Juventus F.C.

"Juventus" redirects here. For other uses, see Juventus (disambiguation).
"Juve" redirects here. For the football club in Lega Pro, see S.S. Juve Stabia.

Full name Juventus Football Club S.p.A.
Nickname(s) [La] Vecchia Signora (The Old Lady)
[La] Fidanzata d'Italia (The Girlfriend of Italy)
[La] Madama (Piedmontese for: Madam)
[I] Bianconeri (The White and Blacks)
[Le] Zebre (The Zebras)
[La] Signora Omicidi (The Killer Lady)[1]
[La] Goeba (Gallo-Italic for: Hunchback)
Short name Juve, JFC
Founded 1 November 1897 (1897-11-01), as Sport-Club Juventus[2]
Ground Juventus Stadium
Ground Capacity 41,507[3]

Agnelli family (through EXOR S.p.A)

Chairman Andrea Agnelli
Manager Massimiliano Allegri
League Serie A
2015–16 Serie A, 1st
Website Club home page

Juventus Football Club S.p.A. (from Latin iŭventūs, "youth"; Italian pronunciation: [juˈvɛntus]), colloquially known as Juve (pronounced [ˈjuːve]),[4] is a professional Italian association football club based in Turin, Piedmont. Founded in 1897 as Sport-Club Juventus by a group of young Torinese students,[2] among them, who was their first president, Eugenio Canfari, and his brother Enrico, author of the company's historical memory;[5][6][7] they have been managed by the industrial Agnelli family since 1923, which constitutes the oldest sporting partnership in Italy, thus making Juventus the first professional club in the country.[8][9] The club is the second oldest of its kind still active in the country after Genoa's football section and has spent the entire of its history, with the exception of the 2006–07 season, in the top flight First Division (known as Serie A since 1929).

Over time, the club has become a symbol of the nation's Italianità ("Italianness"),[10][11][12] due to their tradition of success, some of which have had a significant impact in Italian society, especially in the 1930s and the first post-war decade;[13] and the ideological politics and socio-economic origin of the club's sympathisers.[14] This is reflected, among others, in the club's contribution to the national team, uninterrupted since the second half of the 1920s and recognised as one of the most influential in international football, having performed a decisive role in the World Cup triumphs of 1934, 1982 and 2006.[15][16] The club's fan base is larger than any other Italian football club and is one of the largest worldwide. Support for Juventus is widespread throughout the country and abroad, mainly in countries with a significant presence of Italian immigrants.[17][18]

Juventus is the most successful club in Italian football and one of the most awarded globally.[19][20][21] Overall, they have won sixty-one official titles on the national and international stage, more than any other Italian club: a record thirty-two official league titles, a record eleven Coppa Italia titles, a record seven Supercoppa Italiana titles, and, with eleven titles in confederation and inter-confederation competitions (two Intercontinental Cups, two European Champion Clubs' Cup/UEFA Champions Leagues, one European Cup Winners' Cup, three UEFA Cups, two UEFA Super Cups and one UEFA Intertoto Cup) the club ranks fourth in Europe and eighth in the world with the most trophies won.[22]

In 1985, under the management of Giovanni Trapattoni, who led the Torinese team to thirteen official trophies in ten years until 1986, including six league titles and five international titles; Juventus became the first club in the history of European football to have won all three major competitions organised by the Union of European Football Associations: the European Champions' Cup, the (now-defunct) Cup Winners' Cup and the UEFA Cup (the first Italian and Southern European side to win the tournament).[23][24][25] After their triumph in the Intercontinental Cup the same year, the club also became the first in football history—and remains the only one at present—to have won all possible official continental competitions and the world title.[26][27][28] According to the all-time ranking published in 2009 by the International Federation of Football History and Statistics, an organisation recognised by FIFA, based on clubs' performance in international competitions, Juventus were Italy's best club and second in Europe of the 20th century.[21]


Early years

Historic first ever Juventus club shot, 1898.

Juventus were founded as Sport-Club Juventus in late 1897 by pupils from the Massimo D'Azeglio Lyceum school in Turin,[29] but were renamed as Foot-Ball Club Juventus two years later.[2] The club joined the Italian Football Championship during 1900. In 1904 the businessman Ajmone-Marsan revived the finances of the football club Juventus, making it also possible to transfer the training field from Piazza d'Armi to the more appropriate Velodrome Umberto I. During this period the team wore a pink and black kit. Juventus first won the league championship in 1905 while playing at their Velodrome Umberto I ground. By this time the club colours had changed to black and white stripes, inspired by English side Notts County.[30]

There was a split at the club in 1906, after some of the staff considered moving Juve out of Turin.[2] President Alfred Dick[31] was unhappy with this and left with some prominent players to found FBC Torino which in turn spawned the Derby della Mole.[32] Juventus spent much of this period steadily rebuilding after the split, surviving the First World War.[30]

League dominance

Fiat owner Edoardo Agnelli gained control of the club in 1923, and built a new stadium.[2] This helped the club to its second scudetto (league championship) in the 1925–26 season beating Alba Roma with an aggregate score of 12–1, Antonio Vojak's goals were essential that season.[30] The club established itself as a major force in Italian football since the 1930s, becoming the country's first professional club and the first with a decentralised fan base,[8][33] which led it to win a record of five consecutive Italian championships the first four under the management of Carlo Carcano and form the core of the Italy national team during the Vittorio Pozzo's era, including the 1934 world champion squad.[34] With star players such as Raimundo Orsi, Luigi Bertolini, Giovanni Ferrari and Luis Monti amongst others.

Sívori, Charles, and Boniperti: the Magical Trio.

