Islamic eschatology

Islamic eschatology is the branch of Islamic scholarship that studies Yawm al-Qiyāmah (Arabic: يوم القيامة, Arabic: [jawm.ulqijaːma], "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Dīn (يوم الدين, Arabic: [jawm.udiːn], "the Day of Judgment").[1] This is believed to be the final assessment of humanity by God, consisting of the annihilation of all life, resurrection and judgment.

The time of the event is not specified, although there are major and minor signs which have been foretold to happen at al-Qiyamah.[2][3] Many verses of the Quran contain the motif of the impending Last Judgment.[4][5]

Surat al-Qiyama has as its main subject the resurrection. The Great Tribulation is also described in the hadith, and commentaries of the ulama such as al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Majah, Muhammad al-Bukhari, and Ibn Khuzaymah.[6][7] The Day of Judgment is also known as the Day of Reckoning, the Last Day and al-sā'ah, or the Hour.[8][9][10][11]

The hadith describe the end time with more specificity than the Qur'an, describing the events of al-Qiyamah through twelve major signs. At the time of judgment, terrible corruption and chaos will rule. The Mahdi (prophesied redeemer) will be sent and with the help of Jesus, will battle Masih ad-Dajjal (Antichrist in Islam). They will triumph, liberating Islam from cruelty, and this will be followed by a time of serenity with people living true to religious values.[12] However, there is no mention of the advent of Mahdi and Isa in one era in any of the hadith. Some Muslim scholars translate the Arabic word "Imam" as "Mahdi" to prove the advent of Mahdi and Isa in a single era.

Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam also teaches resurrection of the dead, a final tribulation and eternal division of the righteous and wicked.[13] Islamic apocalyptic literature describing Armageddon is often known as fitna, malāḥim (الملاحم, meaning bloody fights, massacres), or ghaybah in Shī‘a Islam. The righteous are rewarded with pleasures of Jannah "Paradise", while the unrighteous are tortured in Jahannam "Hell".

Six articles of faith

The Day of Judgment or Resurrection, al-Qiyāmah, is one of the six articles of faith in Islam.[14][15] The tribulation associated with it is described in the Qur'an and hadith, and commentaries of ulama like al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Majah, Muhammad al-Bukhari, and Ibn Khuzaymah.[6][7] The Day of Judgment is also known as the Day of Reckoning, the Hour, and the Last Day.[8][9][10][11] The Day of Judgment or Resurrection, al-Qiyāmah, relates to one of the six articles in Sunni Islam and seven articles in Shia Islam.[16]


There are two main sources in Islamic scripture that discuss the Last Judgment: the Qur'an, which is viewed in Islam as infallible, and the hadith, or sayings of the prophet. Hadith are viewed with more flexibility due to the late compilation of the traditions in written form, two hundred years after the death of Muhammad.[17] The concept has also been discussed in commentaries of ulama such as al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, and Muhammad al-Bukhari.

Last Judgment in the Qur'an

The Qur'an describes the Last Judgment with a number of interpretations of its verses. There are specific aspects:

  1. The time is known only to God.[18]
  2. Muhammad cannot bring it forward.[19]
  3. Those who have been dead will believe that a short time has passed between birth and death.[20] Nothing will remain except God.[21]
  4. God will resurrect all, even if they have turned to stone or iron.[22]
  5. Those that have accepted false deities will suffer in the afterlife.[23]

Three periods

There are three periods before the Day of Judgment, also known as ashratu's-sa'ah or alamatu qiyami's-sa'ah, with some debate as to whether the periods could overlap.[24][25]

Major and minor signs

There are a number of major and minor signs of the end of days in Islam. There is debate over whether they could occur concurrently or must be at different points in time, although Islamic scholars typically divide them into three major periods.[26]

Also Ibn Umar reported: The Messenger of God turned to us and said, “O emigrants, there are five things with which you will be tested, and I seek refuge with God lest you live to see them:

  1. Sexual immorality appears among people to such an extent that they commit it openly except that they will be afflicted by plagues and diseases unknown to their forefathers;
  2. They cheat in weights and measures (business, trades, etc.) and that they will be stricken with famine, calamity, and the oppression of rulers;
  3. They withhold charity from their wealth and that rain will be withheld from the sky, and were it not for the animals there would be no rain at all;
  4. They break their covenant with God and His Messenger and God will enable their enemies to overpower them and take some of what is in their hands;
  5. And unless their leaders rule according to the Book of God and seek every good from that which God has revealed, God will cause them to fight one another.”[27]

