Not to be confused with hyphen or minus sign.
For other uses, see Dash (disambiguation).

En dash Em dash Figure dash

The dash is a punctuation mark that is similar to a hyphen or minus sign, but differs from both of these symbols primarily in length and function. The most common versions of the dash are the en dash (–) and the em dash (—), whose names historically were loosely associated with the length of a lower-case n and upper-case M, respectively, in commonly used typefaces.

Usage varies both within English and in other languages, but the usual convention in printed English text is as follows:

Common dashes

There are several forms of dash, of which the most common are:

glyph Unicode codepoint[2] HTML character entity reference HTML/XML numeric character references TeX Alt code (Windows) OS X key combination Compose key vim digraph Microsoft Word key combination GTK+ apps (e.g. LibreOffice on Xorg)
figure dash U+2012 ‒
Ctrl+⇧ Shiftu2012
en dash U+2013 – –
-- Alt+0150 ⌥ Opt
Num -
Ctrl+⇧ Shiftu2013
em dash U+2014 — —
--- Alt+0151 ⌥ Opt
⇧ Shift
Num -
Ctrl+⇧ Shiftu2014
horizontal bar U+2015 ― ―
Ctrl+⇧ Shiftu2015
swung dash U+2053 ⁓
$\sim$ Ctrl+⇧ Shiftu2053

Less common are the two-em dash (⸺) and three-em dash (⸻), both added to Unicode with version 6.1 as U+2E3A and U+2E3B. Windows character codes require that Num Lock be on.

Figure dash

The figure dash (‒) is so named because it is the same width as a digit, at least in fonts with digits of equal width. This is true of most fonts, not only monospaced fonts.

The figure dash is used when a dash must be used within numbers (e.g. phone number 555‒0199). It does not indicate a range, for which the en dash is used; nor does it function as the minus sign, which also uses a separate glyph.

The figure dash is often unavailable; in this case, one may use a hyphen-minus instead. In Unicode, the figure dash is U+2012 (decimal 8210). HTML authors must use the numeric forms ‒ or ‒ to type it unless the file is in Unicode; there is no equivalent character entity.

In TeX, the standard fonts have no figure dash; however, the digits normally all have the same width as the en dash, so an en dash can be substituted when using standard TeX fonts. In XeLaTeX, one could use \char"2012 [3] (Linux Libertine font has the figure dash glyph).

En dash

The en dash, n dash, n-rule, or "nut" () is traditionally half the width of an em dash.[4][5] In modern fonts, the length of the en dash is not standardized, and the en dash is often more than half the width of the em dash.[6] The widths of en and em dashes have also been specified as being equal to those of the upper-case letters N and M respectively,[7][8] and at other times to the widths of the lower-case letters.[6][9]

Modes of use

Ranges of values

The en dash is commonly used to indicate a closed range of values—a range with clearly defined and finite upper and lower boundaries—roughly signifying what might otherwise be communicated by the word "through".[10] This may include ranges such as those between dates, times, or numbers.[11][12][13][14] Various style guides restrict this range indication style to only parenthetical or tabular matter, requiring "to" or "through" in running text. Examples of this usage include:

En dash range style (e.g., APA*) Hyphen range style (e.g., AMA*) Running text spell-out
June–July 1967 June-July 1967 June and July 1967
1:15–2:15 p.m. 1:15-2:15 p.m. 1:15 to 2:15 p.m.
For ages 3–5 For ages 3-5 For ages 3 through 5
pp. 38–55 pp. 38-55 pages 38 to 55
President Jimmy Carter (1977–81) President Jimmy Carter (1977-81) President Jimmy Carter, in office from 1977 to 1981
*Other style differences (e.g., APA "p.m." and "pp." vs. AMA "PM" and "pp") are ignored for the purpose of this comparison.

The preference for an en dash instead of a hyphen in ranges is a matter of style preference, not inherent orthographic "correctness"; both are equally "correct", and each is the preferred style in some style guides. For example, APA style uses an en dash in ranges, but AMA style uses a hyphen.

