Florida.
  45. http://www.szdaily.com/content/2015-07/30/content_11999399.htm
  46. San Francisco Opera, "Discover Opera: Dream of the Red Chamber" and "Sheng and Hwang discuss their collaboration and the process of writing the opera."


General and introductory

Critical studies

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