Minor signs

  1. The appearance of fitnah (tribulations) and removal of khushoo' (fearfulness of God, taqwah, reverence, etc.)[28]
  2. Coming of 30 Dajjals, everyone presuming himself that he is an apostle of God.[29]
  3. Until a person would pass by a grave of another person and he would say: I wish it had been my abode.[30]
  4. Loss of honesty, and authority is given to those who do not deserve it.[31]
  5. The taking away of knowledge and the prevalence of religious ignorance.[32]
  6. Frequent occurrences of sudden and unexpected death.[33]
  7. Spreading of killing that the killer does not even know why he is killing and the one who is being killed does not even know why he is being killed.[34]
  8. Acceleration of time.[35]
  9. Rejection of Sunnah (Hadith).[36]
  10. The spread of riba (usury, interest), the spread of zina (adultery, fornication), drinking of alcohol.[37]
  11. The widespread and condoning of music.[38]
  12. The decoration of mosques as a matter of pride and competition.[39]
  13. Women will increase in number and men will decrease in number so much so that fifty women will be looked after by one man.[40]
  14. Abundance of earthquakes.[41]
  15. Frequent occurrences of disgrace, distortion, and defamation.[42]
  16. When people wish to die because of the severe trials and tribulations that they are suffering.[43]
  17. Jews fighting Muslims.[44]
  18. When paying charity becomes a burden.[45]
  19. Nomads will compete in the construction of very tall buildings.[46]
  20. Women appearing naked despite their being dressed.[47]
  21. Seeking knowledge from misguided and astray scholars.[48]
  22. The liar is believed, the truthful is called a liar and the honest is called a traitor.[49]
  23. The death of righteous knowledgeable people.[32]
  24. The emergence of indecency (obscenity), enmity among relatives and neighbours.[50]
  25. The rise of idolatry and polytheists, in the community.[51]
  26. The Euphrates will uncover a mountain of gold.[52]
  27. Estrangement of Islam.[53]
  28. When the land of the Arabs returns to being a land of rivers and fields.[54]
  29. The Romans would form a majority amongst people.[55]
  30. Earning of money through unlawful (Haram) ways increases.[56]
  31. When there is much rain but little vegetation.[57]
  32. Evil people will be expelled from Al-Madinah.[58]
  33. Wild animals communicate with humans, and a man speaks to his whip or his shoe, and his thigh will tell him about what happened to his family after he left.[50]
  34. Increase in thunderbolts.[59]
  35. There will be a special greeting for the people of distinction.[50]
  36. Trade will become so widespread that a woman will help her husband in business.[50]
  37. No truly honest man will remain and no one will be trusted.[60]
  38. Only the worst people will be left; they will not know any good or forbid any evil (i.e. No one will say there is no God but Allah).[59]
  39. Nations will call each other to destroy Islam by any and every means.[50]
  40. Qur'an and Islamic knowledge will be passed on, but no one will follow it correctly.[61]
  41. Muslim rulers will come who do not follow the guidance and tradition of the Sunnah. Some of their men will have the hearts of devils in a human body.[62]
  42. Stinginess (being miserly) will appear, honourable people will perish and dishonourable people would prevail.[63]
  43. A man obeys his wife and disobeys his mother; and treats his friend kindly whilst shunning his father.[64]
  44. Voices are raised in the mosques.[64]
  45. The leader of a people is the worst of them.[64]
  46. People treat a man with respect because they fear some evil he may do.[64]
  47. Much wine is drunk.[64]
  48. Muslims shall fight against a nation wearing shoes made of hair and faces like hammered shields, with red complexion and small eyes.[65]
  49. The emergence of the Sufyani within the Syria region.[66]
  50. The truce and joint Christian-Muslim campaign against a common enemy (at the conclusion of which all war technology shall become unusable) followed by al-Malhama al-Kubra (Armageddon) a non-Muslim vs. Muslim war.[67]
  51. Black Standard will come from Khorasan, nothing shall turn them back until they are planted in Jerusalem.[68]
  52. Quran will be forgotten and no one will recall its verses.
  53. All Islamic knowledge will be lost to the extent where people will not say "La Illaha Ila Allah" (There is no God, but God), but instead old people will babble without understanding "Allah, Allah".
  54. People will fornicate in the streets 'like donkeys'.
  55. The first trumpet blow will be sounded by Israfil, and all that is in heavens and earth will be stunned and die except what God wills, silence envelops everything for forty (an undetermined period of time)
  56. And there will be disagreement concerning succession. Then a man will emerge from Madina. He will hurry to Makkah. And the people of Makkah will come out to him and urge him and try to force him to accept the Bai'aa.[69]
  1. Appearance of the Mahdi.[16][70]