Various style guides (including the Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI) and the AMA Manual of Style) recommend that when a number range might be misconstrued as subtraction, the word "to" should be used instead of an en dash. For example, "a voltage of 50 V to 100 V" is preferable to using "a voltage of 50–100 V". Relatedly, in ranges that include negative numbers, "to" is used to avoid ambiguity or awkwardness (for example, "temperatures ranged from −18 °C to −34 °C"). It is also considered poor style (best avoided) to use the en dash in place of the words to or and in phrases that follow the forms from X to Y and between X and Y.[12][13]

Relationships and connections

The en dash can also be used to contrast values, or illustrate a relationship between two things.[11][14] Examples of this usage include:

Among writers who use en dashes in these contexts, a distinction is often made between "simple" attributive compounds (written with a hyphen) and other subtypes (written with an en dash); at least one authority considers name pairs, where the paired elements carry equal weight, as in the Taft–Hartley Act to be "simple",[12] while others consider an en dash appropriate in instances such as this[15][16][17] to represent the parallel relationship, as in the McCain–Feingold bill or Bose–Einstein statistics. However, there is a difference between something named for a parallel/coordinate relationship between two people (for example, Bose and Einstein) and something named for a single person who had a compound surname, which may be written with a hyphen or a space but not an en dash (for example, the Lennard-Jones potential [hyphen] is named after one person, as are Bence Jones proteins and Hughlings Jackson syndrome [space]). Copyeditors use dictionaries (general, medical, biographical, and geographical) to confirm the eponymity (and thus the styling) for specific terms, given that no one can know them all offhand.

The preference for an en dash instead of a hyphen in these coordinate/relationship/connection types of terms is a matter of style preference, not inherent orthographic "correctness"; both are equally "correct", and each is the preferred style in some style guides. For example, the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, the AMA Manual of Style, and Dorland's medical reference works use hyphens, not en dashes, in coordinate terms (such as blood–brain barrier), in eponyms (such as Cheyne–Stokes respiration, Kaplan–Meier method), and so on.

Attributive compounds

In English, the en dash is usually used instead of a hyphen in compound (phrasal) attributives in which one or both elements is itself a compound, especially when the compound element is an open compound, meaning it is not itself hyphenated. This manner of usage may include such examples as:[12][13][18][19]

The disambiguating value of the en dash in these patterns was illustrated by Strunk and White in The Elements of Style with the following example: when Chattanooga News and Chattanooga Free Press merged, the joint company was inaptly named Chattanooga News-Free Press, which could be interpreted as meaning that their newspapers were news-free.[20]

An exception to the use of en dashes is usually made when prefixing an already-hyphenated compound; an en dash is generally avoided as a distraction in this case. Examples of this include:[20]

An en dash can be retained to avoid ambiguity, but whether any ambiguity is plausible is a judgment call. AMA style retains the en dashes in the following examples,[21] but one could argue that some perverseness may be needed to construe the hyphens-only alternative as ambiguous:

Differing recommendations

As discussed above, the en dash is sometimes recommended instead of a hyphen in compound adjectives where neither part of the adjective modifies the other—that is, when each modifies the noun, as in love–hate relationship. The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS), however, limits the use of the en dash to two main purposes:

That is, it favors hyphens in instances where some other guides suggest en dashes, the 16th edition explaining that "Chicago's sense of the en dash does not extend to between" to rule out its use in "US-Canadian relations".[23]

In these two uses, en dashes normally do not have spaces around them. An exception is made when avoiding spaces may cause confusion or look odd. For example, compare 12 June  3 July with 12 June–3 July.[24]

Parenthetic and other uses at the sentence level

Like em dashes, en dashes can be used instead of colons or pairs of commas that mark off a nested clause or phrase. They can also be used around parenthetical expressions  such as this one  in place of the em dashes preferred by some publishers,[25] particularly where short columns are used, since em dashes can look awkward at the end of a line. (See En dash versus em dash below.) In these situations, en dashes must have a single space on each side.

Itemization mark

Either the en dash or the em dash may be used as a bullet at the start of each item in a bulleted list. (This is a matter of graphic design rather than orthography.)



In most uses of en dashes, such as when used in indicating ranges, they are closed up to the joined words. It is only when en dashes take the role of em dashes – for example, in setting off parenthetical statements such as this one – that they take spaces around them.[26] For more on the choice of em versus en in this context, see En dash versus em dash.

Encoding, substitution, and keyboard shortcuts

When an en dash is unavailable in a particular character encoding environment—as in the ASCII character set—there are some conventional substitutions. Often two hyphens are the substitute.