Juventus moved to the Stadio Comunale, but for the rest of the 1930s and the majority of the 1940s they were unable to recapture championship dominance. After the Second World War, Gianni Agnelli was appointed honorary president.[2] The club added two more league championships to its name in the 1949–50 and 1951–52 seasons, the latter of which was under the management of Englishman Jesse Carver. Two new strikers were signed during 1957–58; Welshman John Charles and Italo-Argentine Omar Sívori, playing alongside longtime member Giampiero Boniperti. That season saw Juventus awarded with the Golden Star for Sport Excellence to wear on their shirts after becoming the first Italian side to win ten league titles. In the same season, Sívori became the first ever player at the club to win the European Footballer of the Year.[35] The following season they beat Fiorentina to complete their first league and cup double, winning Serie A and Coppa Italia. Boniperti retired in 1961 as the all-time top scorer at the club, with 182 goals in all competitions, a club record which stood for 45 years.[36]

During the rest of the decade, the club won the league just once more in 1966–67,[30] The 1970s, however, saw Juventus further solidify their strong position in Italian football. Under former player Čestmír Vycpálek, they won the scudetto in 1971–72 and 1972–73,[30] with players such as Roberto Bettega, Franco Causio and José Altafini breaking through. During the rest of the decade, they won the league twice more, with defender Gaetano Scirea contributing significantly. The later win was under Giovanni Trapattoni, who also led the club to their first ever major European title, the UEFA Cup, in 1977, and helped the club's domination continue on into the early part of the 1980s.[37] During Trapattoni's tenure, many Juventus players also formed the backbone of the Italy national team during Enzo Bearzot's successful managerial era, including the 1978 World Cup, UEFA Euro 1980 and 1982 world champion squads.[38][39]

European stage

Michel Platini holding the Ballon d'Or in bianconeri (black and white) colours.

"I played for Nancy because it was my hometown club and the best in Lorraine, for Saint-Étienne because it was the best team in France, and for Juventus because it is the best team in the world!"[40]

—Platini after his final match in Serie A against Brescia, in 1987.

The Trapattoni era was highly successful in the 1980s; the club started the decade off well, winning the league title three more times by 1984.[30] This meant Juventus had won 20 Italian league titles and were allowed to add a second golden star to their shirt, thus becoming the only Italian club to achieve this.[37] Around this time, the club's players were attracting considerable attention; Paolo Rossi was named European Footballer of the Year following his contribution to Italy's victory in the 1982 World Cup, where he was named Player of the Tournament.[41]

Frenchman Michel Platini was also awarded the European Footballer of the Year title for three years in a row in 1983, 1984 and 1985, which is a record.[35] Juventus are the only club to have players from their club winning the award in four consecutive years.[35] Indeed, it was Platini who scored the winning goal in the 1985 European Cup final against Liverpool, however this was marred by a tragedy which changed European football.[42] That year, Juventus became the first club in the history of European football to have won all three major UEFA competitions[24][25] and, after their triumph in the Intercontinental Cup, the club also became the first in association football history—and remain the world's only one at present—to have won all possible confederation competitions and the club world title.[43]

With the exception of winning the closely contested Italian Championship of 1985–86, the rest of the 1980s were not very successful for the club. As well as having to contend with Diego Maradona's Napoli, both of the Milanese clubs, Milan and Internazionale, won Italian championships; Juventus did win a Coppa Italia-UEFA Cup double in 1990 under the guidance of former club legend Dino Zoff, however.[30] In 1990, Juventus also moved into their new home, the Stadio delle Alpi, which was built for the 1990 World Cup.[44] Despite the arrival of Italian star Roberto Baggio later that year for a world record transfer fee, the early 1990s under Luigi Maifredi and subsequently Trapattoni once again also saw little success for Juventus, as they only managed to win the UEFA Cup in 1993.[45]

Another Champions League title and first Supercoppa Italiana

Marcello Lippi took over as Juventus manager at the start of the 1994–95 campaign.[2] His first season at the helm of the club was a successful one, as Juventus recorded their first Serie A championship title since the mid-1980s, as well as the Coppa Italia.[30] The crop of players during this period featured Ciro Ferrara, Roberto Baggio, Gianluca Vialli and a young Alessandro Del Piero. Lippi led Juventus to their first Supercoppa Italiana, and the Champions League the following season, beating Ajax on penalties after a 1–1 draw in which Fabrizio Ravanelli scored for Juve.[46]

Alessandro Del Piero lifting the European Cup after Juventus' victory in the 1995–96 UEFA Champions League

The club did not rest long after winning the European Cup: more highly regarded players were brought into the fold in the form of Zinedine Zidane, Filippo Inzaghi and Edgar Davids. At home, Juventus won the 1996–97 and 1997–98 Serie A titles, as well as the 1996 UEFA Super Cup[47] and the 1996 Intercontinental Cup.[48] Juventus reached the 1997 and 1998 Champions League finals during this period, but lost out to Borussia Dortmund and Real Madrid respectively.[49][50]

After a two-and-a-half-season absence, Lippi returned to the club in 2001, following his replacement Carlo Ancelotti's dismissal, signing big name players such as Gianluigi Buffon, David Trezeguet, Pavel Nedvěd and Lilian Thuram, helping the team to two more scudetto titles during the 2001–02 and 2002–03 seasons.[30] Juventus were also part of an all Italian Champions League final in 2003 but lost out to Milan on penalties after the game ended in a 0–0 draw. At the conclusion of the following season, Lippi was appointed as the Italy national team's head coach, bringing an end to one of the most fruitful managerial spells in Juventus' history.[37]

Calciopoli scandal

Fabio Capello was appointed as Juventus' coach in 2004 and led the club to two more consecutive Serie A titles. In May 2006, however, Juventus became one of the five clubs linked to a 2006 Italian football scandal, the result of which saw the club relegated to Serie B for the first time in its history. The club was also stripped of the two titles won under Capello in 2005 and 2006.[51]

Many key players left following the demotion to Serie B, including Lillian Thuram, star striker Zlatan Ibrahimović and defensive stalwart Fabio Cannavaro. Other big name players, however, such as Gianluigi Buffon, Alessandro Del Piero, David Trezeguet and Pavel Nedvěd, remained to help the club return to Serie A, while youngsters from the Primavera (youth team), such as Sebastian Giovinco and Claudio Marchisio, were integrated into the first team. Juventus were promoted straight back up to the top division as league winners after the 2006–07 season,[52] while captain Del Piero claimed the top scorer award with 21 goals.