Major signs

Following the second period, the third will be marked by the ten major signs known as alamatu's-sa'ah al- kubra (The major signs of the end).[71] They are as follows:

  1. The false messiah (anti-Christ), Masih ad-Dajjal, shall appear with huge powers as a one eyed man with the right eye blind and deformed like a grape. He will claim to be God and to hold keys to heaven and hell and lead many astray, although believers will not be deceived.[72] In reality,his heaven is the hell, and his hell is the heaven. The Dajjal would be followed by seventy thousand Jews of Isfahan wearing Persian shawls.[73]
  2. The return of Isa (Jesus), from the fourth sky to kill Dajjal.[74]
  3. Ya'jooj and Ma'jooj (Gog and Magog), Japhetic tribe of vicious beings which had been imprisoned by Dhul-Qarnayn will break out. They will ravage the earth, drink all the water of Lake Tiberias, and kill all believers in their way (or see). Isa, Imam Al-Mahdi, and the believers with them will go to the top of a mountain and pray for the destruction of Gog and Magog. God will eventually send disease and worms to wipe them out.[75][76]
  4. A huge black smoke cloud will cover the earth.[77]
  5. Dabbat al-ard, or the Beast that will come out of the ground to talk to people.[78]
  6. The sun will rise from the west.[79][80]
  7. Three sinking of the earth, one in the east,[77]
  8. One in the west,[77]
  9. And one in Arabia.[77]
  10. The second trumpet blow will be sounded, the dead will return to life and a fire will start come out of Yemen that shall gather all to Mahshar Al Qiy'amah (The Gathering for Judgment).[25]

Other signs

  1. The truce and joint Christian-Muslim campaign against a common enemy (at the conclusion of which all war technology shall become unusable) followed by al-Malhama al-Kubra (Armageddon) a non-Muslim vs. Muslim war.[67]
  2. Black Standard will come from Khorasan, nothing shall turn them back until they are planted in Jerusalem.[68]
  3. Mecca will be attacked and the Kaaba will be destroyed.[81]
  4. A pleasant breeze will blow from the south that shall cause all believers to die peacefully.
  5. Quran will be forgotten and no one will recall its verses.
  6. All Islamic knowledge will be lost to the extent where people will not say "La Illaha Ila Allah" (There is no God, but Allah), but instead old people will babble without understanding "Allah, Allah".
  7. The first trumpet blow will be sounded by Israfil, and all that is in heavens and earth will be stunned and die except what God (Allah) wills, silence envelops everything for forty (an undetermined period of time).
  8. And there will be disagreement concerning succession. Then a man will emerge from Madina. He will hurry to Makkah. And the people of Makkah will come out to him and urge him and try to force him to accept the Bai'aa.[69]
  9. There are two groups of my ummah whom Allah will free from the fire: The group that invades India, and the group that will be with Isa bin Maryam.[82]

Major figures


Diagram of "Plain of Assembly"(Ard al-Hashr) on the Day of Judgment, from autograph manuscript of Futuhat al-Makkiyya by Sufi mystic and philosopher Ibn Arabi, ca. 1238. Shown are the 'Arsh (Throne of God), pulpits for the righteous (al-Aminun), seven rows of angels, Gabriel (al-Ruh), A'raf (the Barrier), the Pond of Abundance, al-Maqam al-Mahmud (the Praiseworthy Station; where the prophet Muhammad will stand to intercede for the faithful), Mizan (the Scale), As-Sirāt (the Bridge), Jahannam (Hell) and Marj al-Jannat (Meadow of Paradise).[83]
Main article: Mahdi

Mahdi (Arabic: مهدي) means "guided one", with hadith being the primary source of his descriptions. His appearance will be the first sign of the third period.[25] Hadith write that he will be a descendant of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah and cousin Ali. The Mahdi will be looked upon to kill al-Dajjal and end the prevalent disintegration of the Muslim community to prepare for the reign of Jesus who will rule for a time after. The Mahdi will similarly kill all enemies of the Prophet and fulfill the prophetic mission as a vision of justice and peace before following Jesus’ rule.[84] The physical features of Mahdi are described in the hadith—he will be of Arab complexion and average height with a large belly, large eyes and a sharp nose. He will have a mole on his cheek, the sign of the prophet on his shoulder, and be recognised by the caliphate while he sits at his own home. As written by Abu Dawud, "Our Mahdi will have a broad forehead and a pointed (prominent) nose. He will fill the earth with justice as it is filled with injustice and tyranny. He will rule for seven years."[85]