Keyboard shortcuts vary by operating system and by application. In TeX, the en dash may normally (depending on the font) be input as a double hyphen-minus (--). In LaTeX you can also use the macro (\textendash). On Mac OS X, most keyboard layouts map an en dash to ⌥ Opt+-. On Microsoft Windows, an en dash may be entered as Alt+0150 (where the digits are typed on the numeric keypad while holding down the Alt key). In Linux (GTK+ v. 2.10+ applications only, see Unicode input), it is entered by holding down Ctrl+Shift and typing U followed by its Unicode code point, 2013, or using the compose key by pressing the compose key, two hyphens, and a period. In Microsoft Word, the standard shortcut is ctrl+number pad hyphen. But in this or any other word processing app, one can also easily create custom shortcuts, such that, for example, ctrl+hyphen keeps the fingers near the home row.

In Unicode, the en dash is U+2013 (decimal 8211). In HTML, one may use the numeric forms – or –; there is also the HTML entity –.

The en dash is sometimes used as a substitute for the minus sign, when the minus sign character is not available, since the en dash is usually the same width as a plus sign. For example, the original 8-bit Macintosh character set had an en dash, useful for the minus sign, years before Unicode with a dedicated minus sign was available. The hyphen-minus is usually too narrow to make a typographically acceptable minus sign. However, the en dash cannot be used for a minus sign in programming languages because the syntax usually requires a hyphen-minus.

Em dash

The em dash, m dash, m-rule, or "mutton"[27] () is longer than an en dash. The character is called an em dash because it is one em wide, a length that varies depending on the font size. One em is the same length as the font's height (which is typically measured in points). So in 9-point type, an em dash is 9 points wide, while in 24-point type the em dash is 24 points wide. By comparison, the en dash, with its 1-en width, is in most fonts either a half-em wide[28] or the width of an "n".[29]

Modes of use

The em dash is used in several ways: primarily in places where a set of parentheses or a colon might otherwise be used,[30] it can show an abrupt change in thought or be used where a full stop (period) is too strong and a comma too weak. Em dashes are also used to set off summaries or definitions.[31] Common uses and definitions are cited below with examples.

Colon-like use
Simple equivalence (or near-equivalence) of colon and em dash
Inversion of the function of a colon
Parentheses-like use
Simple equivalence (or near-equivalence) of paired parenthetical marks
Subtle differences in punctuation

It may indicate an interpolation stronger than that demarcated by parentheses, as in the following from Nicholson Baker's The Mezzanine. (The degree of difference is subjective.)

Interruption of a speaker
Interruption by someone else

In this use, it is sometimes doubled:

In a related use, it may visually indicate the shift between speakers when they overlap in speech. For example, the em dash is used this way in Joseph Heller's Catch-22:

Either an ellipsis or an em dash can indicate aposiopesis, the rhetorical device by which a sentence is stopped short not because of interruption, but because the speaker is too emotional or pensive to continue. Because the ellipsis is the more common choice, an em dash for this purpose may be ambiguous in expository text, as many readers would assume interruption, although it may be used to indicate great emotion in dramatic monologue.
Lord Cardinal! if thou think'st on heaven's bliss,
Hold up thy hand, make signal of that hope.—
He dies, and makes no sigh!
Quotation mark–like use

This is a quotation dash. It may be distinct from an em dash in its coding (see Horizontal bar). It may be used to indicate turns in a dialog, in which case each dash starts a paragraph.[33] It replaces other quotation marks, and was preferred by authors such as James Joyce:[34]

―Oh saints above! Miss Douce said, sighed above her jumping rose. I wished I hadn't laughed so much. I feel all wet
―Oh Miss Douce! Miss Kennedy protested. You horrid thing!
Attribution of quote source
The Walrus and the Carpenter
Were walking close at hand;
They wept like anything to see
Such quantities of sand:
"If this were only cleared away,"
They said, "it would be grand!"

An em dash may be used to indicate omitted letters in a word redacted to an initial or single letter or to fillet a word, by leaving the start and end letters whilst replacing the middle letters with a dash or dashes (for the purposes of censorship or simply data anonymization). In this use, it is sometimes doubled.

Itemization mark

Either the en dash or the em dash may be used as a bullet at the start of each item in a bulleted list, but a plain hyphen is more commonly used (and even mandatory in formats like Markdown).