As early as 2010, Juventus considered challenging the stripping of their Scudetti from 2005 and 2006, dependent on the results of trials connected to the 2006 scandal.[53] Subsequent investigations found in 2011 that Juventus' relegation in 2006 was without merit.[54] When former general manager Luciano Moggi's conviction in criminal court in connection with the scandal was thrown out by an appeals court in 2015, the club sued the Italian Football Federation (FIGC) for €443 million for damages caused by their 2006 relegation. FIGC president Carlo Tavecchio offered to discuss reinstatement of the lost Scudetti in exchange for Juventus dropping the lawsuit.[54]

Return to Serie A

After returning to Serie A in the 2007–08 season, Juventus appointed Claudio Ranieri as manager.[55] They finished in third place in their first season back in the top flight, and qualified for the Champions League third qualifying round in the preliminary stages. Juventus reached the group stages, where they beat Real Madrid in both home and away legs, before losing in the knockout round to Chelsea. Ranieri was sacked following a string of unsuccessful results, and Ciro Ferrara was appointed as manager on a temporary basis for the last two games of the 2008–09 season,[56] before being subsequently appointed as the manager for the 2009–10 season.[57]

Ferrara's stint as Juventus manager, however, proved to be unsuccessful, with Juventus knocked out of Champions League and Coppa Italia, and just lying on the sixth place in the league table at the end of January 2010, leading to the dismissal of Ferrara and the naming of Alberto Zaccheroni as caretaker manager. Zaccheroni could not help the side improve, as Juventus finished the season in seventh place in Serie A. For the 2010–11 season, Jean-Claude Blanc was replaced by Andrea Agnelli as the club's president. Agnelli's first action was to replace Zaccheroni and director of sport Alessio Secco with Sampdoria manager Luigi Delneri and director of sport Giuseppe Marotta.[58] Delneri, however, failed to improve their fortunes and was dismissed. Former player and fan favourite Antonio Conte, fresh after winning promotion with Siena, was named as Delneri's replacement.[59] In September 2011, Juventus relocated to the new Juventus Stadium.[60]

"Winning is not important, it is the only thing that counts!"

Giampiero Boniperti on Juventus' winning philosophy, at the inauguration of the Juventus Stadium, in 2011.[61]

Historic back-to-back double

Juventus team before a 2012–13 UEFA Champions League match against Shakhtar Donetsk.

With Conte as manager, Juventus went unbeaten for the entire 2011–12 Serie A season. Towards the second half of the season, the team was mostly competing with northern rivals Milan for first place in a tight contest. Juventus won the title on the 37th matchday, after beating Cagliari 2–0, and Milan losing to Internazionale 4–2. After a 3–1 win in the final matchday against Atalanta, Juventus became the first team to go the season unbeaten in the current 38-game format.[62] Other noteworthy achievements include the biggest away win (5–0 at Fiorentina), best defensive record (20 goals conceded, fewest ever in the current league format) in Serie A and second best in the top six European leagues that year.[63]

In 2013–14, Juventus won a third consecutive Scudetto with a record 102 points and 33 wins.[64][65] The title was the 30th official league championship in the club's history.[66] They also achieved the semi-finals of Europa League being eliminated at home against ten-man Benfica's catenaccio, missing the final at the Juventus Stadium.[67][68] In 2014–15, Massimiliano Allegri was appointed as manager, with whom Juventus won their 31st official title, making it a fourth-straight, as well as achieving a record tenth Coppa Italia for the double.[69] The club also beat Real Madrid in the semi finals of the Champions League 3–2 on aggregate to face Barcelona in the final in Berlin for the first time since the 2002–03 Champions League.[70] Juventus lost the final to Barcelona 3–1 after an early fourth-minute goal from Ivan Rakitić, followed by an Álvaro Morata equalizer in the 55th minute; Barcelona took the lead again with a goal from Luis Suárez in the 70th minute, followed by a final minute goal by Neymar as Juventus were caught out on the counterattack.[71] On 14 December 2015, Juventus won the Serie A Football Club of the Year award for the 2014–15 season, the fourth time in succession.[72] On 25 April 2016, the club won their fifth-straight title (and 32nd overall) since last winning five-straight between 1930–31 and 1934–35, after second place Napoli lost to Roma to give Juventus mathematical certainty of the title with three games to spare; last losing to Sassuolo on 25 October 2015, which left them in 12th place, before taking 73 points of a possible 75.[73] On 21 May, the club then won the Coppa Italia for the 11th time, and their second-straight title, becoming the first team in Italy's history to complete Serie A and Coppa Italia doubles in back-to-back seasons.[74][75][76]

Colours, badge, nicknames and mascot

Juventus have played in black and white striped shirts, with white shorts, sometimes black shorts since 1903. Originally, they played in pink shirts with a black tie. The father of one of the players made the earliest shirts, but continual washing faded the colour so much that in 1903 the club sought to replace them.[77] Juventus asked one of their team members, Englishman John Savage, if he had any contacts in England who could supply new shirts in a colour that would better withstand the elements. He had a friend who lived in Nottingham, who being a Notts County supporter, shipped out the black and white striped shirts to Turin.[77] Juve have worn the shirts ever since, considering the colours to be aggressive and powerful.[77]

The Juventus F.C. badge used between 1993 and 2004.

Juventus Football Club's official emblem has undergone different and small modifications since the 1920s. The last modification of the Juventus badge took place before 2004–05 season. Since then, the emblem of the team is a black-and-white oval shield of a type used by Italian ecclesiastics. It is divided in five vertical stripes: two white stripes and three black stripes, inside which are the following elements; in its upper section, the name of the society superimposed on a white convex section, over golden curvature (gold for honour). The white silhouette of a charging bull is in the lower section of the oval shield, superimposed on a black old French shield; the charging bull is a symbol of the Comune di Torino. There is also a black silhouette of a mural crown above the black spherical triangle's base. This is a reminiscence to Augusta Tourinorum, the old city of the Roman era which the present capital of Piedmont region is its cultural heiress. Juventus was the first team in association football history to adopt a star who added one above their badge in 1958 to represent their tenth Italian Football Championship and Serie A title, at the time and has since become popularized with other clubs as well.[78]

In the past, the convex section of the emblem had a blue colour (another symbol of Turin) and, furthermore, its shape was concave. The old French shield and the mural crown, also in the lower section of the emblem, had a considerably greater size with respect to the present. The two Golden Stars for Sport Excellence were located above the convex and concave section of Juventus' emblem. During the 1980s, the club emblem was the silhouette of a zebra, to both sides of the equide's head, the two golden stars and, above this badge, forming an arc, the club's name.