Though the duration of his rule differs, hadith are consistent in describing that God will perfect him in a single night with inspiration and wisdom, and his name will be announced from the sky. He will bring back worship of true Islamic values, and bring the Ark of the Covenant to light. He will conquer Istanbul and Mount Daylam and will eye Jerusalem and the Dome as his home. His banner will be that of the prophet Muhammad: black and unstitched, with a halo. Unopened since the death of Muhammad, the banner will unfurl when the Mahdi appears. He will be helped by angels and others that will prepare the way for him. He will understand the secrets of abjad.[12]

Amr bin Shuaib reported from his grandfather that the Messenger of God said, "In Dhu al-Qi'dah (Islamic month), there will be fight among the tribes, Muslim pilgrims will be looted and there will be a battle in Mina in which many people will be slain and blood will flow until it runs over the Jamaratul Aqba (one of the three stone pillars at Mina). The man they seek will flee and will be found between the Rukn (a corner of the Kaaba containing the Black Stone) and the Maqam of Prophet Abraham (near Ka'ba). He will be forced to accept people's Bay'ah (being chosen as a Leader/Caliph). The number of those offering Bay'ah will be the same as the number of the people of Badr (Muslim fighters who participated in the Battle of Badr at time of Prophet Mohammad). Then, the dweller of Heaven and the dweller of the Earth will be pleased with him."[86]

Sunni and Shi'ite perspectives on the Mahdi

Sunni and Shi'i Islam have different beliefs on the identity of Mahdi. Historically, Sunni Islam has derived religious authority from the caliphate, who was in turn appointed by the companions of Muhammad at his death. The Sunnis view the Mahdi as the successor of Mohammad, the Mahdi is expected to arrive to rule the world and reestablish righteousness.[87] Various Sunnis also share a parallel belief that though there may be no actual Mahdi, the existence of mujaddid will instead lead the Islamic revolution of a renewal in faith and avoidance of deviation from God (God)’s path. Such an intellectual and spiritual figure of Sunni tradition has been attributed to numerous Muslims at the end of each Muslim century from the origin of Islam to the present day.[88] This classical interpretation is favored by Sunni scholars like Ghazali and Ibn Taymiyyah.

Shi'i Islam, in distinction, followed the bloodline of Muhammad, favoring his cousin and son by marriage, Ali. Ali was appointed the first Imam, and in Twelver interpretation, following him there were eleven more. Muhammad al-Mahdi, otherwise known as the Twelfth Imam, went into hiding in 873 at the age of four. His father was al-`Askari, and had been murdered, and so he was hidden from the authorities of the Abbasid Caliphate. He maintained contact with his followers until 940, when he entered the Occultation. Twelverism believes that al-Mahdi is the current Imam, and will emerge at the end of the current age. Some scholars say that, although unnoticed by others present, the Mahdi of Twelver Islam continues to make an annual pilgrimage while he resides outside of Mecca.[89] In distinction, Sunni Islam foresees him as a separate and new person.[90] The present Ayatollahs of Iran see themselves as joint caretakers of the office of the Imam until he returns.[91]

The Mahdi is not described in the Qurʾān, only in hadith, with scholars suggesting he arose when Arabian tribes were settling in Syria under Muawiya. “They anticipated 'the Mahdi who will lead the rising people of the Yemen back to their country’ in order to restore the glory of their lost Himyarite kingdom. It was believed that he would eventually conquer Constantinople.”[87]

Claimants of the Mahdi

Throughout history, there have been multiple claimants to the role of Mahdi that had come into existence through their pious deeds and by subsequently acquiring their own following. One of these men, Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, was said to have judgment and character over rival caliphs; and mysteries of his death arose in the 8th century. It was believed he had in fact not died and would one day return as the Mahdi. The sect of Mahdavis arose as followers of another claimant, Muhammad Mahdi of Janpur in the 15th century. Furthermore, a potential Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad of Sudan, was believed to hold the title following his self-proclamation in 1881 and stand against the Turco-Egyptian government as well as the British.[92] Additionally, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Punjab claimed to be the Mahdi during the same period as Muhammad Ahmad and considered a heretic by Orthodox Muslims, though he amassed a substantial following of 10 to 20 million and is credited with founding the sect of Ahmadiyya,[93] Today, this sect is established in over 200 countries and territories of the world.