Typographic details

Spacing and substitution

According to most American sources (such as The Chicago Manual of Style) and some British sources (such as The Oxford Guide to Style), an em dash should always be set closed, meaning it should not be surrounded by spaces. But the practice in some parts of the English-speaking world, including the style recommended by The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage for printed newspapers and the AP Stylebook, sets it open, separating it from its surrounding words by using spaces or hair spaces (U+200A) when it is being used parenthetically.[35][36] The AP Stylebook rejects the use of the open em dash to set off introductory items in lists. Some writers, finding the em dash unappealingly long, prefer to use an open-set en dash. This "space, en dash, space" sequence is also the predominant style in German and French typography. (See En dash versus em dash below.)

On a practical note, when the em dash is set closed (not surrounded by spaces), it makes highlighting in ebooks difficult, as two words are often treated as conjoined.

In Canada, The Canadian Style (A Guide to Writing and Editing), The Oxford Canadian A to Z of Grammar, Spelling & Punctuation, Guide to Canadian English Usage (Second Edition), Editing Canadian English Manual, and the Canadian Oxford Dictionary all specify that an em dash should be set closed when used between words, a word and numeral, or two numerals.

In Australia, the Style manual (For authors, editors and printers, Sixth edition), also specifies that em dashes inserted between words, a word and numeral, or two numerals, should be set closed. A section on the 2-em rule (⸺) also explains that the 2-em can be used to mark an abrupt break in direct or reported speech, but a space is used before the 2-em if a complete word is missing, while no space is used if part of a word exists before the sudden break. Two examples of this are as follows (properly typeset 2-em and 3-em dashes should appear as a single dash, but they may show on this page as several em dashes with spaces in between):

Monospaced fonts that mimic the look of a typewriter have the same width for all characters. Some of these fonts have em and en dashes that more or less fill the monospaced width they have available. For example, the sequence "hyphen, en dash, em dash, minus" shows as "- – — −" in a monospace font.

Encoding and keyboard shortcuts

When an em dash is unavailable in a particular character encoding environment—as in the ASCII character set—it has usually been approximated as a double (--) or triple (---) hyphen-minus. The two-hyphen em dash proxy is perhaps more common, being a widespread convention in the typewriting era. (It is still described for hard copy manuscript preparation in the Chicago Manual of Style as of the 16th edition, although the manual conveys that typewritten manuscript and copyediting on paper are now dated practices). The three-hyphen em dash proxy was popular with various publishers because the sequence of one, two, or three hyphens could then correspond to the hyphen, en dash, and em dash, respectively.

Because early comic book letterers were not aware of the typographic convention of replacing a typewritten double hyphen with an em dash, the double hyphen became traditional in American comics. This practice has continued despite the development of computer lettering.[37][38]

In Unicode, the em dash is U+2014 (decimal 8212). In HTML, one may use the numeric forms — or —; there is also the HTML entity —. In TeX, the em dash may normally be input as a triple hyphen-minus (---). On any Mac, most keyboard layouts map an em dash to ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+-. On Microsoft Windows, an em dash may be entered as Alt+0151, where the digits are typed on the numeric keypad while holding the Alt key down. In the X Window System, it may be entered using the compose key by pressing the compose key and three hyphens. In Microsoft Word, the standard shortcut is ctrl+alt+number pad hyphen. But in this or any other word processing app, one can also easily create custom shortcuts, such that, for example, ctrl+alt+hyphen keeps the fingers near the home row.

En dash versus em dash

These comparisons of the hyphen (-), en dash (–), and em dash (—), in various 12-point fonts, illustrate the typical relationship between lengths ("- n – m —"). In some fonts, the en dash is not much longer than the hyphen, and in Lucida Grande, the en dash is actually shorter than the hyphen (making this default Safari browser font typographically nonstandard).

The en dash is wider than the hyphen but not as wide as the em dash. An em width is defined as the point size of the currently used font, since the M character is not always the width of the point size.[39] In running text, various dash conventions are employed: an em dash—like so—or a spaced em dash — like so — or a spaced en dash – like so – can be seen in contemporary publications.

Various style guides and national varieties of languages prescribe different guidance on dashes. Dashes have been cited as being treated differently in the US and the UK, with the former preferring the use of an em-dash with no additional spacing and the latter preferring a spaced en dash.[25] As examples of the US style, The Chicago Manual of Style and The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association recommend unspaced em dashes. Style guides outside the US are more variable. For example, the Canadian The Elements of Typographic Style recommends the spaced en dash – like so – and argues that the length and visual magnitude of an em dash "belongs to the padded and corseted aesthetic of Victorian typography."[40] In the United Kingdom, the spaced en dash is the house style for certain major publishers, including the Penguin Group, the Cambridge University Press, and Routledge. However, this convention is not universal. The Oxford Guide to Style (2002, section 5.10.10) acknowledges that the spaced en dash is used by "other British publishers" but states that the Oxford University Press, like "most US publishers", uses the unspaced em dash.