Juventus unofficially won their 30th league title in 2011–12, but a dispute with the Italian Football Federation, who stripped Juventus of their 2004–05 and 2005–06 titles due to their involvement in a 2006 Italian football scandal, left their official total at 28. However, they elected to wear no stars at all the following season.[79] Juventus won their 30th title in 2013–14 and thus earned the right to wear their third star, however, club president Andrea Agnelli stated that the club suspended the use of the stars until another team wins their 20th championship, thus having the right to wear two stars, "to emphasise Juventus' superiority".[80] However, for the 2015–16 season, Juventus reintroduced the stars and added the third star to their jersey as well with new kit manufacturers Adidas, in addition to the Coppa Italia badge for winning their tenth Coppa Italia the previous season.[81][82] For the 2016–17 season, Juventus re-designed their kit with a different take on the trademark white and black stripes.[83]

The Juventus F.C. mascot "J", introduced in 2015.

During its history, the club has acquired a number of nicknames, la Vecchia Signora (the Old Lady) being the best example. The "old" part of the nickname is a pun on Juventus which means "youth" in Latin. It was derived from the age of the Juventus star players towards the middle of the 1930s. The "lady" part of the nickname is how fans of the club affectionately referred to it before the 1930s. The club is also nicknamed la Fidanzata d'Italia (the Girlfriend of Italy), because over the years it has received a high level of support from Southern Italian immigrant workers (particularly from Naples and Palermo), who arrived in Turin to work for FIAT since the 1930s. Other nicknames include; [La] Madama (Piedmontese for: Madam), i bianconeri (the black-and-whites), le zebre (the zebras[84]) in reference to Juventus' colours. I gobbi (the hunchbacks) is the nickname that is used to define Juventus supporters, but is also used sometimes for team's players. The most widely accepted origin of gobbi dates to the fifties, when the Bianconeri wore a large jersey. When players ran on the field, the jersey, which had a laced opening at the chest, generated a bulge over the back (a sort of parachute effect), making the players look hunchbacked.[85]

On 10 September 2015, Juventus officially announced a new project called JKids for its junior supporters on its website. Along with this project, Juventus also introduced a new mascot to all its fans which is called "J". "J" is a cartoon-designed zebra, black and white stripes with golden edge piping on its body, golden shining eyes, and three golden stars on the front of its neck.[86] "J" made its debut at Juventus Stadium on 12 September 2015.[87]


Juventus Stadium
Location Corso Gaetano Scirea,
5010151 Turin, Italy
Owner Juventus F.C.
Operator Juventus F.C.
Capacity 41,507 seated
Broke ground 1 March 2009
Opened 8 September 2011
Construction cost €155,000,000[88]
Architect Hernando Suarez, Gino Zavanella, Giorgetto Giugiaro

After the first two years (1897 and 1898), during which Juventus played in the Parco del Valentino and Parco Cittadella, their matches were held in the Piazza d'Armi Stadium until 1908, except in 1905, the first year of the scudetto, and in 1906, years in which it played at the Corso Re Umberto.

From 1909 to 1922, Juventus played their internal competitions at Corso Sebastopoli Camp, and before moving the following year to Corso Marsiglia Camp where they remained until 1933, winning four league titles. At the end of 1933 they began to play at the new Stadio Mussolini stadium inaugurated for the 1934 World Championships. After the Second World War, the stadium was renamed as Stadio Comunale Vittorio Pozzo. Juventus played home matches at the ground for 57 years, a total of 890 league matches.[89] The team continued to host training sessions at the stadium until July 2003.[90]

From 1990 until the 2005–06 season, the Torinese side contested their home matches at Stadio delle Alpi, built for the 1990 FIFA World Cup, although in very rare circumstances, the club played some home games in other stadia such as Renzo Barbera at Palermo, Dino Manuzzi at Cesena and the Stadio Giuseppe Meazza at Milan.[90]

In August 2006, Juventus returned to play in the Stadio Comunale, then known as Stadio Olimpico, after the restructuring of the stadium for the 2006 Winter Olympics onward. In November 2008, Juventus announced that they would invest around €120 million to build a new ground, the Juventus Stadium, on the site of delle Alpi.[91] Unlike the old ground, there is not a running track; instead the pitch is only 7.5 metres away from the stands.[3] The capacity is 41,507.[3] Work began during spring 2009 and the stadium was opened on 8 September 2011, ahead of the start of the 2011–12 season.[60]


Juventus are the best-supported football club in Italy, with over 12 million fans or tifosi, which represent approximately 29% of the total Italian football fans according to a research published in September 2010 by Italian research agency Demos & Pi,[17] and one of the most supported football clubs in the world, with 180 million supporters (43 million in Europe alone),[18] particularly in the Mediterranean countries, to which a large number of Italian diaspora have emigrated.[92] The Torinese side has fan clubs branches across the globe.[93]

Demand for Juventus tickets in occasional home games held away from Turin is high; suggesting that Juventus have stronger support in other parts of the country. Juve is widely and especially popular throughout mainland Southern Italy, Sicily and Malta, leading the team to have one of the largest followings in its away matches,[94] more than in Turin itself.

Club rivalries

Scene from the Derby d'Italia in 1930

Juventus have significant rivalries with two clubs. Their traditional rivals are fellow Turin club Torino and matches between the two side are known as the Derby della Mole (Turin Derby). The rivalry dates back to 1906 as Torino was founded by break-away Juventus players and staff. Their most high-profile rivalry is with Internazionale, another big Serie A club located in Milan, the capital of the neighbouring region of Lombardy. Matches between these two clubs are referred to as the Derby d'Italia (Derby of Italy) and the two regularly challenge each other at the top of the league table, hence the intense rivalry.[95] Until the Calciopoli scandal which saw Juventus forcibly relegated, the two were the only Italian clubs to have never played below Serie A. Notably the two sides are the first and the second most supported clubs in Italy and the rivalry has intensified since the later part of the 1990s; reaching its highest levels ever post-Calciopoli, with the return of Juventus to Serie A.[95] They also have rivalries with Milan,[96] Roma,[97] Fiorentina,[98] and Napoli.[99]