Two 19th century religious movements, linked to Shi'ism, Bábism and the Bahá'í Faith believe that their prophets, the Báb (d. 1850) and Bahá'u'lláh, were fulfilled the prophecy. The Báb is thought to be the return of the Twelfth Imam and Bahá'u'lláh the Mahdi. Since the Baha'is now preach a fairly successful international religion with possibly six million followers, their concept of a fulfillment of Islamic prophecy is now currently well outside the Islamic world.


Main article: Jesus in Islam

Isa is the Arabic name for Jesus, and his return is considered the third major sign of last days, while the second is the appearance of Masih ad-Dajjal. Although Muhammad is the preeminent Prophet in Islam, Jesus is the only Prophet who is said not to have died but rather raised up by God other than Idris (Enoch) mentioned in the Quran.[94] Thus, in accordance with post-Quranic hadiths, he will conceivably return to Earth as a just judge before the Day of Judgment.[95] As written in hadith:

Abu Hurayrah narrates that the Messenger of God said, "By Him in whose hands my soul rests! It is definitely close in that time that Isa, Son of Maryam descends amongst you as a just ruler. He will break the cross, kill the swine and abolish jaziya. And money will abound in such excess that no one will accept it.
Ahmad bin Hambal, al-Musnad, vol 2, p. 240[25]

Hadith reference both the Mahdi and Isa simultaneously and the return of the Mahdi will coincide with the return of Isa. He will descend from the heavens in al-Quds at dawn. The two will meet, and Mahdi will lead the people in fajr prayer. After the prayer, they will open a gate to the west and encounter Masih ad-Dajjal. After the defeat of ad-Dajjal, Isa will lead a peaceful forty-year reign until his death. He will be buried in a tomb beside Muhammad in Medina.[96] Though the two most certainly differ regarding their role and persona in Islamic eschatology, the figures of the Mahdi and Isa are ultimately inseparable for according to the Prophet. Though Isa is said to descend upon the world once again, the Mahdi will already be present.

What will be your reaction when the son of Mary (Jesus) descends and your Imam is from among yourselves? (Sahih Muslim, bab nuzul 'isa, Vol. 2; Sahih Bukhari, kitab bad' al-khalq wa nuzul 'isa, Vol. 4)


Al-Dajjal or the Antichrist or False Messiah does not appear in the Quran but is a prominent figure in the Hadiths and Islamic eschatology as a whole. He appears gruesome and is blind in his right eye. His one eye is thought to be a symbol that correlates with how single minded he is in achieving his goal of converting Muslims to his side. Al-Dajjal has the intention of gaining followers through his miracle working abilities and apparent wealth and generosity. These abilities are a test for true believers of Islam, who have been warned about his power and must resist his material temptations. He is thought to appear prior to the Day of Judgment, where he will engage in an epic battle with and be killed by Jesus. Al-Dajjal functions symbolically as a key cog in overall Islamic eschatological picture, which emphasises the world coming to an end, of good finally triumphing over evil, and of the remarkable events that will prefigure the replacement of the mortal world with a more authentic form of existence in the afterlife. Various Muslim political movements use the concept of Al-Dajjal to comment on contemporary events, and often identify him with opposing regimes or other worldly forces that they consider as harmful to Islam.[97]

Ya'juj and Ma'juj

Main article: Gog and Magog

The fourth major sign of end time will be that the wall which imprisons the nations of Ya'juj and Ma'juj will break, and they will surge forth. Some Islamic scholars, such as Imran Nazar Hosein,[98] believe the wall began to crack during the life of Muhammad. This is supported in the hadith when the prophet mentions that "a hole has been made in the wall containing the Ya'juj and Ma'juj", indicating the size of the hole with his thumb and index finger.[99] Their release will occur forty years prior to the Last Judgment:[25]

But when Ya'jooj and Ma'jooj are let loose and they rush headlong down every hill and mountain
Qur'an 21:96[100]

They will ravage the earth. Ultimately, God will send worms and insects to destroy them.[25]

Major events

Destruction of Kaaba / Beast of the Earth

Before Doom's day, a thin ruler with short legs from Ethiopia will attack Mecca and destroy the Kaaba. Another sign is the appearance of the da'ba-tul-ard, or the Beast of the Earth.