The en dash – always with spaces in running text when, as discussed in this section, indicating a parenthesis or pause – and the spaced em dash both have a certain technical advantage over the unspaced em dash. Most typesetting and word processing expects word spacing to vary to support full justification. Alone among punctuation that marks pauses or logical relations in text, the not spaced em dash disables this for the words it falls between. This can cause uneven spacing in the text, but can be mitigated by the use of thin spaces, hair spaces, or even zero-width spaces on the sides of the em dash. This provides the appearance of a not spaced em dash, but allows the words and dashes to break between lines. The spaced em dash risks introducing excessive separation of words. In full justification, the adjacent spaces may be stretched, and the separation of words further exaggerated. En dashes may also be preferred to em dashes when text is set in narrow columns, such as in newspapers and similar publications, since the en dash is smaller. In such cases, its use is based purely on space considerations and is not necessarily related to other typographical concerns.

On the other hand, a spaced en dash may be ambiguous when it is also used for ranges, for example, in dates or between geographical locations with internal spaces.

Horizontal bar

U+2015 HORIZONTAL BAR, also known as a quotation dash, is used to introduce quoted text. This is the standard method of printing dialogue in some languages. The em dash is equally suitable if the quotation dash is unavailable or is contrary to the house style being used.

There is no support in the standard TeX fonts, but one can use \hbox{---}\kern-.5em--- instead, or just use an em dash.

Swung dash

Main article: Tilde § Punctuation

U+2053 SWUNG DASH resembles a lengthened tilde, and is used to separate alternatives or approximates. In dictionaries, it is frequently used to stand in for the term being defined. A dictionary entry providing an example for the term henceforth might employ the swung dash as follows:

henceforth (adv.) from this time forth; from now on; " she will be known as Mrs. Wales"

There are several similar, related characters:

Similar Unicode characters

Sample Repeated
(five times)
Unicode Unicode name Remark
- ----- U+002D hyphen-minus The standard ASCII hyphen. Sometimes this is used in groups to indicate different types of dash.
In programming languages, it is the character usually used to denote operators like the subtraction or the negative sign.
_ _____ U+005F low line A spacing character usually showing a horizontal line below the baseline (i.e. a spacing underscore). It is commonly used within URLs and identifiers in programming languages, where a space-like separation between parts is desired but a real space is not appropriate. As usual for ASCII characters, this character shows a considerable range of glyphic variation; therefore, whether sequences of this character connect depends on the font used.
~ ~~~~~ U+007E tilde Used in programming languages (e.g. for the bitwise NOT operator in C and C++).
Its glyphic representation varies, therefore for punctuation in running text the use of more specific characters is preferred, see above.
U+00AD soft hyphen Used to indicate where a line may break, as in a compound word or between syllables.
¯ ¯¯¯¯¯ U+00AF macron A horizontal line positioned at cap height usually having the same length as U+005F _ LOW LINE. It is a spacing character, related to the diacritic mark "macron". A sequence of such characters is not expected to connect, unlike U+203E OVERLINE.
ˉ ˉˉˉˉˉ U+02C9 modifier letter macron A phonetic symbol (a line applied above the base letter).
ˍ ˍˍˍˍˍ U+02CD modifier letter low macron A phonetic symbol (a line applied below the base letter).
˗ ˗˗˗˗˗ U+02D7 modifier letter minus sign A variant of the minus sign used in phonetics to mark a retracted or backed articulation. It may show small end-serifs.
˜ ˜˜˜˜˜ U+02DC small tilde A spacing clone of tilde diacritic mark.
‐‐‐‐‐ U+2010 hyphen The character that can be used to unambiguously represent a hyphen.
U+2011 non-breaking hyphen Also called "hard hyphen", denotes a hyphen after which no word wrapping may apply. This is the case where the hyphen is part of a trigraph or tetragraph denoting a specific sound (like in the Swiss placename "S-chanf"), or where specific orthographic rules prevent a line break (like in German compounds of single-letter abbreviations and full nouns, as "E-Mail").
‒‒‒‒‒ U+2012 figure dash Similar to an en-dash, but with the same advance width as lining figures. The vertical position may also be centred on the zero digit, and thus higher than the en-dash and em-dash, which are designed for use with lowercase text in a vertical position similar to the hyphen.
‾‾‾‾‾ U+203E overline A character similar to U+00AF ¯ MACRON, but a sequence of such characters usually connects.
⁃⁃⁃⁃⁃ U+2043 hyphen bullet A short horizontal line used as a list bullet.
⁻⁻⁻⁻⁻ U+207B superscript minus Usually is used together with superscripted numbers.
₋₋₋₋₋ U+208B subscript minus Usually is used together with subscripted numbers.
−−−−− U+2212 minus sign An arithmetic operation used in mathematics to represent subtraction or negative numbers.
∼∼∼∼∼ U+223C tilde operator Used in mathematics. Ends not curved as much regular tilde. In TeX and LaTeX, this character can be expressed using the math mode command $\sim$.
⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ U+23AF horizontal line extension Miscellaneous Technical (Unicode block). Can be used in sequences to generate long connected horizontal lines.
⏤⏤⏤⏤⏤ U+23E4 straightness Miscellaneous Technical (Unicode block). Represents line straightness in technical context.
───── U+2500 box drawings light horizontal Box-drawing characters. Several similar characters from one Unicode block used to draw horizontal lines.
➖➖➖➖➖ U+2796 heavy minus sign Unicode symbols.
⸺⸺⸺⸺⸺ U+2E3A two-em dash Supplemental Punctuation.
⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻ U+2E3B three-em dash Supplemental Punctuation.
𐆑 𐆑𐆑𐆑𐆑𐆑 U+10191 roman uncia sign Uncia (unit). A symbol for an ancient Roman unit of length.