Youth programme

The Juventus youth set-up has been recognised as one of the best in Italy for producing young talents.[100] While not all graduates made it to the first team, many have enjoyed successful careers in the Italian top flight. Under long-time coach Vincenzo Chiarenza, the Primavera (Under-20) squad enjoyed one of its successful periods, winning all age-group competitions from 2004 to 2006. Like Dutch club Ajax and many Premier League clubs, Juventus operates several satellite clubs and football schools outside of the country (i.e. United States, Canada, Greece, Saudi Arabia, Australia and Switzerland) and numerous camps in the local region to expand talent scouting.[101]

The youth system is also notable for its contribution to the Italian national senior and youth teams. 1934 World Cup winner Gianpiero Combi, 1936 Gold Medal and 1938 World Cup winner Pietro Rava, Giampiero Boniperti, Roberto Bettega, 1982 World Cup hero Paolo Rossi and more recently, Claudio Marchisio and Sebastian Giovinco are a number of former graduates who have gone on to make the first team and full Italy squad.[102]


Current squad

As of 15 October 2016.[103]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
1 Italy GK Gianluigi Buffon (captain)
3 Italy DF Giorgio Chiellini (vice-captain)
4 Morocco DF Medhi Benatia (on loan from Bayern Munich)
5 Bosnia and Herzegovina MF Miralem Pjanić
6 Germany MF Sami Khedira
7 Colombia MF Juan Cuadrado (on loan from Chelsea)
8 Italy MF Claudio Marchisio (3rd captain)
9 Argentina FW Gonzalo Higuaín
11 Brazil MF Hernanes
12 Brazil DF Alex Sandro
14 Italy MF Federico Mattiello
15 Italy DF Andrea Barzagli
17 Croatia FW Mario Mandžukić
18 Gabon MF Mario Lemina
No. Position Player
19 Italy DF Leonardo Bonucci
20 Croatia FW Marko Pjaca
21 Argentina FW Paulo Dybala
22 Ghana MF Kwadwo Asamoah
23 Brazil DF Dani Alves
24 Italy DF Daniele Rugani
25 Brazil GK Neto
26 Switzerland DF Stephan Lichtsteiner
27 Italy MF Stefano Sturaro
29 Italy DF Paolo De Ceglie
32 Italy GK Emil Audero
33 France DF Patrice Evra
34 Italy FW Moise Kean
38 Italy MF Rolando Mandragora

Other players under contract

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
Italy DF Federico Mattiello

Out on loan

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
Italy GK Francesco Anacoura (at Casertana)
Italy GK Alberto Brignoli (at Spain Leganés)
Romania GK Laurentiu Branescu (at Romania Dinamo București)
Italy GK Alberto Gallinetta (at Santarcangelo)
Italy GK Nicola Leali (at Greece Olympiacos)
Italy GK Timothy Nocchi (at Tuttocuoio)
Italy GK Carlo Pinsoglio (at Latina)
Italy DF Luca Barlocco (at Alessandria)
Italy DF Nazzareno Belfasti (at Carrarese)
Spain DF Marcelo Djaló (at Spain Lugo)
Brazil DF Filipe (at Casertana)
Spain DF Pol Garcia (at Latina)
Spain DF Pol Lirola (at Sassuolo)
Romania DF Vlad Marin (at Belgium FCV)
Italy DF Giulio Parodi (at Pordenone)
Italy DF Stefano Pellizzari (at Carrarese)
Italy DF Filippo Romagna (at Novara)
Italy DF Christian Tavanti (at Sambenedettese)
Switzerland DF Joel Untersee (at Brescia)
Italy DF Claudio Zappa (at Pontedera)
Morocco MF Ouasim Bouy (at Palermo)
Italy MF Francesco Cassata (at Ascoli)
Italy MF Michele Cavion (at Cremonese)
Spain MF Nico Hidalgo (at Spain Cádiz)
Albania DF Elvis Kabashi (at Pontedera)
Italy MF Gregorio Luperini (at Pistoiese)
Italy MF Luca Marrone (at Belgium Zulte Waregem)
No. Position Player
Italy MF Stefano Pellini (at Tuttocuoio)
Italy MF Leonardo Spinazzola (at Atalanta)
Norway MF Vajebah Sakor (at Norway Vålerenga)
Italy MF Giorgio Siani (at Tuttocuoio)
Lithuania MF Vykintas Slivka (at Netherlands Den Bosch)
Colombia MF Andrés Tello (at Empoli)
Italy MF Mattia Vitale (at Cesena)
Italy FW Stefano Beltrame (at Netherlands Den Bosch)
Spain FW Carlos Blanco Moreno (at Switzerland Lausanne)
Italy FW Cristian Bunino (at Siena)
Italy FW Davide Cais (at Pontedera)
Italy FW Alberto Cerri (at SPAL)
France FW Kingsley Coman (at Germany Bayern Munich)
Greece FW Anastasios Donis (at France Nice)
Italy FW Simone Ganz (at Verona)
Italy FW Eric Lanini (at Belgium Westerlo)
Italy FW Francesco Margiotta (at Switzerland Lausanne)
Italy FW Davide Massaro (at Carrarese)
Italy FW Stefano Padovan (at Foggia)
Italy FW Cristian Pasquato (at Russia Krylia Samara)
Italy FW Nicolò Pozzebon (at Netherlands Groningen)
Italy FW Lorenzo Rosseti (at Switzerland Lugano)
Guinea FW Alhassane Soumah (at Belgium Cercle Brugge)
Senegal FW Mame Baba Thiam (at Greece PAOK)
Nigeria FW King Udoh (at Pontedera)
Argentina FW Guido Vadalá (at Argentina Unión de Santa Fe)
Italy FW Simone Zaza (at England West Ham United)


Management Staff

Position Staff
Manager Italy Massimiliano Allegri
Assistant coach Italy Marco Landucci
First–team coach Italy Maurizio Trombetta
Goalkeepers' coach Italy Claudio Filippi
Fitness coach Italy Simeone Foletti
Team manager Italy Matteo Fabris
Medical area coordinator Italy Fabrizio Tencone
First–team medic Italy Luca Stefanini
Physiotherapist and osteopathic manual therapist Italy Stefano Grani
Head of Training Check Italy Roberto Sassi

Source: Juventus.com (archive link)

Presidential history

Juventus have had numerous presidents over the course of their history, some of which have been the owners of the club, others have been honorary presidents, here is a complete list of them:[104]