The entire world will be engulfed by dukhan or smoke,[70][101] for forty days and there will be three huge earthquakes. The Qur'an will be taken to the heavens and even the huffaz will not recall its verses. Finally, a pleasant breeze will blow that shall cause all believers to die, but infidels and sinners will remain alive. A fire will start from Hadramawt in Yemen that shall gather all the people of the world in the land of Mahshar, and al-Qiyamah will commence.[25]

Resurrection of the dead

Main article: Barzakh

In the Qur'an, barzakh (Arabic: برزخ) is the intermediate state in which nafs of the deceased are held between realities to rest with loved ones until Qiyamah.[102][103][103][104][105]

The eighth sign is a breeze bearing a pleasant scent will emanate from Yemen, causing the awliya, sulaha and the pious to die peacefully once they inhale it. After the believers die, there will be a period of 120 years during which the world will hold only kafirs, sinners, oppressors, liars and adulterers, and there would be a reversion to idolatry.

The ninth sign is the rising of the sun from the west after a long night, which after midday will set again. According to Hadith:

Abu Hurayrah states that the Messenger of God (saw) as said, “The Hour will not be established until the sun rises from the West and when the people see it they will have faith. But that will be (the time) when believing of the soul, that will have not believed before that time, will not benefit it.
Ibn Maja, as-Sunan, vol. 2 p 1352-53[25]

The final signs will be nafkhatu'l-ula, when the trumpet will be sounded for the first time, and which will result in the death of the remaining sinners. Then there will be a period of forty years. The eleventh sign is the sounding of a second trumpet to signal the resurrection as ba'as ba'da'l-mawt. As written in the Qur'an:

The Trumpet will (just) be sounded, when all that are in the heavens and on earth will swoon, except such as it will please God (to exempt). Then will a second one be sounded, when, behold, they will be standing and looking on!
Sura 39 (Az-Zumar), ayah 68[106]

All will be naked and running to the Place of Gathering, while the enemies of God will be travelling on their faces with their legs upright.

Finally, there will be no more injustice:

Surely God does not do injustice to the weight of an ant, and if it is a good deed He multiplies it and gives from Himself a great reward.
Sura 4 An-Nisa, ayah 40[107]

Separation of the righteous and the damned at al-Qiyamah

At divine judgment, each person's Book of Deeds will be read, in which 'every small and great thing is recorded',[108] with actions before adolescence not written. Records shall be given in the right hand if they are good, and the left if they are evil. Even the smallest acts will not be ignored:

Then shall anyone who has done an atom's weight of good, see it!
And anyone who has done an atom's weight of evil, shall see it.
Qur'an, sura 99 Az-Zalzala, ayat 7-8[109]

This will be followed by perfect, divine and merciful justice. The age of the hereafter, or rest of eternity, is the final stage after the Day of Judgment, when all will receive their judgment from God.

Indeed, those who believed and those who were Jews or Christians or Sabeans [before Prophet Muhammad][110] - those [among them] who believed in God and the Last Day and did righteousness - will have their reward with their Lord, and no fear will there be concerning them, nor will they grieve.
Qur'an, Sura 2 Al-Baqara, ayah 62[111]

The dead will stand in a grand assembly, awaiting a scroll detailing their righteous deeds, sinful acts and ultimate judgment.[112][113] Muhammad will be the first to be resurrected.[114]

If one did good deeds, one would go to Jannah, and if unrighteous would go to Jahannam. Punishments will include adhab, or severe pain, and khizy or shame.[115][115] There will also be a punishment of the grave (for those who disbelieved) between death and the resurrection.[116]

Islamic eschatology in literature

Ibn al-Nafis wrote of Islamic eschatology in Theologus Autodidactus (circa AD 1270), where he used reason, science, and early Islamic philosophy to explain how he believed al-Qiyamah would unfold, told in the form of a theological fiction novel.[117]

Imran Nazar Hosein wrote numerous books that deal with Islamic eschatology (Ilmu Ākhir al-Zamān - Knowledge of the later days), among which the most famous is Jerusalem in the Qur'an.[118]