Similar Unicode characters used in specific writing systems

See also: Writing system

In other languages

In many languages, such as Polish, the em dash is used as an opening quotation mark. There is no matching closing quotation mark; typically a new paragraph will be started, introduced by a dash, for each turn in the dialog.

Corpus studies indicate that em dashes are more commonly used in Russian than in English.[41] In Russian, the em dash is used for the present copula (meaning "am"/"is"/"are"), which is unpronounced in spoken Russian.

In French, em or en dashes can be used as parentheses (brackets), but the use of a second dash as a closing parenthesis is optional. When a closing dash is not used the sentence is ended with a period (full-stop) as usual. Dashes are, however, much less common than parentheses.

In Spanish, em dashes can be used to mark off parenthetical phrases. Unlike in English, the em dashes are spaced like brackets, i.e., there is a space between main sentence and dash, but not between parenthetical phrase and dash.[42]

Una bandada de gorriones —algunos de ellos jóvenes— se posó y cantó.

Rendering dashes on computers

Typewriters and early computers have traditionally had only a limited character set, often having no key that produces a dash. In consequence, it became common to substitute the nearest available punctuation mark or symbol. Em dashes are often represented in British usage by a single hyphen-minus surrounded by spaces, or in American usage by two hyphen-minuses surrounded by spaces.

Modern computer software typically has support for many more characters and is usually capable of rendering both the en and em dashes correctly—albeit sometimes with an inconvenient input method. Some software, though, may operate in a more limited mode. Some text editors, for example, are restricted to working with a single 8-bit character encoding, and when unencodable characters are entered—for example by pasting from the clipboard—they are often blindly converted to question marks. Sometimes this happens to em and en dashes, even when the 8-bit encoding supports them or when an alternative representation using hyphen-minuses is an option.

Any kind of dash can be used directly in an HTML document, but HTML also lets them be entered using character references. The em dash and the en dash are special in that they can be written using character entity references as — and –, respectively.