Name Years
Eugenio Canfari 1897–98
Enrico Canfari 1898–01
Carlo Favale 1901–02
Giacomo Parvopassu 1903–04
Alfred Dick 1905–06
Carlo Vittorio Varetti 1907–10
Attilio Ubertalli 1911–12
Giuseppe Hess 1913–15
Gioacchino Armano/Fernando Nizza/Sandro Zambelli[nb 1] 1915–18
Corrado Corradini 1919–20
Gino Olivetti 1920–23
Edoardo Agnelli 1923–35
Giovanni Mazzonis 1935–36
Name Years
Emilio de la Forest de Divonne 1936–41
Pietro Dusio 1941–47
Giovanni Agnelli[nb 2] 1947–54
Enrico Craveri/Nino Cravetto/Marcello Giustiniani[nb 3] 1954–55
Umberto Agnelli 1955–62
Vittore Catella 1962–71
Giampiero Boniperti[nb 2] 1971–90
Vittorio Caissotti di Chiusano 1990–2003
Franzo Grande Stevens[nb 2] 2003–06
Giovanni Cobolli Gigli 2006–09
Jean-Claude Blanc 2009–10
Andrea Agnelli 2010–

Managerial history

Giovanni Trapattoni, the longest-serving and most successful manager in the history of Juventus with 14 trophies.

Below is a list of Juventus managers from 1923 when the Agnelli family took over and the club became more structured and organised,[2] until the present day.[105]

Name Nationality Years
Jenő Károly Hungary 1923–1926
József Viola Hungary 1926[nb 4]
József Viola Hungary 1926–1928
William Aitken Scotland 1928–1930
Carlo Carcano Italy 1930–1935
Carlo Bigatto Iº/Benedetto Gola Italy 1935[nb 4]
Virginio Rosetta Italy 1935–1939
Umberto Caligaris Italy 1939–1941
Federico Munerati Italy 1941[nb 4]
Giovanni Ferrari Italy 1941–1942
Luis Monti Argentina / Italy 1942[nb 4]
Felice Placido Borel IIº Italy 1942–1946
Renato Cesarini Italy 1946–1948
William Chalmers Scotland 1948–1949
Jesse Carver England 1949–1951
Luigi Bertolini Italy 1951[nb 4]
György Sárosi Hungary 1951–1953
Aldo Olivieri Italy 1953–1955
Sandro Puppo Italy 1955–1957
Ljubiša Broćić Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 1957–1959
Teobaldo Depetrini Italy 1959[nb 4]
Renato Cesarini Italy 1959–1961
Carlo Parola Italy 1961[nb 4]
Gunnar Gren / Július Korostelev Sweden / Czechoslovakia 1961[nb 4]
Carlo Parola Italy 1961–1962
Name Nationality Years
Paulo Lima Amaral Brazil 1962–1964
Eraldo Monzeglio Italy 1964[nb 4]
Heriberto Herrera Paraguay 1964–1969
Luis Carniglia Argentina 1969–1970
Ercole Rabitti Italy 1970[nb 4]
Armando Picchi Italy 1970–1971
Čestmír Vycpálek Czechoslovakia 1971–1974
Carlo Parola Italy 1974–1976
Giovanni Trapattoni Italy 1976–1986
Rino Marchesi Italy 1986–1988
Dino Zoff Italy 1988–1990
Luigi Maifredi Italy 1990–1991
Giovanni Trapattoni Italy 1991–1994
Marcello Lippi Italy 1994–1999
Carlo Ancelotti Italy 1999–2001
Marcello Lippi Italy 2001–2004
Fabio Capello Italy 2004–2006
Didier Deschamps France 2006–2007
Giancarlo Corradini Italy 2007[nb 4]
Claudio Ranieri Italy 2007–2009
Ciro Ferrara Italy 2009–2010
Alberto Zaccheroni Italy 2010
Luigi Delneri Italy 2010–2011
Antonio Conte Italy 2011–2014
Massimiliano Allegri Italy 2014–


A partial view of the club's trophy room with the titles won between 1905 and 2013 at J-Museum.

Italy's most successful club of the 20th century,[21] and the most successful club in the history of Italian football,[19] Juventus have won the Italian League Championship, the country's premier football club competition and organised by Lega Nazionale Professionisti Serie A (LNPA), a record 32 times and have the record of consecutive triumphs in that tournament (five, between 1930–31 and 1934–35 as well as between 2011–12 and 2015–16).[37][106] They have also won the Coppa Italia, the country's primary cup competition, a record eleven times, and becoming the first team to retain the trophy successfully with their triumph in the 1959–60 season.[107] In addition, the club holds the record for Supercoppa Italiana wins with seven, the most recent coming in 2015.

Overall, Juventus have won 61 official competitions, more than any other team in the country: 50 domestic trophies, which is also a record, and 11 official international competitions,[108] making them, in the latter case, the second most successful Italian club in European competition.[109] The club is fourth in Europe and eighth in the world with the most international titles won officially recognised by their respective association football confederation and Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA).[22]

In 1977, the Torinese side become the first in Southern Europe to have won the UEFA Cup and the first—and only to date—in Italian football history to achieve an international title with a squad composed by national footballers.[110] In 1993 the club won its third competition's trophy, an unprecedented feat in the continent until then and the most for an Italian club. Juventus was, also, the first Italian club to achieve the title in the European Super Cup, having won the competition in 1984, and the first European club to win the Intercontinental Cup, in 1985, since it was restructured by Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol (CONMEBOL)'s organizing committee five years beforehand.[111]

The club has earned the distinction of being allowed to wear three Golden Stars (it. Stelle d'oro) on its shirts representing its league victories, the tenth of which was achieved during the 1957–58 season, the twentieth in the 1981–82 season and the thirtieth in the 2013–14 season. Juventus were the first Italian team to have achieved the national double thrice (winning the Italian top tier division and the national cup competition in the same season), in the 1959–60, 1994–95 and 2014–15 seasons. They achieved the double in the 2015–16 season as well.