See also


  1. "Islamic Eschatology". Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  2. "Major Signs before the Day of Judgment". Shaykh Ahmad Ali.
  3. "Signs of Qiyaamah".
  4. Hasson, Isaac. Last Judgment. Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān.
  5. Gardet, L. Qiyama. Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān.
  6. 1 2 Gardet, L. Qiyama. Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān.
  7. 1 2 Quran 74:38
  8. 1 2 Quran 71:18
  9. 1 2 Quran 31:34
  10. 1 2 Quran 74:47
  11. 1 2 Quran 2:8
  12. 1 2 Yahya, Harun (12 May 2010). Portents And Features Of The Mahdi’s Coming. Global Publishing. Kindle Edition.
  13. Richardson, Joel (7 April 2006). Antichrist: Islam's Awaited Messiah. Pleasant Word-A Division of WinePress Publishing. p. 284.
  14. "Six Articles of Faith in Islam". Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  15. 1 2 Richardson, Joel (7 April 2006). Antichrist: Islam's Awaited Messiah. Pleasant Word-A Division of WinePress Publishing. p. 284.
  16. Ben David, Mikhah (20 Feb 2011). What does it mean that "the Mahdi will rule according to the Judgment of David and Solomon"?. New Dawn Publications.
  17. Quran 33:63
  18. Quran 6:57
  19. Quran 10:45
  20. Quran 28:88
  21. Quran 17:49
  22. Quran 11:17
  23. Hooper, Rev. Richard (20 April 2011). End of Days: Predictions of the End From Ancient Sources. Sedona, AZ. p. 156.
  24. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Yahya, Harun (1 January 2008). Clarity Amidst Confusion: Imam Mahdi and the End of Time. Global Publishing. Kindle Edition. p. 64.
  25. Hooper, Rev. Richard (20 April 2011). End of Days: Predictions of the End From Ancient Sources. Sedona, AZ. p. 156.
  26. Sunan Ibn Maajah 4019
  27. Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 0213
  28. Dawud, Book 37, Hadith 4319
  29. Sahih Muslim, Book 41, Hadith 6947
  30. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 076, Hadith 503
  31. 1 2 Sahih Bukhari Volume 1, Book 3, Hadith Number 81
  32. Sahih Muslim Book 41, Hadith 7040
  33. Sahih Bukhari Volume 9, Book 88, Number 184
  34. Imam Ahmed, recorded in Muslim
  35. Abu Dawud Book 35, Hadith 4587
  36. Sahih Muslim Book 41, Hadith 7015
  37. Sahih Bukhari Volume 7, Book 69, Hadith 494
  38. Sahih ibn Majah 610
  39. Sahih Bukhari Volume 1, Book 3, Hadith 81
  40. Sahih Bukhari Volume 9, Book 88, Hadith Number 237
  41. Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 485, Book 1, Hadith 3
  42. Sahih Bukhari Volume 9, Book 88, Hadith Number 231
  43. Sahih Musim Book 41, Hadith Number 6985
  44. Sahih Bukhari Volume 009, Book 088, Hadith Number 236
  45. Sahih Bukhari Volume 009, Book 088, Hadith Number 237
  46. Sahih Muslim Book 40, Hadith Number 6840
  47. Musnad Imam Ahmad (no.21,334 and no.21,335
  48. Sunan At-Tirmidhi 2209
  49. 1 2 3 4 5 Musnad Ahmad
  50. Abu-Dawud, Book 30, Number 4239 (and others)
  51. Sahih Muslim Book 041, Hadith Number 6918
  52. Musnad Ahmad, Hadith 6650 (among others)
  53. Sahih Muslim Book 5, Hadith 2208
  54. Sahih Muslim Book 041, Hadith Number 6925
  55. Al-Bukhari
  56. Reported by Anas and declared Sahih by Hasan al Albani
  57. Sahih Muslim Book 7, Hadith Number 3188
  58. 1 2 Ahmad
  59. Sahih Bukhari
  60. Tirmidhee 2653 and Ibn Maajah 4048
  61. Sahih Muslim 1847
  62. Mujamma’uz-Zawaa’id 7/327
  63. 1 2 3 4 5 Sunan al-Tirmidhi
  64. Sahih Muslim, Book 41, Hadith 6960
  65. Sahih Muslim, Book 41, Hadith 6926
  66. 1 2 Narrated with sound chains from Dhu Mikhbar al-Najashi by Abu Dawud, Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban, and al-Hakim who declared it sahih and al-Dhahabi concurred. See Shaykh Shu`ayb Arna'ut's documentation of this hadith in his edition of Sahih Ibn Hibban (15:101-103 #6708-6709).
  67. 1 2 Sunan At-Tirmidhi 2269 (Weak)
  68. 1 2 The Promised Deliverer (Kitab Al-Mahdi) Dawud :: Book 36 : Hadith 4273
  69. 1 2 Jon R. Stone. Expecting Armageddon: Essential Readings in Failed Prophecy.