See also


  1. MHRA Style Guide: A Handbook for Authors, Editors, and Writers of Theses, 2nd ed, p. 26. Modern Humanities Research Association (London). Accessed 3 February 2013.
  2. Characters in Unicode are referenced in prose via the "U+" notation. The hexadecimal number after the "U+" is the character's Unicode code point.
  3. figure dash in XeLaTeX
  4. Southward, John (1884). Practical printing: a handbook of the art of typography (2nd ed.). J.M. Powell & Son. p. 7.
  5. Spivak, Michael (1980). The joy of TEX: a gourmet guide to typesetting with the AMS-TEX macro package (2nd ed.). AMS Bookstore. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-8218-2997-4.
  6. 1 2 Strizver, Ilene (2010). Type Rules: The Designer's Guide to Professional Typography (3rd ed.). John Wiley and Sons. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-470-54251-4.
  7. Susan E. L. Lake & Karen Bean (2007). Digital Multimedia: The Business of Technology (2nd ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-538-44527-6.
  8. French, Nigel (2006). InDesign type: professional typography with Adobe InDesign CS2. Adobe Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-321-38544-4.
  9. Edward D. Johnson (1991). The handbook of good English. Simon and Schuster. p. 335. ISBN 978-0-671-70797-2.
  10. Lamb, David. "Hyphens, En Dashes, and Em Dashes: Correct Usage". Academic Writing Tutor. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  11. 1 2 Griffith, Benjamin W; et al. (2004). Pocket Guide to Correct Grammar. Barron's Pocket Guides. Woodbury, NY: Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 0-7641-2690-3.
  12. 1 2 3 4 Judd, Karen (2001). Copyediting: A Practical Guide. Menlo Park, Calif: Crisp Publications. ISBN 1-56052-608-4.
  13. 1 2 3 Loberger, Gordon; Welsh, Kate Shoup (2001). Webster's new world English grammar handbook. New York: Hungry Minds. ISBN 0-7645-6488-9.
  14. 1 2 3 Ives, George Burnham (1921). Text, type and style: A compendium of Atlantic usage. Atlantic Monthly Press. p. 125. The en-dash... may stand for the word 'and' or 'to' in such phrases as 'the Radical–Unionist Coalition,' 'the Boston–Hartford Air Line'; 'the period of Republican supremacy, 1860–84'; 'pp. 224–30.'
  15. Garner, B: Modern American Usage, Second Edition, page 657. Oxford University Press, 2003.
  16. Bryan A. Garner (2001). Legal writing in plain English: a text with exercises. Chicago guides to writing, editing, and publishing (illustrated, reprinted ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-226-28418-7. 6.1 Use an en-dash as an equivalent of to (as when showing a span of pages), to express tension or difference, or to denote a pairing in which the elements carry equal weight.
  17. Dupré, Lynn (1998). Bugs in Writing (Revised ed.). Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-201-37921-1. use en dashes when you have an equal-weighted pair serving as an adjective, such as love–hate relationship.
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  22. The Chicago Manual of Style (15th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2003. pp. 261–265. ISBN 0-226-10403-6.
  23. The Chicago Manual of Style Online (16th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2010. p. 6.80.
  24. Shaw, Harry (1986). Errors in English and Ways to Correct Them. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers. p. 185. ISBN 0-06-097047-2.
  25. 1 2 Will, Hill (2010). The Complete Typographer: A Foundation Course for Graphic Designers Working With Type (3rd ed.). Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-28894-8.
  26. Oxford University Press, "4.11.1 En rule", New Hart's Rules: The Oxford Style Guide.
  27. Stewart, A.A., Typesetting: a primer of information about working at the case, justifying, spacing, correcting, making-up, and other operations employed in setting type by hand. Typographic Technical Series For Apprentices, Part II, No. 16., Chicago, IL, US: Committee on Education, United Typothetae of America, 1919.
  28. Ritter, R.M. (2002). The Oxford Guide to Style. Oxford University Press. p. 140. ISBN 0-19-869175-0. The en rule is, as its name indicates, an en in length, which makes it longer than a hyphen and half the length of an em rule.
  29. Bryony Gomez-Palacio & Armin Vit (2009). Graphic design, referenced: a visual guide to the language, applications, and history of graphic design. Rockport Publishers. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-59253-447-0.
  30. Oxford University Press, "4.11.2 Em rule", New Hart's Rules: The Oxford Style Guide.
  31. Woods, Geraldine (2005). Webster's New World punctuation: simplified and applied. Webster's New World. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-7645-9916-3.
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  33. The Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition), paragraph 6.88 (p. 335).
  34. Joyce, James (1922). Ulysses. London: The Bodley Head. p. 335 lines 7–11.
  35. Yin, Karen (31 May 2016). "Em Dashes and Ellipses: Closed or Spaced Out?". AP vs. Chicago. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
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  38. Klein, Todd. "Punctuating Comics: Dots and Dashes". Retrieved 29 December 2012.
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