The club is unique in the world in having won all official international competitions,[26][112] and they have received, in recognition to winning the three major UEFA competitions[25]first case in the history of the European football[24] The UEFA Plaque by the Union of European Football Associations on 12 July 1988.[113][114]

The Torinese side was placed seventh—but the top Italian club—in the FIFA Club of the Century selection of 23 December 2000.[115]

Juventus have been proclaimed World's Club Team of the Year twice (1993 and 1996)[116] and was ranked in 3rd place—the highest ranking of any Italian club—in the All-Time Club World Ranking (1991–2009 period) by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics.[117]






Club statistics and records

Alessandro Del Piero made a record 705 appearances for Juventus, including 478 in Serie A and is the all-time leading goalscorer for the club, with 290.

Alessandro Del Piero holds Juventus' official appearance record of 705 appearances. He took over from Gaetano Scirea on 6 March 2008 against Palermo. He also holds the record for Serie A appearances with 478. Including all official competitions, Alessandro Del Piero is the all-time leading goalscorer for Juventus, with 290—since joining the club in 1993. Giampiero Boniperti, who was the all-time topscorer since 1961 comes in second in all competitions with 182. In the 1933–34 season, Felice Borel scored 31 goals in 34 appearances, setting the club record for Serie A goals in a single season. Ferenc Hirzer is the club's highest scorer in a single season with 35 goals in 26 appearances in the 1925–26 season (record of Italian football). The most goals scored by a player in a single match is 6, which is also an Italian record. This was achieved by Omar Sívori in a game against Internazionale in the 1960–61 season.[30]

The first ever official game participated in by Juventus was in the Third Federal Football Championship, the predecessor of Serie A, against Torinese; Juve lost 0–1. The biggest ever victory recorded by Juventus was 15–0 against Cento, in the second round of the Coppa Italia in the 1926–27 season. In terms of the league; Fiorentina and Fiumana were famously on the end of the Juventus' biggest championship wins, both were beaten 11–0 and were recorded in the 1928–29 season. Juventus' heaviest championship defeats came during the 1911–12 and 1912–13 seasons; they were against Milan in 1912 (1–8) and Torino in 1913 (0–8).[30]

The intake of Gianluigi Buffon in 2001 from Parma cost Juventus €45 million, making it the most expensive transfer for a goalkeeper of all-time.[131] On 20 March 2016 Gianluigi Buffon set a new Serie A record for the longest period without conceding a goal, 974 minutes, in the Derby della Mole during the 2015–16 season.[132] On 26 July 2016, Argentine forward Gonzalo Higuaín became the third highest football transfer of all-time and highest ever transfer for an Italian club,[133] when he was signed by Juventus for €90 million from Napoli.[134] On 8 August 2016, Paul Pogba returned to his first club, Manchester United, for an all-time record for highest football transfer fee of €105 million, surpassing the former record holder Gareth Bale.[135] The sale of Zinédine Zidane from Juventus to Real Madrid of Spain in 2001 was the world football transfer record at the time, costing the Spanish club around €75 million.[136][137]

Contribution to the Italy national team

Overall, Juventus are the club that has contributed the most players to the Italy national team in history,[138] being the only Italian club that has contributed players to every Italy national team since the 2nd FIFA World Cup.[139] Juventus have contributed numerous players to Italy's World Cup campaigns, these successful periods principally have coincided with two golden ages of the Turin club's history, referred as Quinquennio d'Oro (The Golden Quinquennium), from 1931 until 1935, and Ciclo Leggendario (The Legendary Cycle), from 1972 to 1986.

Italy's set up, with eight Juventus players, before the match against France in the 1978 FIFA World Cup.

Below are a list of Juventus players who represented the Italy national team during World Cup winning tournaments;[140]

Two Juventus players have won the golden boot award at the World Cup with Italy; Paolo Rossi in 1982 and Salvatore Schillaci in 1990. As well as contributing to Italy's World Cup winning sides, two Juventus players Alfredo Foni and Pietro Rava, represented Italy in the gold medal winning squad at the 1936 Summer Olympics. Three Juventus players represented their nation during the 1968 European Football Championship win for Italy; Sandro Salvadore, Ernesto Càstano and Giancarlo Bercellino.[141]

The Torinese club has also contributed to a lesser degree to the national sides of other nations. Zinédine Zidane and captain Didier Deschamps were Juventus players when they won the 1998 World Cup with France, making it as the association football club which supplied the most FIFA World Cup winners globally (24)[142] (three other players in the 1998 squad, Patrick Vieira, David Trezeguet and Lilian Thuram have all played for Juventus at one time or another). Three Juventus players have also won the European Football Championship with a nation other than Italy, Luis del Sol won it in 1964 with Spain, while the Frenchmen Michel Platini and Zidane won the competition in 1984 and 2000 respectively.[143]

Financial information

Juventus Football Club S.p.A.
Joint-stock company
Traded as
  • Sport-Club Juventus (1897)
  • Foot-Ball Club Juventus (1900)
  • Juventus (1936)
  • Juventus Cisitalia (1943)
  • Juventus Football Club (1945)
Founded Turin, Italy (27 July 1967 (1967-07-27))
Key people
  • Increase €387,900,773 (2015–16)[144]
  • €348,193,885 (2014–15)
  • Increase €20,214,377 (2015–16)
  • €19,303,507 (2014–15)
  • Increase €4,062,312 (2015–16)
  • €2,298,263 (2014–15)
Total assets
  • Increase €577,558,246 (2015–16)
  • €474,268,339 (2014–15)
Total equity
  • Increase €53,383,558 (2015–16)
  • €44,645,444 (2014–15)
(Agnelli family)
Lindsell Train10.0%
Free floating26.2%
Number of employees
  • Increase 785 (2015–16)
  • 698 (2014–15)
Website juventus.com

Since 27 June 1967, Juventus Football Club has been a joint-stock company (it. società per azioni)[146] and since 3 December 2001 the torinese side is listed on the Borsa Italiana.[147] At 31 December 2015, the Juventus' shares are distributed between 63.8% to EXOR S.p.A, the Agnelli family's holding (a company of the Giovanni Agnelli & C.S.a.p.a Group), 5.0% to Lindsell Train Ltd. and 31.2% to other shareholders.(<2.0%)[148][149] As report at 5 July 2016, Lindsell Train Ltd. increased its holding to 10% and Exor S.P.A decreased to 60.0%.[150][151] Since 2012, Jeep became the new sponsor of Juventus, a car brand acquired by FIAT after the 2000s Global Financial Crisis.