  70. Sahih Muslim, Book 41, Hadith 6931
  71. Christine Huda Dodge. The Everything Understanding Islam Book: A complete guide to Muslim beliefs, practices, and culture. p. 182.
  72. Muslim, Book 41, Hadith 7034
  73. John L. Esposito. What Everyone Needs To Know About Islam. p. 28.
  74. Quran 21:96
  75. Javed Ahmad Ghamidi. Islam: A Concise Introduction. p. 46.
  76. 1 2 3 4 Sahih Muslim
  77. Quran 27:82
  78. طلوع الشمس من مغربها [Rising of the sun from the west] (in Arabic).
  79. Alwi Shihab. Examining Islam in the West. p. 16.
  80. Muslim, Book 41, Hadith 6953
  81. Sunan an-Nasa'i 3175 (Hasan)
  82. Begley, Wayne E. The Garden of the Taj Mahal: A Case Study of Mughal Architectural Planning and Symbolism, in: Wescoat, James L.; Wolschke-Bulmahn, Joachim (1996). Mughal Gardens: Sources, Places, Representations, and Prospects Dumbarton Oaks, Washington D.C., ISBN 0884022358. pp. 229-231.
  83. Waldman, Marilyn Robinson. "Eschatology: Islamic Eschatology". Encyclopedia of Religion. Detroit: Macmillan Reference (subscription required).
  84. Abu Dawud, Sahih, 2.208 and Fusul al-muhimma, 275
  85. Naeem Bin Hammad's book Kitab Al-Fitan (8584\503\4) أخرج ( ك ) نعيم بن حماد (986), والحاكم
  86. 1 2 Arjomand, Said Amir (Dec 2007). "Islam in Iran vi., the Concept of Mahdi in Sunni Islam". Encyclopaedia Iranica. XIV (Fasc. 2): 134–136.
  87. Waldman, Marilyn Robinson. "Eschatology: Islamic Eschatology". Encyclopedia of Religion. Detroit: Macmillan Reference (subscription required).
  88. Peterson, Daniel C. "Eschatology". Oxford Islamic Studies. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islamic Studies (subscription required).
  89. Rogers, Ed (26 Oct 2011). Islam and the Last days. Connection Publishing.
  90. Aslan, Reza (2006). No god but God : the origins, evolution, and future of Islam. New York: Random House. ISBN 1-4000-6213-6.
  91. Hermansen, Marcia. "Mahdi". Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. Macmillan Reference USA (subscription required).
  92. Waldman, Marilyn Robinson. "Eschatology: Islamic Eschatology". Encyclopedia of Religion. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA (subscription required).
  93. Quran. "al-Imran 3:55".
  94. Poston, Larry (January 2010). "The Second Coming of 'Isa: an Exploration of Islamic Premillennialism". The Muslim World. 100: 108–109. doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.2009.01304.x.
  95. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. "Eschatology". Oxford University Press (subscription required).
  96. Leaman, Oliver. "Dajjāl, Al-". The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford University Press (subscription required).
  97. Gog and Magog in the Qur'an - Gog, Magog and Jerusalem by Imran N. Hosein
  98. Sahih al-Bukhari 7135
  99. Khan, Muhammad Muhsin (trans.). The Holy Qur'an. B007D64VX6. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  100. Quran 44:10
  101. "Saudi Arabia Ministry of religious affairs".
  102. 1 2 "Tafseer Ibn Katheer (23-100)".
  103. "Tafseer Ibn Katheer (25:53)".
  104. "Tafseer Ibn Katheer (25:53)(55:19)".
  105. Quran 39:68
  106. Quran 4:40 (Translated by Shakir)
  107. Quran 54:52–53
  108. Quran 99:7–8
  109. Tafsir At-Tabari, Vol.1, Page 323
  110. "Quran 2:62"
  111. [Quran 74:38]
  112. Muhammad, S. Umar (1999). Muslims' Eschatological Discourses on Colonialism in Northern Nigeria. Oxford University Press. pp. 59–84. JSTOR 1466033.
  113. Esposito, John (2003). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512558-4, p.264
  114. 1 2 "Reward and Punishment", Encyclopedia of the Qur'an(2005)
  115. Leor Halevi, .
  116. Dr. Abu Shadi Al-Roubi (1982), "Ibn Al-Nafis as a philosopher", Symposium on Ibn al-Nafis, Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait (cf. Ibn al-Nafis As a Philosopher, Encyclopedia of Islamic World)
  117. Jerusalem in the Qur'an by Imran N. Hosein.


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