This article is about the Hindu temple-related meaning of the term. For scholarly and historical use of the term for different Hindu philosophies, see Hindu philosophy. For the Bangladesh border railway station, see Darshana railway station.
A darsana literally a means glimpse or view. In a Hindu temple, the term refers to viewing the inner sanctum under the main Shikhara or Gopuram of the temple, which hosts the murti (image of god). Above arrangement is for darsana at the Sri Chalukya Kumara Rama Bheemeshwara Swamy Temple in Andhra Pradesh.

Darśana (Sanskrit: दर्शन, lit. theophany) is the auspicious sight of a deity or a holy person.[1] The term also refers to six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy, their literature on spirituality and soteriology.[2]

Etymology and definition

Darśana, also darśana or darshanam, Sanskrit: दर्शन from dṛś, meaning "to see", vision, apparition, or glimpse.

Darshana is described as an "auspicious sight" of a holy person, which bestows merit on the person who is seen.[1] "Sight" here means seeing or beholding, and/or being seen or beheld.

It is most commonly used for theophany, "manifestation / visions of the divine", in Hindu worship, e.g. of a deity (especially in image form), or a very holy person or artifact. One can receive darshana or a glimpse of the deity in the temple, or from a great saintly person, such as a great guru.[3]

In Hinduism

The term darshana also refers to the six systems of thought, called darśanam, that comprise classical Hindu philosophy.[4][5] The term therein implies how each of these six systems distinctively look at things and the scriptures in Indian philosophies.[5][6] The six orthodox Hindu darshana are Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mimamsa, and Vedanta. Buddhism and Jainism are examples of non-Hindu darshans.[6]

In Mahayana Buddhism

On the significance of darśana in Mahayana thought, Paul Harrison writes: "By the second century CE... the vision of the Buddha (buddha-darśana) and the accompanying hearing of the Dharma (dharma-śravaṇa) are represented as a transformation experience of decisive importance for practitioners, be they who have renounced (mundane life) "ascetics" or householders."[7]

The Abhidharma, collections of systematic summaries of the sutras, mention Darśana-citta, i.e. visions.[8]

Indian Mahayana philosophers Vasubandhu and Asanga acknowledged five paths to liberation, of which the third is darśana-marga, the "path of seeing".[9]

Nagarjuna, a prominent philosopher of the Madhyamaka school of Mahayana Buddhism, wrote that the wise person perceives tattva-darśana, true reality.[10][11]

Other meanings

Darshana also sometimes has a more mundane meaning. For example, Sivananda Saraswati wrote in his book The Practice of Brahmacharya that one of the eight aspects of brahmacharya (celibacy) is not to look lustfully at women: "You should carefully avoid... Darshana or looking at women with passionate resolve".[12]

Scholar of religion Richard H. Davis has said that darśana (viewpoint, philosophical school) is one of three terms in classical Indian discourse that could be considered roughly analogous to what today's English-speakers understand as "religion." The other two terms are dharma (duty, morality, a code of proper conduct) and marga (route, spiritual path). According to Davis, "most Hindu texts accepted that religious paths (marga) are relative to the points of view (darśana) and moral responsibilities (dharma) of practitioners, whose individual circumstances may make one or another course of action more appropriate in their particular situations."[13]

Poet Gary Snyder has given a naturalistic meaning to darshana:

It's a gift; it's like there's a moment in which the thing is ready to let you see it. In India, this is called darshan. Darshan means getting a view, and if the clouds blow away, as they did once for me, and you get a view of the Himalayas from the foothills, an Indian person would say, 'Ah, the Himalayas are giving you their darshana'; they're letting you have their view. This comfortable, really deep way of getting a sense of something takes time. It doesn't show itself to you right away. It isn't even necessary to know the names of things the way a botanist would. It's more important to be aware of the 'suchness' of the thing; it's a reality. It's also a source of a certain kind of inspiration for creativity. I see it in the work of Georgia O'Keeffe..."[14]

In Sikh culture, folios or manuscripts that depict all ten Gurus on a single page are called darshana paintings, simply because they offer a vision of all ten sacred Gurus in one glance.

See also


  1. 1 2 Flood 2011, p. 194.
  2. Klaus Klostermaier (2007), Hinduism: A Beginner's Guide, ISBN 978-1851685387, Chapter 2, page 26
  3. "Darshan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  4. Andrew Nicholson (2013), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231149877, pages 2-5
  5. 1 2 Roy Perrett (2000), Indian Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-1135703226, pages 88, 284
  6. 1 2 Darshan - Hinduism Encyclopedia Britannica (2015)
  7. Paul Harrison, "Commemoration and identification in Buddhanusmṛti", in Gyatso 1992, p. 223
  8. Gyatso 1992, p. 288
  9. Gethin 1998, p. 194
  10. "Chapter 26". Mūlamadhyamakakārikā [Fundamental Verses on the Middle Way]. verse 10.
  11. Unno 1993, p. 347
  12. Sivananda 1988, p. 24
  13. Davis 2008, pp. 363–364
  14. White 1994, p. 148


  • Davis, Richard H. (2008). "Tolerance and hierarchy: accommodating multiple religious paths in Hinduism". In Neusner, Jacob; Chilton, Bruce. Religious tolerance in world religions. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press. pp. 360–376. ISBN 1599471361. OCLC 174500978. 
  • Flood, Gavin D. (2011), "Miracles in Hinduism", in Twelftree, Graham H., The Cambridge Companion to Miracles, Cambridge University Press 
  • Gethin, Rupert (1998). The foundations of Buddhism. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192892231. OCLC 38392391. 
  • Gyatso, Janet, ed. (1992). In the mirror of memory: reflections on mindfulness and remembrance in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0791410773. OCLC 24068984. 
  • Sivananda, Sri Swami (1988) [1934]. The practice of brahmacharya (PDF) (1st revised ed.). Shivanandanagar, Uttar Pradesh: Divine Life Society. ISBN 8170520673. 
  • Unno, Taitetsu (1993). "San-lun, T'ien T'ai, and Hua-yen". In Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Bragt, Jan van. Buddhist spirituality: Indian, Southeast Asian, Tibetan, and early Chinese. World spirituality. New York: Crossroad. pp. 343–365. ISBN 0824512774. OCLC 27432658. 
  • White, Jonathan, ed. (1994). Talking on the water: conversations about nature and creativity. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. ISBN 0871565153. OCLC 27640603. 
  • Purdom, C.B., ed. (1955). God to Man and Man to God: the Discourses of Meher Baba. London: Victor Gollancz. 

Further reading

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