Along with Lazio and Roma, Juventus is one of only three Italian clubs quoted on Borsa Italiana (Italian stock exchange). Juventus was also the only association football club in the country member of STAR (Segment of Stocks conforming to High Requirements, it. Segmento Titoli con Alti Requisiti), one of the main market segment in the world.[152] However, due to 2011 financial results, Juventus had to move from the STAR segment to MTA market.[153]

The club's training ground was owned by Campi di Vinovo S.p.A, controlled by Juventus Football Club S.p.A. to 71.3%.[154] In 2003 the club bought the lands from the subsidiary[155] and later the company was dissolved. Since then, Juventus FC did not had any subsidiary.

From 1 July 2008, the club has implemented a safety management system for employees and athletes in compliance with the requirements of international OHSAS 18001:2007 regulation[156] and a Safety Management System in the medical sector according to the international ISO 9001:2000 resolution.[157]

The club is one of the founders of the European Club Association (ECA), which was formed after the dissolution of the G-14, an international group of Europe's most elite clubs of which Juventus were also a founding member.[158]

According to the Deloitte Football Money League, a research published by consultants Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu on 17 January 2014, Juventus are the ninth-highest earning football club in the world with an estimated revenue of €272.4 million, the most for an Italian club.[159] The club is also ranked ninth on Forbes' list of the most valuable football clubs in the world with an estimate value of US$850 million (€654 million), making them the second richest association football club in Italy. The club was located in 2012 in top 50 sporting teams at worldwide level in terms of value.[160][161]

Juventus re-capitalized on 28 June 2007, increased €104,807,731.60 shares capital.[162] The team made an aggregate net loss in the following seasons (2006 to date): –€927,569 (2006–07),[162] –€20,787,469 (2007–08),[163] net income €6,582,489 (2008–09)[164] and net loss €10,967,944 (2009–10).[165] After an unaudited €43,411,481 net loss was recorded in the first nine months of 2010–11 season,[166] the BoD announced that a capital increase of €120 million was planned, scheduled to submit to the extraordinary shareholder's meeting in October.[167] Eventually, the 2010–11 season net loss was €95,414,019.[168] In the 2012–13 season Juventus continued to recover from recent seasons' net losses thanks to the biggest payment in Uefa's Champions League 2012–13 revenue distribution, earning €65.3 million. Despite being knocked out in the quarterfinal stage, Juventus took the lion's share thanks to the largesse of the Italian national TV market and the division of revenues with the only other Italian team attended at the competition's final phase, AC Milan.[169] Confirming the trend of marked improvement in net result, the 2013–14 financial year closed with a loss of €6.7 million but with the first positive operating income since 2006.[170] In the 2014–15 season, by the excellent sports results achieved (the fourth year in a row of Serie A titles, the tenth Coppa Italia title, and playing the Champions League Final), net income reached at €2.3 million. Compared to the loss of €6.7 million last year, 2014–15 shows a positive change of €9 million and returns to a profit after six years since 2008–09.[171]

Shirt sponsors and manufacturers

Period Kit manufacturer Shirt sponsor
1979–1989 Kappa Ariston
1989–1992 UPIM
1992–1995 Danone
1995–1998 Sony
1998–1999 D+Libertà digitale/Tele+
1999–2000 CanalSatellite/D+Libertà digitale/Sony
2000–2001 Lotto Sportal.com/Tele+
2001–2002 Fastweb/Tu Mobile
2002–2003 Fastweb/Tamoil
2003–2004 Nike
2004–2005 Sky Sport/Tamoil
2005–2007 Tamoil
2007–2010 Fiat Group (New Holland)
2010–2012 BetClic/Balocco
2012–2015 FIAT S.p.A (Jeep)
2015– Adidas

See also


  1. Presidential Committee of War.
  2. 1 2 3 Honorary president
  3. Presidents on interim charge.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Managers on interim charge.
  5. Up until 1921, the top division of Italian football was the Federal Football Championship, since then, it has been the First Division, the National Division, and the Serie A.
  6. 1 2 These titles were revoked through the courts following the Calciopoli Scandal.


  1. (Arpino et al. 1992, p. 613)
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Juventus Football Club: The History". Juventus Football Club S.p.A. official website. Archived from the original on 29 July 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  3. 1 2 3 "Buon compleanno, Juventus Stadium!" (in Italian). juventus.com. 8 September 2016. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
  4. Aidan Fitzmaurice (28 July 2010). "Juve tie the 'stuff of dreams' for Rovers". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  5. "Andrea Agnelli: the 25th chairman of Juventus". Juventus F.C. S.p.A. official website. 19 May 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  6. (Dolci & Janz 2003, p. 124)
  7. (Canfari f1915)
  8. 1 2 (Hazard & Gould 2005, pp. 209, 215)
  9. (Tranfaglia & Zunino 1998, p. 193)
  10. (Sappino et al. 2000, pp. 712–713, 1491–1492)
  11. Armando Maglie (2 October 2010). "Inter-Juve, resto del mondo contro il made in Italy" (in Italian). Corriere dello Sport. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
  12. Giovanni Arpino (3 December 1969). "Quando si dice Juventus..." (in Italian). La Stampa. p. 19. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  13. During the 1930s, period which Juventus won a record of five consecutive league championships, the club experienced a sharp increace in its number of supporters, thus becoming the first in Italy to have a fan base decentralised. Also, Juventus were identified by the people at the time as "the team that represented the entire population" or "the team of Italy"—an appellative that still identifies the club mainly outside Italy,— allowing they to perform the leading role in the formation of a national identity through sport, encouraging the phenomenon of nationalisation in the country; and a symbol against the fascist government oppression due to the policy adopted by the Agnelli family in the Torinese club and FIAT, the family-owned company. Subsequently, another increase of the club's fan base as a result of the Southern migration to Turin, massive in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and the team successes at the time, became Juventus the team-symbol of the Italian economic miracle and the postwar Italian society. Cf. (Hazard & Gould 2005, pp. 208–209)
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  16. (Graziano 2011:2–6)
  17. 1 2 (Demos & Pi 2010:3; 9–10)
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  22. 1 2 Fourth most successful European club for confederation and FIFA competitions won with 11 titles. Fourth most successful club in Europe for confederation club competition titles won (11), cf. "Confermato: I più titolati al mondo!" (in Italian). A.C. Milan S.p.A. official website. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
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